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E'ifz Eogal ^tcfjaeolosical institute at ©teat Britain anti 




Clje Carlp anti jltititile !3ges. 




(distributed gratuitously to subscribing members.) 
TO be obtained through all booksellers. 

Thk Council of the Royal ABCHiEOLOGiCAL Institute desire that it should be 
difitinctiy understood that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions 
expressed in the Archajological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and 
communications being alone answerable for the same. 




Opening Address to the Section of Architecture at the Newcastle Meeting. By 

Rev. Canon Raine. - . - -1 

Notices of the hxtest discoveries made ua uncovering the Roman baths at Bath, 

and those at Herbord, near to Poitiers. By Rev. Prebendary Scarth, M.A. 11 

Swan Marks. By Edward Peacock, F.S.A. - - - 17 

On the Mining Operations of the ancient Romans, with special reference to Blast 

Furnaces. By the Rev. Joseph Hirst. - - - 20 

The Northumbrian Border. By Rev. Canon Creighton - - 41 

The Morpeth Great Mace. By R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A. - - 90 

On the difference of plan alleged to exist between churches of Austin Canons 
and those of Monks ; and the frequency with which such churches were 
parochial. (Continued.) By the Rev. J. F. Hodgson. - 96, 215, 331, 440 

Roman Inscriptions found in Britain in 1884, By W. Thompson Watkin - 141 

Notice of a few more Early Chi-istian Gems. By C. Drurt E. Fortnum, F.S.A. 159 

The Roman Antiquities of Switzerland, By Bunnell Lewis, M.A,, F.S.A, - 171 

Sandridge Church, Hertfordshire. By Somers Clarke, F.S.A. - - 247 

"Scandinavian" or "Danish" sculptured stones found in London; and their 
bearing on the supposed " Scandinavian " or Danish origin of other English 
Jiculptured stones. By the Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D. - - 251 


Early Site? and Embankments on the Margins of the Thames Estuary. 

By F. C. J. Spurrell - - - - 269 

The Carlisle Bushel. By K. S. Ferguson, F.S.A. - - 303 

Ancient Inventories of goocl.-< belonging to the parish church of St. Margaret 

Pattens in the city of Ldudon. By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A., F.S.A. 312 

Dedication names of ancient chinches in the counties of Durham and Northum- 

berbind. By J. V. Gregory . - - - 370 

Openmg Address to the Historical Section at the Derby Meeting. By the Very 

Reverend the Dean of Lichfield. - - - 389 

On the present prospects of Archreology at Athens. Part I. Athens. Part II. 

Eleusis. By the Rev. Joseph Hirst. - - - 398 

The Fernyhalgh Chalice and Paten. By T. M. Fallow, M.A. - - 420 

The Romano-Greek Inscriptions in England. By Professor E. C. Clark. - 424 

Lockers for the Processional Cross. By the Rev. C. R. Manning, M.A. 435 

Bishop Antony Beeke's Register of the Prebendaries of Lincoln, 1333 and 

134.3. - - - - - 469 

Proceedings at Meetings of the Royal Archaeological Institute, November. 1884, 

to June, 1885. .... 120,260,384,476 

Balance sheet for 1864. - - - - 388 

Report of Annual Meeting at Derby. - . - 483 

Notes of Archaeological Publications : — A Book of Facsimiles of Monumental 
Brasses on the Continent of Europe, with brief descriptive notes. By the 
Rev. W. F. Creeny, M.A. - - . - 123 

Medieval Militaiy Architecture in England. By G. T. Clark. - - 132 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library : being a Classified Collection of the chief 
contents of the Gentleman's Mar/azine from 1731 to 1868. Edited by Geo. 
L.\wnENCE Go.mme, F.S.A. ; Dialect, Proverbs and Word-lore - 136 

Ditto : Pojjulur Superstitious .... 265 

Costume in England. A History of Dress to the Eighteenth Century. By the 
late F. W. Faikholt, F.S.A., third Edition, Enlarged and th.n-oughly 

revised by the Hon. H. A. Dillon, F.S.A. . . 514 

Archtcological Intelligence - . . j^q ogg 

Indfc'x to Vol. xlii. - . . . _ goQ 

List of Members - . . . r.-^c 


Facsimiles of drawings of Swau Marks - - -IS 

The Morpeth Great Mace • ■ - To face 90 

/ Early Chri-stian Gems - - - ,, 159 
(The Institute is indebted to Mr. C. D. E. Fortnuni, for the copper plate 
engraving of these Gems.) 

Mosaic representing Orpheus - - - „ 183 

Roman Theatre at Augst - - - ,,196 

(The Institute Ls indebted to Prof. Bunnell Lewis for half the cost of 
these Illustrations.) 

East Side of the Chancel Screen at St. Peter's Church, Saudridge, Herts „ 248 

Stone found in St. Paul's churchyard, London - - ., 251 

Two Fragments in the British Museum, found in the city of London „ 252 

Plan of Sea Walls and Causeways, at Higham, Kent To face 288 

Works at Sittingbourne, Kent - .* . . 293 

Works at Lesnes, Kent - • - - 295 

Plan of Tide- Walls at Littlebrook, Stone, Kent - - - 298 
(The Institutp is indebted to Mr. F. C. J. Spurrell for these Illustration.^.) 

Tide Bank-« of the Thames 1 <-tween Woolwich and Erith. Kent - To face -302 


Standard Quai-t ... 

Standard Troy Weights for 4 and 8 ounces 

Standard Avoirdupois Weight for 1 lb. 

Phin of Temple of Eleuais 

The Fernyhalgh Chalice 

The Fernyhalgh Paten 

Locker for Processional Cross, Lowestoft, S. Margaret 

Barnby, Suffolk 

Kelshall, Herts 








To face 












P. 124, 1. 19, for "resting" read "resting place.'" 1. 49, for "subjects" read 
"question." P. 125, 1. i'l, for "'the Ysowilpe" read "the figure of Ysowilpe." 
P. 131, 1. 17, for "would" read "could." P. 164, 1. 31, for " conjugi " read 
"conjuges." P. 383, /or "Bradley Priory Church, Lincolnshire" read "Bradley 
Priory Church, Leicestershire." P. 383, for " Brykley " read " Byrkley." P. 385, 
for " Kitchen of the steeper " read " Kitchen of the steeple." P. 391, for " Hardhaui, 
to S. Botolph" rend " Hardham, of S. Botolph." P. 398, for" of Huntingdon, 
found " read " of Huntingdon, founded." P. 400, for " in loco quo dicitur " read "in 
loco qui dicitur." Page 412, for " Wigmore Abbey Chtu-ch, Hertford.shire " re-dd 
" Wigmore Abbey Church, Herefordshire." 

E\}c xlrcljacolocjical journal 

MARCH, 1885. 



In offerino' some preliminary remarks upon tlie great 
theme of Architecture, I shall try to avoid discursiveness, 
and endeavour to give a few descriptive hints and sugges- 
tions which wayfarers^ such as we are, may find of some 
little use, as we inspect some of the chief objects of 
architectural interest w^liich Northumberland can still 
exhibit. In that great county I must always feel an 
hereditary interest. It is out of the domain of history 
that I look upon the handiwork of ancient builders. The 
dates which the historian discovers are the framework upon 
which the whole system of architectural science is laid 
down. It is history, likewise, which reproduces men 
and manners, feats of arms, and the achievements of the 
gentle life, without which stones are mere stones, and 
wood and water, the forest and the moor, lose half tlieir 
charm. And there is added to history in Northumljerland 
the poetr}^ of legend and tradition which invests tower 
and stream in this wide district with its own inimitable 

Domestic architecture in Northumberland from the very 
earliest times was the architecture of defence, as was the 
case, although to a less extent, upon the borders of Wales. 
The Eoman wall — which I shall leave to its modern 
Hadrian, Dr. Bruce — the Roman wall, and the Roman 
fortified towns which guarded, or were strengthened 1>y il. 

1 Delivered at Newcastle, August 6th, 18 84. 
VOL. XLII (No. 1G5) B 


all tell the same tale. The Picts and Scots who broke at 
times tlirouo'h that great barrier, or angled over it with their 
grappling hooks for the unwary legionar}', were not a whit 
more restless and uncivilized than the rievers and moss- 
troopers who, in an after day, came down through the 
gaps in the hills into Eedesdale or Tynedale, or carried 
terror and ruin into Norhamshire and Islandshire. And 
these marauders were in no degree worse than many of 
Xorthumbrians whom they plundered. Eobbing and being 
robljed, century after century, produced a race of reck- 
less, daring men whom no law could curb, and it was only 
after the accession of James of Scotland to the English 
throne that there was any sensible diminution in the long list 
of deeds of rapine and bloodshed on the Borders. In 1522 
the Bishop of Carlisle, writing to Wolsey, says boldly : 
" There is more theft, more extortion by English thieves 
than l)y all the Scots in Scotland. No one, who is not in a 
stroiigliold, can keep any cattle or goods." This shows the 
absolute necessity for the towers and fortified houses with 
which Northumberland used to be filled. In that most 
aljle andvalual)le State-paper, the Survey of the Borders, 
drawn up by Sir John Forster in 1542, there is a complete 
picture of the materials for protection and defence which 
the county possessed. In Eedesdale and Tynedale these 
towers and houses were often perched upon rocks, which 
a goat could scarcely climb ; they were difficult of access 
also by reason of half-concealed roads, and made stronger 
still by hiding places and caves in the woods and hills. 
Their owners had a system of signals by which they could 
concentrate upon any point with an almost incredible 
speed, whilst there was everything to bewilder and entangle 
any daring foe who endeavoured to approach. In middle 
and northern Northumberland these towers were not 
secluded, but generally stood in the centre of some village or 
liamlet wliicli clustered around them for protection. The 
dwellings of the poorer sort were usually of post and pan 
work covered with thatch, or mud sheelings still more 
miserable and rude. The tower was liere and there called 
a ])(^el or bastille, whilst you might see often a smaller 
building witli a fortified enclosure around it, called a 
barmkin, into wliich the cattle were driven for protection 
whenever a scry, as it was named, was raised. In 14G8 


there were seventy-eight towers in the county, and in Sir 
John Forster's time there would probably be more, althouo-li 
many of them were in decay. Hei'e and there tiie 
parsonage houses were places of defence, nay, the 
towers of the churches were used occasionally for the same 
purpose. Wlienever the Scots were near, the cleric fled to 
his church, and, drawing up his ladder after him, shut 
down the trap-door and laughed at the foe who did not 
dare to stay long enough to burn him out. More potent 
than all these places in defence were the castles, which in 
1468 reached the large number of thirty-seven. They 
were intended, not to Avard oil contending clansmen, but 
to be places of safety amid opposing armies. Berwick, 
Norham, Ford, and Wark guarded the lines of the Tweed 
and Till. On Berwick, Norham, and Newcastle the utmost 
skill of engineers and masons seems to have been exerted 
from Norman times throughout the middle-ages. In the 
mid-country there were Morpeth, Botlial, Mitford, Alnwick, 
Warkworth, and Dunstanborough. Alnwick, ever since it 
was built, has been the residence of the greatest family in 
the count}^ and Itself the greatest house. But I must not 
pass over Bambrough, with its glorious associations, the 
home of Saxon king and Norman baron, the screen which 
for many a long year sheltered the flickering beacon-light 
of religion upon the Holy Isle, and still happily consecrated 
by the superadded beneficence of a later age to the very 
highest purposes of true Christian philanthropy. 

Thus far the architecture of Northumberland is that of 
war alone ; and from the very earliest times to the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century we have the record of 
local feuds and national strife, resulting frequently in 
bloodshed, and generating at all times hatred and alarm. 
Had religion no controlling power over the borderers ? 
Not much, I fear, when we are told that the thieves were 
good church-goers, and that they were never more intent 
upon their devotions than on the eve of some great 
plundering foray or raid. The chapel of Belhngham was 
the great place of resort in upper Tynedale ; the 
inhabitants held their public meetings and worshipped in 
it, after their fashion. When Wolsey put the churches in 
that district under an interdict, the clansmen, keenly 
sensitive about their spiritual welfare, employed a Scottish 


iViar to miuister to them the Sacraments. Nor did the 
iielbrmation make any difference, at least not for a con- 
siderable time. At Tujiliill, near Bambrough, in 1599 
and 1 GOO, three men, two of them bearing the nbiqnitous 
name of Forster, were pioceeded against in the 
Ecclesiastical court. One had struck the minister on th 
head with his dagger ; another had fired a pistol among 
the congregation as it was leaving the chapel ; and the 
third had deliberately ridden into the chapel on horseback 
whilst the service was going on. Such examples may be 
nudtiplied, but sufficient evidence has been given to show 
that whilst men did not know the difference between 
mcinn and timm, and right and wrong, religious progress 
was impossible. We must not imagine, however, that vast 
religious efforts were not made from the very earliest 
times. Puttincf aside the remains of British Christianity, 
of which Eddi speaks, I am inclined to think that the 
evangelization of Northumberland, in its present 
boundaries, was attempted by missionaries from Glasgow 
and lona long before the work of Paulinus and the mission 
of Aidan. The first effort to reach it from the south was 
that of Paulinus from York, between 627 and 633. 
The first permanent settlement in it from lona was effected 
in 635, when the work of Paulinus had failed. Then Aidan, 
with his little band of followers, made himself a home at 
Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, under the shelter of the royal 
castle of Bambrough, from whence he could penetrate 
the mainland in every direction, and where he and 
his friends could lead, if they chose, their old ascetic lives 
in a place which was as wild almost as their old home at 
lona. Tiningham, Coldingham, and Melrose became 
centres whence missionaries could o-o out to evanii'elize the 
Lothians. From Lindisfarne Aidan and his successors 
spread the Gospel in Northumberland. The work for a 
long time was mission work. The churches would be 
mainly baptisteries on iho banks of rivers and streams. 
And as there was at that time no bishop at York, the 
Lindisfarne influence and teaching spread across the Tyne 
and 'i'ees into Deira, or Yorkshire, itself, until it became 
l>ractically coextensive with the kingdom of Northumbria. 
And at the same time that the first stone church between 
the Tees and the Firlh of Forth was beinii' raised at 


Liiulisfarne, the pious care of Oswald, Aiclaii's patron iu 
the north, was conipletini>- the first stone-built temple in 
Deira which Edwin had beuiin at York, After the year 
664 the Lindisfarne prelates ruled no more in Yorkshire, 
and a new missionary edbrt on a grand scale was made 
from York upon the Tyne and Wear. The leaders of this 
movement were Wilfrid and Benedict Biscop, who, amonu' 
other innovations, introduced Italian and French archi- 
tecture and workmen into the north. The architecture t)f 
Lindisfarne was derived, through lona, from Ireland. In 
this way a double influence (in addition to that from 
Cumbria or Glasgow) was brought to bear upon the 
architectural progress of Northumberland, and to show 
the fame of the workmanship on the Tyne and Wear, we 
have a notice in Bede, of Naitan, king of the Picts in the 
far north, sending thither for instructors in masonry and 
sculpture. We might expect to find, therefore, in North- 
umberland, or rather, in the kingdom of Northumbria, 
which covers a much wider area than the single county, 
a composite style of sculpture and architecture, peculiar to 
itself. And that this is the case, I must refer my hearers 
to the numerous specimens in the district of interlacing or 
basket woi^, as it has been called, of a most interesting 
kind. In many localities there are few churches in the 
walls of which such carvings have not been found, and in 
not a few churches there are remains of Saxon masonry as 
well. We have no Domesday book in the north to show 
what churches were then in existence, but I think that 
investigation, where documentary evidence fails us, will 
sooner or later show that wherever there was a parish 
church in the counties of Durham and Northumberland a 
century ago, there was a parish church on the same site 
in pre-Norman times. I may mention, with no small satis- 
faction, that there is every probability of these early 
sculptured remains being perpetuated by the graver's art 
at the cost of the University of Cambridge. This is a just 
tribute of respect to the country of Bede and Cuthbert, 
From Beds came the idea of the great school or university 
of York, the mother of the universities of Europe. And 
from Northuml^ria came the Christianity of every kingdom 
in the IIe})tarcliy excepting Kent, the Christianity too of 
Sweden and North Germany. The architectural remains 


of Saxon Nortliiiiiiljria, therefore, have an interest which 
we cannot estimate or measure. I trust most heartily that 
before this meeting closes some message of gratitude and 
pi'omise of help may go forth to Cambridge, possessing, as 
that Uniyersity already does, a thousand claims to the 
sympathy and respect of the old kingdom of Northumbria. 

It is at Hexham that you will fnid the most interesting- 
remains in the county of Anglo-Saxon work, and you may 
mark the influence of the place in the churches in the 
neighbourhood, beginning with Oyingham. At Holy Island 
and Fame, still more sacred ground, there is little of that 
date ; there is next to nothing also at Tynemouth ; later 
buildinghas obliterated or concealed it; butatWhittingham, 
Edlingham, Bolam, Whalton, Long Houghton, and other 
churches, you will find Saxon towers or masonry, whilst 
the interlacing sculpture meets your eye in many of the 
churches and churchyards. 

The Norman era found the bishopric of Lindisfarne 
and Chester transferred to Durham, which renovated 
Jarrow and Wearmouth and rebuilt Lindisfarne, all of 
which the Danes had ruined. You may trace, also, the 
influence of Durham at this time in many churches in 
north Northumberland — nay, you may see the massive 
columnar work of Durham at Kirkby Lonsdale, at Cartmel, 
and in the cr3^pt of York itself. St. Albans also established 
itself upon the clifl" at Tynemouth, and acquired the 
churches of Eglingham and Hartburn, in the latter of 
which you may observe the Tynemouth influence. New- 
minster also sprang up on the Wansbeck in the twelfth cen- 
tury to plead for the Cistercians, but it had little or no 
effect upon the architecture of the county. A single arch 
is all that remains of the abbey itself. Hexham in post- 
Norman times was under the control of York. But the 
monastic S3'stem did not prosper in the county. It was too 
disturbed and unsettled, and it was very difficult for the 
monks to get their rents paid. The little religious houses 
at Carham, Ijambley. and Holystone were almost eaten up 
by the Scots, whilst Holy Island and Fame were 
always suffering and nearly always in debt. Hexham 
was on several occasions reduced to the very verge 
of ruin, and was only rescued from it by the 
well-paid up rents of its Yorkshire estates, on which it 


could always depend, l^rinkburn was only a small place, 
and the reli_i>i()us houses at Alnwicjk cluni>' for protec^tion to 
the castle. Still, in spite of this turmoil and poverty, you 
may see at Tynemouth, Brinklmrn. and Hexham fabrics of 
twelfth and thirteenth century work of remarka])le Ijeauty; 
and throughout the county, here and there, are choice 
specimens of mediasval architecture of various periods, 
often grievously mutilated, but showing that, if circum- 
stances only had been different, the genius was there, 
and the readiness to evoke it as well. But what 
was it possible to do when the country was for 
centuries almost in a state of siege, and nothing, 
even of the most sacred kind, was secure? The Scottish 
inroads between 1290 and 1330 were of the most dread- 
ful kind, and church after church was practically de- 
stroyed with the exception of the bare walls. There are, 
indeed, some very fine churches in the county, such as 
Norham, Bambrough, Alnwick, Morpeth, Mitford, Wark- 
worth,St. Nicholas in this city, and a few others, Init these 
owe their preservation in each case only to the happy pro- 
pinquity of a castle, or fort, to which a wide berth was 
generally given. The Scots themselves built at one 
time, as if in cruel mockery, just across the Tweed, a 
church called Ladykirk, which could not be destroyed 
as there was not an inch of wood in it. A happy contrast 
this to the battered fabrics on the other side of the river. 
Battered indeed they were at most times, but, if possi])le,they 
suffered more from ill-usage and neglect in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries than they did before, especially in 
middle and north Northumberland. The greater part of 
the ancient chapels were then disused and became ruined, 
whilst the fabric of the parish churches themselves was 
cruelly neglected, as every one strove to discard any ob- 
ligation to repair it. The most necessary and simple 
appliances of worship were frequently wanting. The little 
chapel of Hebbron originated a proverb by its condition, 
" It's no a byword, like Hebbron kirk," and no 
wonder, as an archdeacon reported of it, that he found it 
held together by thirteen props of wood. But, speak- 
ing of archdeacons, let me say that many churches 
which had withstood the onsets of the Scots fell in the 
middle of the last century before the charge of an arch- 


deacon. It will scarcely be believed that this dignitary, 
who was in all other respects a most estimable person, 
actually desired the incumbents and churchwardens, for 
use as well as for ornament, to take the mullions out of 
the church windows and put in sashes instead, and that in 
many instances his directions were carried out. 

And now let us contrast the condition in the last century 
with that of the present day. There has certainly l:)een a most 
remarka])le change. In the archdeaconrj- of Lindisfarne 
nearly every church has been either rebuilt or restored 
within the last thirty years, not always wisely or well, but 
stiU assuredly not in the spirit of that Northumbrian vicar, 
whom I could name, who chiselled away a whole corbel- 
table formed of grotesque heads, as he thought his 
congregation looked too much at them when they ought 
to have been looking at him. In the archdeaconry of 
Northumberland there has been less done, but still a great 
deal. I am unwilling to criticize. I remember an old 
friend of mine making the caustic remark that medieval 
architects erected buildings which we are unable to restore. 
I do not agree with this, but I do think that in far too 
many cases ancient remains have not been sufficiently 
respected, and that modern architects have often entirely 
overlooked the feeling and character of the architecture 
of the district in the work which they carry out. Every 
county, nay, various parts of each county have architec- 
tural features peculiar to themselves, with which an 
architect ought at least to make himself acquainted. 
There is an unhappy phrase in vogue descril^ing the re- 
novation of a church. "It has undergone restoration." — 
It used to be " It has been beautified." — Now it is worse 
still "It has undergone restoration." Poor church, I often 
think, what pangs it must have suffered. The stones must 
surely have been crying out. Now I am not one of those 
who would retain even discomfort and decay, and keep 
tlieir churches empty, rather than improve and preserve 
them. By all means make your church as fit as you can 
for the claims it has to meet, but do value the past a little 
more than has been the custom. The most dangerous 
person of all is he who loves uniformity of style, and in 
his fabric would reduce all styles to one. That man 


sacrifices the historical story of his church to a very 
foohsh caprice. Generalh' speaking, church restorers have 
far too much latitude and freedom of action allowed to 
them. Now will you permit me, in conclusion, to make 
two or three practical suggestions. 

1. — Let every 1)ishop have the advice of an architectural 
expert, or experts, before any structural changes are made 
in any church. The wanton mischief that has been done 
in the absence of such a rule as this is lamentably 
great. I could give man}^ instances. Take two. Twice 
have I known the rebuilding of particular parts of 
churches urged and adopted on the plea that they were 
tumbling down. In each case, instead of tumbling down, 
they obstinately refused to fall or be moved. Were the}^ 
allowed to stand, as they were perfectly a])le to do ? No; 
in each case the architect vindicated the correctness of his 
ecclesiastical diagnosis by blowing the part up with 
gunpowder ! 

2. — Whenever the fabric of a church is touched, let 
careful drawings and exact plans of the parts altered be 
first officially made and deposited in the Diocesan registry. 

3. — Let greater attention be paid to monuments and 
inscriptions. They are being destroyed now-a-days by 
hundreds and by thousands. I would simply remark that 
the legal value of these inscriptions is second only to tliat 
of a parish register, nay, in many instances they are far 
more useful — and that it is illegal to destroy them. 

To me it is most objectionable to see the monuments on 
a chancel floor sacrificed to an array of encaustic tiles, 
which in tone, colour, and comfort are infinitely 
inferior to the old gray or blue stones. Time was when 
such tiles were rarely seen out of a church, now 3^ou find 
them better laid and better cleaned in the passage of every 
second-rate hotel. Surely it makes the church itself more 
solemn to see that under your feet are lying the dead of 
former generations. Are tlieir memorials to follow in 
the wake of far too many memorials in this shifting age, 
and perish with them ? It is impossible, of course, I know 
that, to avoid the moving of such monuments occasionally, 
and if 3^ou spare them, time will not. I earnestl}- recom- 
mend that in all possil:)le cases a full copy of the inscrip- 



tions ill a cliurch and cliiircliyard be taken by the minister, 
and that the copy be deposited in the parish chest. If 
such a record l)e made, decay is ol)viated, and removal is 
ro]il)ed of much of its mischief. I am giad to say that 
this suggestion of mine has been akeady adopted in some 
cas3s, and I caimot see why it shoukl not be very advan- 
tageously carried out in many more. 



My last report was made to the Archaeological Institute 
at the Carlisle meetinsr m 1882. Since then further (lis- 
coveries have been made at the Roman baths, and a 
description published by Major Davis, the city engineer, 
in the Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucester Archaeo- 
logical Society, which gives an account of the discoveries 
down to the autumn of 1883.'^ The paper contains 
three plans: — Plate V. being a fac-simile of Dr. Suther- 
land's map, ])ublislied in 1763 ; Plate YI. being a 
fac-simile of Dr. Spry's plan published in 1822, shewing 
discoveries to that date ; and Plate VII. being a plan 
of the Roman baths as far as discovered to the date 
of April IDth, 1884. Further examinations are being- 
carried on, and if sufficient money can be raised, the 
entire arrangement will be made out and planned to scale. 

These three plans show the gradual progress of dis- 
covery. In my paper read at Carlisle I detailed the 
progress of these discoveries, referring to the sources of in- 
formation, and the same has been done more fully by 
Major Davis in his paper above alluded to, read in Bath to 
the Gloucestershire Society. 

A very correct and ingenious model of the large Roman 
bath, and the general plan of the Roman baths, as far as 
ascertained, was exliibited in the recent Health Exhibition. 
This no doubt was seen and examined by many 
members of the Institute. No pains or cost has been 
spared on this model, but there are extensive portions 
of the Roman buildings still hidden from sight, and a plan 
with an explanation will give a more perfect apprehension 
of the whole. ^ 

^ Re^d at the Monthly Meeting of the completed in time to accompany this 

Institute, November 6, 1884. notice, m- be addcil in a subse(iueut num- 

* (See vol. viii, p. 89). ber of the Journal. 

* It is hoped that such a plau may be 


Ill 111}' previous paper, I mentioned the use which had 
l)een made of the okl Eoman drain in conveying away the 
waste water from the spring, and also the discoveiy of the 
hirge Eoman reservoir which has Ijeen cleaned out and 
utilized. This is innnediately below the King's bath, at the 
back of the modern Pump Room. 

This is also utilized, and now Ibriiis the reservoir for the 
waters of the mineral spring, and the baths and fountains 
are supplied from it with the hot water as it rises pure 
from the source. Thus both the Roman drain and the 
Roman reservoir are, after a lapse of fifteen centuries or 
more, restored to their ancient purposes. 

The dimensions of this reser^•oir are 50 feet by 40 feet, 
and the form, as before stated, an irregular octagon. The 
masonry is formed of stones 6 feet 7 inches long, by 3 feet 
thick, and the lead which covered the tank or cistern is 
30 lb. to the square foot. 

The hot mineral spring fields 167 gallons per minute, 
at a temperature of 116° Fahrenheit. 

The great central bath seems to have stood in a large 
hall. 111 feet 4 inches in length, by 68 feet 6 inches in width. 
The depth of the Ijath is about 6 feet 8 inches. The bottom 
of the bath measures 73 feet 2 inches by 29 feet 6 inches. 
The whole was lined with sheets of lead 10 feet by 5 feet, not 
soldered, but turned up at the edges and burned. Major 
Davis observes that " This weU-secured bottom or floor 
ap})ears to have been placed in position, rather to keep 
the hot waters from ascending into the bath from the 
springs beneath, than to make the l:)ath watertight." 

Six steps all round the bath lead into the water, and 
around the bath is a platform, on the sides of which are 
recesses for seats. These were for the bathers who were 
waiting, or for hanging up their dresses when in the bath. 
The steps into the bath are not covered with lead, and, 
according to Major Davis, it is doubtful if they ever were 

At ilic Ijottom step in the N.W. corner was a bronze 
sluice. This is now preserved in the Pump Room at 
linth. The weight is above 1 cwt. 2 qrs. An overflow 
was provided above the hatchway by a grating, 15 inches 
wide, which was probably also of bronze, but had been 


Many of the stones forming the steps leading into Liie 
bath are 10 feet long. 

The large bath is supplied with water from the tank by 
means of a pipe which brings the water to the N.W. angle, 
from whence it has been made to spread out and i'orm a 
small cascade, thus promoting the cooling of the water. 

The length of the pipe which brought the water from 
the reservoir or tank was about 38 feet, but a large por- 
tion of the pipe had been removed. The pipe was laid in 
a channel formed in tlie floor of the space around the bath. 
The original Roman work had been cut through in later 
times, at the point where the pipe was connected with the 

In addition to the supply of mineral water, a supph' of 
cold water was also provided for the bath, and conveyed 
in a leaden tubular pipe 2^ inches in diameter; a length of 
24 feet 6 inches has been exposed. The pipe is made 
with a roll along the top, and burnt so as to cause the 
ends of the metal to adhere, — there are two soldered 
joints at intervals of 9 feet. This pipe, which apparently 
broufdit the cold water, is made to pass through the bodv of 
a recumbent figure, now much mutilated, into a large 
trough, the position of which is indicated by the stone- 
work being cut away to receive it. 

For minute particulars I must refer to Mr. Davis' pulj- 
lislied account, who has bestowed much care in describing 
every thing concerning the structure and the direction of 
these pipes for conveying the supply of water. A por- 
tion of this large bath still remains covered by a building, 
which now forms the offices of the Poor Law Board. If 
this could be purchased and removed, as has been done 
with another house, which was the property of the Bath 
Corporation, the whole area of the large bath would be 
uncovered. The city architect has traced the walls of the 
south platform underneath this building, and they corres- 
pond to the portions laid open on the north side. On each 
side of the ambulator}^ or platform surrounding the bath, 
are three recesses (exedrae), two semi-circular and one rec- 
tangular. The rectangular one measures 17 feet in width 
by 7 feet in depth, but variations exist in the semi-circular 
recesses, — the width of one being 17 feet long by 7 feet 
deep, another being 14 feet 3 inches long by 6 feet 9 


inches in depth. ISix piers, ^vhioh supported the roof oi" 
the bath ambulatory, are still remaining in situ on each 
side, dividing" each length into seven bays. They are built of 
solid freestone, but, according to the opinion of Major 
Davis, have undergone alteration. Xone of the piers or 
])ihistei-s now standing are higher than six or seven feet. 
Some fragments of the capitals of tiie smaller pilasters have 
been found, but none as yet of the larger capitals, — only a 
few fragments of the cornices, and but one portion of the 
frieze, 2 feet 4 inches long by 1 foot G inches deep, on which 
are cut the letters S S I L, six and a quarter inches long. 

The platforms are supposed to have been arched, and 
the large bath spanned also b}^ an arch. 

The side arcades were constructed of brick-boxes, open 
at the ends, and formed in the shape of a wedge, 1 foot 
long, and nearly 5 inches thick, — the wedge being nearly 
8 inches at the wider end. They were set in concrete. 
Large fragments of this roofing were found lying on the 
deposit which had partially filled the bath before the fall 
of the roof took place. It is impossible to say at what 
period the roofing was destroyed. 

Although the ground plan of the large bath, and that of 
the smaller adjoining baths, has been clearly ascertained, 
together with the chambers adjoining the baths, yet the 
restoration of the original l)uildings is not an easy matter. 

They are given conjecturally by Major Davis, who has 
Ijeen careful to seek for authority for his statements, in the 
portions of the buildnigs remaining, and the fragments of 
decoration discovered in the course of excavation, but be- 
fore the Imildings can be restored with certainty, much 
more remains to be discovered. The work has wonder- 
fully progressed under his care, and much more may be 
expected, if funds can be raised for the purpose of still 
further examination below the streets and houses of the 

From eighteen to twenty feet below the present surface 
lie a vast amount of Iloman remains still imdiscovered, — as 
for instance, two ])ortions of a fine tessellated floor have 
lately been laid (^pcn in enlarging the airing ground of the 
Mineral Water Hospital. Some years since other pavements 
were found in the same locality, and a line ])avement is 
still preserved under the new wing of the Ivoyal or Casualty 


Hospital. These are all within the Roman city walls, and 
serve to shew the style of houses which must have stood 
withiii the Eoman area. 

Contemporaneously witli the discovery and openino- of 
the ancient Roman baths at liath, a similar discovery and 
a complete exposure of an entire system of Roman baths, 
along with other Roman edifices, has taken place at 
Herbord, within a mile of the small town of Sanxay, 
eighteen miles from Poitiers. These have loeen carefully 
opened and planned and fully described by the French 
savan who made the discovery some years ago, and who 
has lately published a detailed account with a series of 

Having myself visited these interesting remains two years 
ago, I can judge of the importance of the discovery and the 
light thrown by them upon the arrangement of Roman 
thermal and other baths. 

The extent of ground covered by the buildings, their 
courts, and garden enclosures, is very large, amounting to 
many acres (7^), and the buildings, also contiguous to the 
baths, which are supposed to be hotels or lodgings for the 
accommodation of visitors, are also very extensive. These 
have been carefully planned, so that within a bend of the 
little river Vonne, you have the plan of an ancient 
Roman provincial watering place, with its temples, baths, 
hotels, and theatre, all of which have been exposed to 

The construction of the baths is not so large and 
imposing as those discovered at Jiath, nor is there a 
thermal spring, such as rises below the great tank and 
flows into the great swimming ])aths at Aqun3 Solis, l)ut the 
water is brought l)y an aqueduct which serves for the 
supply of tlie temple as well as the baths. 

Although the plan and arrangement of the baths at 
Herbord is different to those at Bath, yet there is a general 
correspondence, and by studying their arrangement you 
get an idea of how much remains yet to reward the ex- 
plorations which are now l)ei ng conducted under the 
modern city of Bath. 

At Herbord you find : — 

' See Mc'mnire Arrheolor/ique snr lot la pere Camille de fa Croix, S.J. {Ninrt 
iJ^cnurert d' Hcrhord dites lU Sanxai/ pur Vhnznt, ,'??, Rue drs Ilalles). 


1 . A large open space for a garden, having a passage or 

promenade round it, witli a colonnade. 

2. Then waiting rooms for slaves or attendants. 

3. Then a large swimming bath, 1)ut inferior in size to 

that at Iktii. 

4. There are halls for receptions, and for various purposes 

connected with bathing. 
.'). There are several hypocausts or heating chambers, and 

passages with seats for convenience of bathers. 
(). There are the remains of a fine portico, and also a sub- 
terranean passage leading from the central portions 
of the ])ath-building. 

These arrangements are on the ground level, but the re- 
mains of a stair have been found leading to the upper portion 
of the building, where the arrangements seem to have been 
much the same. 

The baths, with their adjuncts, appear to have under- 
gone alteration at a late period, as is evident from a care- 
ful examination of the work. The waste water was carried 
off by a drain into the river, which still remainsperfect. 

The great hall appears to have been handsomely pro- 
portioned and highly ornamented, portions of architectural 
decorations having been found. The length was al^out 
seventy-five feet by fort3-nine in width. This hall has 
semicircular recesses, about sixteen or seventeen feet in 
diameter, and a rectangular recess between them, as may 
be noted in the arrangement of the open passage round 
the great bath at Bath. They contained seats for rest or 
for conversation, and seem to have had circular vaultings, 
the ceilings being constructed of wood. The superficial 
area of the swimming bath was about or above 6,000 feet, 
that of the great bath at Bath about 7,500. 

These discoveries have been already noticed in the 
Archceological Journal,^ but have only recently been pub- 
lished by their original discoverer, the Pere <h la Croix, 
together with plans executed by himself. Up to the time of 
my visit, two }'ears ago, only three Englishmen had visited 
the spot, but any who will make the journey will find an 
ample recompence for the little time and labour required, 
though some portions that had been excavated have of 
necessity been covered in. 

' See vol xl, p. .fJ2. 


Since my paper on Swan Marks was printed, I have had 
the i{ood fortune to discover two documents relating to 
the practice of marking swans, which will not be unin- 
teresting to some members of the Eoyal Archaeological 
Institute. They have been preserved among some Court 
EoUs accounts and other papers relating to the manor of 
Little Carlton, Lincolnshire, which have been kindly lent 
to me by E. W. C. Amcotts, Esq., of Hackthorn Hall. 

The first document is a letter from which a line or two 
at the end and the signature has been severed. It is, of 
course, impossible to identify the writer ; the hand is of the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, and as it is attached 
hj a pin to the drawing on parchment which the writer 
refers to there is not much doubt that it was written in 
1594. I copy it at length, premising that the family of 
Cooke were for several generations lords of the manor of 
Little Carlton. Though they do not seem to have entered 
their pedigree in the Heralds' Visitation books they cer- 
tainly ranked among the lesser gentry of the shire. 

" Mr. Cooke, according to my fformer letter I haue of 
Sunday last Agreed w*" the Queues Swannerd and haue 
entered your name in his bookes vppon bothe yo"" markes 
and paid him his fFee for yo"" entering vj* viij*^ and Hyred 
you a deputy to Loke to yo"" Swannes yearely, and you 
must pay him at michaelmesse next iij^ iiij*^ for his ffee and 
for the time past he is contedit at my Eequest to Take 
nothing for your Swanes marking. You haue this yeare 
but iiij yonge Swanes, ij at Tointon, ij at ffrisckney the "^ 
and no Ijirds of the crose, wch is matched wth M'. Wray 
at Peny stonnes house in Northe Somercots, very near you, 
in y*" marshe, w*^'' is not amisse, if you gett a deputy there 

' Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, Nov. G, 1884. 


the better for y Proffite. I send you yo' markes drawen in 
partcliement to Eemaine w*^ you for the iiij Swannes. 
they are to be brought to me this weeke whearof John 
vncle saith he must haue ij the one for him self and the 
other for M"". Baconn, and the other ij I will flede for you 
against Christenmesse. I haue said nothing to M' ffayrffax, 
let him tarry to an other time, seme yo"" first promises, your 
Swannerd must haue for taking vpp your iiij Swannes. 
and bringing to my house ij'. I pray you comend me 
to your mother to whome. as you knowe I haue bene A 

This letter shews that in a district ruled by a single 
royal swanherd one man might possess two marks, if his 
swans were in different pools or rivers. The passage 
" the /y and no birds of the crose " is obscure. As to the 
correctness of the reading there can be no question. I 
think it relates to swans of different kinds or asfes. 

The accompanying cuts are copied from an accurate 
tracing of the " markes drawen in partchement " which 
is pinned to the foregoing letter. I have seen many rolls 
of Swan-marks, but have never heard of the existence of 
any certificate of such marks except the one before me. 

" Charles Cooke gent, his marke in 
the easte fenn this yeare 1594. Four 
yonge Swannes. 

Charles Cooke gent, his marke in 
ye northe marshe at penystones house in 
nor the somercots." 


The following memorandum is written at the bottom of 
the strip of parchment, it seems to refer to the second 
mark only — 

"I haue entred this marke in my booke Jan. 30. 1651, 
and haue received my fee which is 01. 6s. 8d. 
Geo. Hill 

Swannerd to ye Comonwealth." 

It may not l)e out of place to mention that a modernized 
copy of the orders relating to the Swans on the river 
Witham was printed by the late Mr. Pishey Thompson in 
his History of Boston^ 1856, p. 676. That industrious 
compiler does not, as far as I can see, inform his readers 
where the original which he rendered into modern English 
was to be found. 

My friend the Eev. A. E. Maddison, who is working 
among the wills at Lincoln, tells me that in the will of John 
Copledike of Harrington, co. Lincoln, dated 23 June 1582, 
we have a bequest of all his household goods " seelings 
and glass plate armour swan marks and swans " to his 
brother Francis Copledike. 

It is very interesting to find a swan mark left by will. 

He also leaves his cousin Edward Billesby his hawk 
caUed " Clouds." 



As the Eomans gradually extended their conquest over 
the world, they became more and more aware of the 
immense increase to their wealth that might be derived 
from skilfully conducted mining operations. Indeed the 
desire to obtain possession of such countries as yielded 
most abundantly the various metals that were required for 
ol)jects of use or luxury seems to have led them to push 
their conquests in certain specified directions rather than in 

Spain, a country of gold and silver mines, has been 
called the Indies of the Old World. As, then. Tyre and 
Carthage had sent Phoenician colonists to establish their 
factories all along the coast of Africa as far as the Atlantic, 
who, having crossed over into Europe, settled along the 
far-stretching shores of Spain, and according to an ancient 
tradition, pushed their trading outposts as far as the 
British Isles ; so the Eomans poured into Spain and reaped 
there the benefit of their discoveries, and of the labours 
of those who had been before them in the field. ^ 
Tunnelings of a Phcenician origin may still be seen in 
that country, and there the Eomans found mines of gold, 
silver, lead, copper, tin, mercury, iron, sulphur, and salt. 

' Read at the Meeting of the Institute silver, copper, ;ind other nietalls ; yea the 

at Newcastle, August 6, 1884. rivers do yeeld gold in the sand on their 

- Tacitus, in his Gcrmania, note.< the shore sides." (t^ondon 1628, ji. 5.) 
alwence of metals am(jngst the rude ■* Camden thought the Iberi, so-c;dled, 

iiihabit^mts of the north, but in the according to tlie Hebrew derivati(jn, ije- 

Jiettilution of Decayed intelUyence by the cause they were miners. (Brit, xxxvi.) 

sludic and travel of R. Verstcjan, that In earlier times Semiraniis hail employed 

ingenious author was able to say of hi.s prisoners of war to work in subterranean 

U-loved Germanic, " The mynes whereof mines. 
Tacituij bceniud doubtful), do dehver gold. 


During the Kepublic, the State did not occup}' itself 
much with the management of mines, upon which it 
looked with some disfavour, but left them chiefly to the 
care of private enterprise. Very little is known about the 
principles which, at that time, guided the policy of the 
Komans in this regard. To one who reads the thirty-third 
book of the Natural History of Pliny, it might appear that 
indifference to wealth and compassion for their fellow 
creatures were at the bottom of this disfavour, shown by 
the Eomans in their early history for the work of mines. 
Various proofs in support of this theory are collected by 
Barba in his Metallurgie [Tome I, p. 430). Certain it is 
that after the conquests of foreign lands, it was altogether 
forbidden to work mines in Italy, the mother country. Yet 
it is remarkable that Pliny should consider Italy the 
richest country in the world for mineral wealth. 
Metalloruni omnium fertilitate nullis cedit terris. Sed inter- 
dictum id vetere consulto patriim, Italiae parci juhentium. 
(H.N. /. iii., c. 24.) Italiae parci vetere interdicto patruni, 
diximus alioqui mdlafecimdior metallorum quoque erat tellus. 
Extat lex censoria Ictimidonim aurifodinae^ Vercellensi agro, 
qua cavebatur, ne plus quinque millibus hominum in opere 
publicani haberent. [lb. I. xxxiii, c. 21.) 

However much frugality, sobriety, simplicity of manners 
and disregard for luxury may have been virtues practised 
by the Eomans in the early days of the Eepublic, they but 
too often yielded in later times to sentiments of a difi'erent 
order. It has been surmised that the restriction limiting 
the number of men to be employed in the mines of 
Vercella3 to five thousand, so that no more should be 
employed in the works at one time by the public con- 
tractors, was to prevent the latter from exhausting these 
mines under the terms, and by the force of one agreement. 
Similar restrictions may have been suggested for similar 
reasons. Thus it was forbidden by a decree of the 
Theodosian code {lib. x, tit. 19, leg. 6, Si qua navis) to 
export silver from the rich mines of Sardinia on to the 

In course of time, however, the greed of gold, so much 
inveighed against by the Eoman moralists, became 
universal throughout the empire. Mines and public works 
of all sorts were seized upon, monopolized and administered 


b}' the State through the agency of pubHc farmers, called 
technically Puhlicani. In the days of the Eepublic, how- 
ever, only the more important mineral products, whether 
in Itah' or in the provinces, were claimed as belonging to 
the State. Amongst the works, at that time in the hands 
of the Government, were, says Marquardt,' the gold mines 
near Vercellic, in northern Italy, employing, as already 
stated, five thousand hands ; the silver mines near Nova 
Carthago in Spain, where ten thousand men were employed, 
and where the daily output was reckoned at a value of 
twenty-five thousand denarii, the gold and silver mines in 
Macedonia, and the tin and lead mines near Sisapon, in 
Baetica, the modern Almaden in Andalusia. The same 
fate fell to the lot of a great many other mines, which, 
when let out by the revenue officers,- to those who thus 
came to farm them, were deemed capable of yielding a 
goodly income. 

The greater portion, however, of the mines throughout the 
Eoman dominion were still left in the hands of private 
speculators. In fact, the heavy rent paid by private 
works was more profitable to the State than the lesser and 
more precarious sums paid by the Puhlicani or public 
farmers. Pacata provincia vectigalia magna instituit ex 
ferrariis argentar Usque ; quihus turn institutis, locupletior in 
dies provincia fuit^ says Livy, speaking of Spain at the time 
of Cato, B.C. 195 (/. xxxiv, c. 21). 

Liv)' makes the express statement concerning the iron 
and copper mines in Macedonia, that they were to be left 
in the hands of the provincials ; while of the gold and 
silver mines, he says, that on the formation of that country 
into a Roman province, they were altogether closed, 
though it is related that some ten years afterwards they 
were re-opened and let out in the ordinary way^ through 
the Censores to several Puhlicani.^ 

' llbmische Staatsverwaltung, iit^r Metalli quoque Macedonici, quod ingens 

Band, s. 245. vectigal erat, locationesque praediorum 

* These were the Censores who sat in rusticorum tolli placebat. Na7n neque sine 

Rome and put up the mines to auction publicano exerceri posse ; et uhi publicanus 

and gave them to tlie highest bidder, who est, ihi aut jus publicum vanum aut liber- 

thus became a Publicanus or iiubh'c tatem sociis nuUam esse ; Ne ipsos quidem 

farmer. Dion Cassiua reckons on the Macedonas idem exercere posse. (Livy 

yofxlly income to be derived from mine- Hist. lib. xlv., c. 18.) Aemilius Paulhis 

rentfi : Saa Ik re utraWdas ...... in his oration, says : Mctalla quoque auri 

SuvoTo* irpositcoi (F.ii., f)-2, '28). alque argenti non cxerca'i ; ferti et aeris 

^ In the year 158 buf(jro Christ, in the pcrmiiti. (ib. e. 29). 
dccrw of the liomim Senate, we read : 


Plutarch tells us that there were in his time throughout 
Spain and elsewhere, gold and silver mines still left in the 
hands of private individuals, which had made those who 
possessed them as rich as Crassus had become by his 
famous silver mines 

However, the mines of all kinds which, in the time of 
the Kepublic, were left in the hands of private enterprise, 
were by the more powerful Emperors seized, in part to 
swell the public revenue, and in part to replenish the 
imperial purse {ratio jjatrimonii)} Hence Suetonius says 
in his life of Tiberius : Plurimis etiam civitatibus et 
privatis veteres immunitates et jus metallorum ac vectigalium 
ademjtta (ch. xlix.) ; and Tacitus in the sixth book of his 
Annals, ch. xix., speaks of the gold mines of S. Marius, the 
richest man in Spain, as thus appropriated by the 
Emperor ; aurarias ejus^ quamquam qmblicarentur, sibimet 
Tiberius seposuit. Thus as time went on, almost all the 
rich and large mines fell into the hands of the head of the 
Eoman State." Amongst the Imperial possessions must, 
therefore, be numbered the gold mines in Dalmatia, the 
silver mines in Pannonia and in Dalmatia, the gold mines 
in Dacia, as well as the tin and lead, not to speak of the 
gold and silver mines in Britain.^ To these may be added 
the iron mines in Noricura, in Pannonia, and in Gallia 
Lugdunensis, and the famous copper mines in Cyprus and 
those of Baetica in Spain. 

' In the Notitia for the Eastern Empire ^ Fei-t Britannia auntm et argentum ct 

(ch. xii.) we read of a Comes Metallorum nlia metalla, pretiiim victor iae (Tacitus 

per Jllyricum. From the Tlieodosian Code Agricola, ch. xii). Many of the Roman 

(x, 19, 5), it would appear that the Comes mines in Biitain were open quarry-like 

Metailoruvi was the official who, on the workings, such as the great open trenches 

part of the Prince, exacted the proper to Ije seen, one after another, furrowing 

piroportion of gold found in the mines. tlie sides of the Shropshire hills. Pliny 

The decree is of Valentinian and Valens, tells wa there was a law in his time pro- 

and is dated a.d. 365. According to liibiting mure than a limited production 

Mommsen and Hiibner, the Procurator of lead in Britain, so easily and so abun- 

Metallorum, as the representative of his dantly was it found in that island. 

Imperial master, was the supreine magis- Nic/ro piumbo ad Jistulas lumliiasijue 

tr^te oi the vicus or j)ayus, in which was utiniur, laboriosius in Ilispania eruto, 

the mine over which he presided. Thus totasque per GalUas \ set! in Britannia 

in the Berlin Corpus (v. ii, n. 1179, 9.56), summo terrae corio adeo large, ut lex. ultra 

we i-ead in inscriptions of a Procurator dicntur, ne plus certo modo fiat (N.H. 

of the copper mines of Sierra Morena, and xxxiv. 49). Caisar, who had time to 

another at the gold mines near the pre- make but a very imperfect observation of 

sent Kio Tin to, which were worked by the products of the country, say a of 

him for the exclusive profit of the Britain, Nascitur ihi plumbum album in 

Emperor. niedita'raneis regionibus, in mnritimis 

^ Thus in the Digest (48, 19, 38) we ferrum, sed ejus exigua est cnpia (E.G. 

read of Metallum principis and (48, 13, v., 12). 
6, ^2) of Metalla Caesariana. 


There is a curious account given us by Diodorus Siculus ' 
of the way in which mining operations were conducted 
nearly two thousand years ago. I will quote from a 
translation made by Booth in 1700. "The manner of 
working in these mines, and ordering the metal among the 
B^erians is thus : There being extraordinary rich mines in 
this country of gold, as well as of silver and brass, the 
labourers in the brass take a fourth part of the pure brass 
du(»' up to their own use, and the common labourers in 
silver have an Euboick talent for their labour in three 
days' time ; for the whole soil is full of shining and solid 
ore, so that both the nature of the ground and the industry 
of the workmen is admirable. But after that Iberia came 
into the hands of the Eomans, they brought a great number 
of slaves and delivered them to the task-masters and over- 
seers of the mines. These slaves opened the mouths of 
the mines in many places, where, digging deep into the 
ground, are found many clods of earth, full of gold and 
silver ; and in sinking both in length and depth, they 
carry on their works in undermining the earth many 
furlongs' distance, the workmen every way here and there 
making galleries underground and bringing up all the 
massy pieces of ore (whence the profits and gains to be 
had) ; even out of the deepest bowels of the earth." 

" There is a great difference between these mines and 
those of Attica ; for besides the labour, they that search 
there are at great cost and charge, and besides are often 
frustrated of their hopes ; and sometimes lose what they 
had found, so that they seem to be unfortunate to a proverb. 
But those in Iberia, that deal in mines, according to their 
expectations, are greatly enriched by their labours ; for 
they succeed at their very first sinking, and afterwards by 
reason of the extraordinary richness of the soil, they find 
more and more resplendent veins of ore, full of gold and 
silver ; for the whole soil round about is interlaced on 
every hand with the metals ; sometimes at a great depth 
they meet with rivers underground, but by art give a 
check to the violence of their current ; for by cutting of 
trenches underground, and being sure to gain what they 
aim at, when they have begun, they never leave till they 
have finished it ; and to admiration they pump out their 

»Bk. iii., ^\2r-U. 


floods of water with those instruments called Aegyptian 
pumps, invented b}^ Archimedes the Syracusan, when he 
was in Egypt. By these, with constant pumping by turns, 
they tlirow up the water to the mouth of the pit, and l)y 
this means drain the mine dry, and make the place lit for 
their work. For this engine is so ingeniously contrived 
that a vast quantity of water is strangely, with little 
labour cast up, and tlie whole is thrown up from the very 
bottom to the surface of the earth " (p. 191-2). 

It is a strange coincidence that there may be now seen 
standing in one of those ancient mines described ])y 
Diodorus Siculus, a Eoman water-wheel, with little tags of 
rope still hanging to its outer ridge, showing where the 
slaves stood day and night keeping that wheel in motion 
by the labour of their brawny arms. In the Archceolo(/ia 
Aeliana^ will be found an illustration given by Mr. 
Stevenson, of the Eoman water-wheel he found in 
the ancient mines of Tharsis, situated about thirty 
miles from the town of Huelva, in Spain. The sight of this 
wheel, dating from the age of Nero, carries us back to 
that harrowing picture of the sufferings of those thousands 
of slaves, who, under the kings of Egypt, were forced by 
cruel taskmasters to work unceasingly in the Egyptian 
gold mines until they dropped down dead through sheer 
exhaustion.'^ The workmen's tools still found in ancient 
Eoman mines — the miner's pick, the pick-axe, the hammer 
and wedges — ^carryback the mind to primitive, but laborious 
toil, when the long galleries, many stadia in length, re- 
sounded to the monotonous tramp of men, women, and 
children carrying the heavy ore upon their heads or 
shoulders to the furnace. 

In two places of his Gallic War, C^sar mentions the 
troulDle given his soldiers by the fact that his barbarian 
antagonists had recourse to mining operations in order to 
defeat his advances. The expertness of the Aquitanians in 
the art of mining he attributes to their familiarity with 

^ Vol. vii, p. 280. An official named therein is Praepositus 
- We are here reminded of the thou- Mctallorum, probably an overseer or task- 
sands of Christians who, in the ages of master. In the Roman Digest, under 
persecution, were condemned to work in Justinian, we read : Froxima morti pn'mi 
the Roman mines. In Ruinart's Acts of mctalli coercitio (xlviii, 10, 28). See Do 
the Martyrs and in Eusebius's Ecdcsias- Rossi, BuUetino di Arch, crixt. fur 1808, 
tical Ifistory we read of many facts that p. 17, &c. 
recall the description of Diodorus Siculus. 



their native copper mines, while the Gauls, he said, were 
rendered excellent miners by their large iron works.' 

The British chieftain Galgacus, haranguing his country- 
men before the battle of the Grampians, puts well before 
them the hard service they would have to undergo in their 
native mines, if victory did not favour their cause : ibi 
tributa et metalla et ceterae servientium pcenae ; quas in 
aetennim perferre, aut statim ulcisci, in hoc campo est 
(Tac. Agric. c. xxxii). He had said before what they had 
lost : neque enim arva 7iobis, aut metalla, aut partus sunt, 
quibus exercendis reservemur [lb. xxxi). 

In the ancient copper mines of Asturias have been found 
bronze axes [dolabra), stone and iron hammers {mallei), 
' gads ' or wedges [cunei), pincers {forcipes), lamps in 
baked earth, and bronze hearths or braziers. 

Owing to the great quantity of fuel required for smelting 
purposes, the Eoman mining operations could be conducted 
only in the neighbourhood of great forests, whence they 
could be abundantly supplied. The vast heaps of scoriae 
still to be found in the forests of Dean and Sussex, in 
which Eoman coins of the period are found, are evidence 
of this fact. Owing to the imperfect smelting of those 
timesj great quantities of ore had to be used. Hence to 
save transport, the furnaces were placed as near the mouth 
of the mine as possible. So rich in ore are the remains 
around the ancient mines, that it has often invited the 
enterprise of modern speculators to put them through the 
process of re-smelting by the more searching methods of 
the present day.^ 

In many instances it would seem that furnaces were 

^ lUi alias eruptione tentata, alias mensura, amnemque fnciunt (H.N. xxxiii, 

cuniculis ad aggerem vineastjue actis, 31). 

cujus rei sunt longe pa-itissimi Aquitani, '^ Where fuel was scarce, Pliny relates 

propterea quod multis loris apud eos how the copper- workers of his day used 

acmriae structurae sunt (Hb. iii., c. 21). to add eight parts of lead to a hundred of 

Speaking of the arts used by the Gauls in copper ore, and how the Gauls used to 

the defence of Bourg^s, he says, Aggerem melt the mineral ore between red-hot 

cuniculis sublrahebant, eo scietitius quod stones. It is supposed, from discoveries 

apud eos Tiiagnae sunt fei-rariae, atque made, that the ancient Britons had a 

07nne genus cuniculorum nolum atque of boiling water, by throwing into 

usitatum est (lib. vii, c. 22). The use of it stones made red-hot in fires kindled 

ventilation shafts in mines was known to outside their huts. Octotms plumbi lihnis 

Ixith the Greeks and llomans. Pliny says addunt, cl hme rccoquunt propter inopiam 

of the Aquitanians : That those who are ligni. Quantum ea res (HjHrentiae afferat, 

employed in the work of pumping up in GalVm maxime sent'ilur, uU inter 

water out of the mines, are on their feet lapldes candefactos fundilur (H.N. xxxiv., 

day and night. Aquitani stantcs dichus 20). 
noctibus'juc egcrunt arjuas lucernarum 


placed on lofty bills, in order that the wind might fan the 
llame, a contrivance practised by the Peruvians when first 
visited by the Spaniards. In his Roman Wall,^ Dr. 
Collingwood Bruce gives a very interesting description 
of a draught sought from nature for some furnaces near 
Lanchester : '' Two tunnels were formed in the side of the 
hill ; they were wide at one extremity, but tapered off to 
a narrow bore at the other, where they met in a point. 
The mouths of the channels oi)ened towards the west, from 
which quarter a prevalent wind blows in this valley, and 
sometimes with great violence. The blast received by 
them would, when the wind was high, be poured with con- 
siderable force and effect upon the smelting furnaces at the 
extremity of the tunnels." 

That the art of smelting was still very imperfect at the 
time of Strabo, or at the close of the first century before 
Christ, may be judged from the fact that no profit was to 
be ojained by extractino- silver ore from lead, in which it 
was present ni small proportions, it is in speaking oi the 
Spanish mines that this author makes the observation^ 
that in furnaces for smelting silver the chimney is generally 
higher than that for gold, in order, he says, that the 
deleterious vapours may be carried away without hurting 
the workmen. 

In his learned disquisition on the silver mines of Laurium, 
which played so important a part in the fortunes of Athens, 
Boeckh says : " that the Athenians made use of the 
bellows and of charcoal is not improbable."^ Now it 
has been observed that when at a later period furnaces 
were set in valleys, (they were generally placed near 
some stream to carry off* the product), and bellows were then 
used, by means of which a higher and more equable 
temperature was brought to bear upon the fire, the scoriae 
of this epoch are poor and more like those of modern 

On the walls of the Catacombs of Thebes very valuable 

'p. 432, ed. 1852. covered near Roman smelting furnaces in 

* Bk. iii., ch. ii., sec. 8 in fine. the forests of Deau and of Sussex, that 

* Public Economy of Athens, vol. ii., when mere ' air-bloomeries ' gave place to 
p. 433. ' blast-bloomeries,' the bellow.s in these 

* Leger, Travaux publics des Romains, latter were moved by water-power, either 
p. 725, It has been supposed from the natural as of streams, or artificial aa of 
position of certain ancient tanks, dis- reservoirs. 


drawings have been discovered, representing the ancient 
Egyptian mode of metal working. We see there frequently 
rei)rodiiced under the same tj'pe furnaces of very high 
temperature for melting glass, and for baking objects of 
the ceramic art. As figured in a modern French work, 
we see a C3dinder or stove-like erection about the height 
of a man raised over a hearth, on which the fire is fanned 
through apertures in the tube or stove, the flame darting 
up the chimney and appearing at the top.^ The splendid 
passage of Homer, where Hepliaestos, the Grecian Vulcan, 
gathers together the materials for Achilles' shield, re- 
presents him placing them in a furnace, upon which 
straightway the bellows begin to blow from twenty 

In the excavations made by Hon. W. 0. Stanley in 
Anglesey, an object was discovered which was, on exami- 
nation, pronounced by Professor Eamsay to be the vitrified 
nozzle of a bellows used for smelting purposes by the 
ancient Britains on that very spot where remains of 
smelting-hearths and mining instruments are still dis- 

Perhaps a description of the method of smelting in use 
throughout the whole of India in very early times, may 
throw some light on the contrivances used by our fore- 
fathers on many a site where they can be proved to have 
worked the metals to be found in our rich and fertile 
island. " The furnace or bloomery in which the ore is 
smelted is from four to five feet high ; it is somewhat 
pear-shaped, being about five feet wide at bottom and one 
foot at top. It is built entirely of clay. There is an 
opening in front about a foot or more in height, which is 
built up with clay at the commencement and broken down 
at the end of each smelting operation. The bellows are 
usually made of a goat's skin. The bamboo nozzles of the 
bellows are inserted into tubes of clay, which pass into the 

' lb. Plate N^iii, fig. 26 Alii ventosis follibiis auras 

- How common the use of the bellows Adcipiunt rcdduntqtie. 

was in the time of Augustus, appears Horace, Sat. i, 4, v. 19-20, 

from the following quotations ; — At tu conrlusas hircinis follihus auras 

Virgil, Gcory. iv., 170-2, Usque laborantes, dum Jcrrtim moUUtt 

Ac vduti lentis Cyclopes fulmina Massis ignis, Cf. Persius, Sat. v., v. 10-11, and 

(rluuiii properant, alii taurinis follibus Juvenal, Sat. vii., v. 111. 

"uras •• Vide figures on Plate iv. of the article, 

Afldj/iiuU ralduiilt/uc, Arch. Jour., xxvii, or p. 6 and 11 of 

And Acncul, viiL, 44'J-450, the reprint. 


furnace. The furnace is filled with charcoal, and a lighted 
coal being ilitroduced before the nozzle, the lire in the 
interior is soon kindled. As soon as this is accomplished, 
a small portion of the ore, previously moistened with 
water to prevent it from runniiiii' through the charcoal, 
but without any llux whatever, is laid on the top of the 
coals and covered with charcoal to fill up the furnace. In 
this manner ore and fuel are supplied, and the bellows are 
urged for three or four hours. When the process is 
stopped, and the temporary wall in front broken down, the 
bloom is removed with a pair of tongs from the bottom of 
the furnace."^ 

In his Crania Britannica^ Dr. Thurnam, speaking of 
the way in which the ancient Britons smelted tin, says : 
*' The ore, separated by washing, must have been mixed 
with fuel, and burnt on an open hearth or in a simple 
furnace, constructed of a few stones sunk a little in the 
ground, — a primitive bloomery, — differing little from such 
as until a late period were the only furnaces for the lead 
and iron furnaces of Derbyshire. As tin melts at 446°, no 
great draught of air, natural or by some primitive form of 
beUows, would be required to reduce it to the metallic 
state ; in which form the merchants purchased it and 
carried it into Gaul." 

Eonian smelting furnaces have been found all over the 
empire, in Britain, near Almeria in Granada, which was 
the Portus Magnus of the Eomans for their traffic with 
Italy and the East, in Italy and in Greece. Their type was 
very simple and very small, and those found in Attica, 
Spain, England, and Tuscany, whether for the extraction 
of lead, copper, iron, or tin, differ from those of modern 
times in little save size. De la Sauva^ere crives sketches 
of a series of brick ovens of Eoman origin found in some 
excavations near Marsal. They were for smelting copper, 
and present perhaps the first application of reverberatory 
ovens, in which the hearth and the laboratory are still un- 

How far coal was used by the ancients for the purpose 
of smelting cannot be very well determined. Dr. Bruce 
says : " There is no doubt that the Romans made use of 

' Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Mauu- "P. 101. 

factures, art. Stcd. -^ Vide Leger, Plate viii, N. 23-6. 


the mineral coal where beds of it were found in their 
vicinity."' Coals have been found in the Eoman station of 
Housesteads, and a cart-load of un])urnt coals was un- 
earthed amongst the Eoman remains at Eisiugham, while 
coal ashes were found at Walton House station and at 
Carvoran.- Indeed, "in nearly all the stations of the line," 
says Dr. Bruce, " the ashes of mineral fuel have been 
found, and in some a store of unconsumed coal." Some 
twenty bronze celts, which had apparently been attached 
to straight wooden handles, have been found in a Eoman 
coal-mine in Andalusia,^ and the Eomans undoubtedly 
came across coal in France, when cutting for their 
aqueducts near Eive-de-Gier and Frejus. The most 
extensive Eoman coal-mine in Britain mentioned by Dr. 
Bruce was near Sewingshields, at Grindon Lough. That 
the ancient Greeks were acquainted with stone coal is 
evident from the words of Theophrastus, an author who 
lived three hundred years before Christ {de Lapidibus, N. 

16) : ovQ oe KaXovcTiv evdvg avBpaKag twv opvrTOfxkvtsJV cia tyiv 
-vpaiav ii<Ti yewottg, EKKaiovrai oe Kai irvfjovvrai KaBaTnp oi 

avOpaKiQ . . , oIq Kal ot yaXKsig '^pwvTai. " The coal Com- 
monly so-called, which is dug out of the earth for man's 
use, is of an earthy (or stoney) nature ; it is kindled and 
burnt like coal (charcoal). Of this (stone) coal, workers 
in iron make use." Solinus has also been quoted for the 
use of stone-coal amongst the Greeks, and if the red-hot 
stones which, according to Pliny, were used by the Gauls 
for smelting copper, were nothing more than stone-coal, 
their efficacy would perhaps be rendered more intelligible 
to modern men of science. 

In May 1876 there was discovered in some copper 
mines, which seem to date from pre-Eoman times, at the 
village of Aljustrel, situated in Southern Portugal, between 
Ourique and Messejaman, a long Latin inscription, which 
seems to bring all at once the everyday work of a Eoman 
mine before our eyes.'* The text is engraved on both 

^ Jioman Wall, p. l\8. Mr. Wright says ''This inscription, which is on a 

coal has Vjeen ab\nidantly found among bronze tablet, eight to thirteen milli- 

thu fire-places of the hypocausts of the metres thick, seventy-two centimetres 

Roman Uriconiiun, atWroxeter, inShrop- high, and forty-three broad, has been 

nhire {Celt, Roman, and Saxon, p. 290). engraved and illustrated by Senhor 

'^ ih. pj). Ib3, 3:j'). Augusto Soromenho Pcreira, in La 

■' Mr. Yates in Proceedings of the Tabic il.c bronx, Lisbon, 1876, from 

Somcnxtsidrc Arch. Soc., vol. viii, p. 27. wliich I take this description. It was 


sides of a bronze tablet, some tliree feet long by two in 
width. The two inscriptions are not, however, different, 
])ut one and tli(^ same, (excepting some slight variations,) 
which is engraved on each side of the tal)let. Thongh, 
however, the bronze has suffered some mutilation, by which 
several letters are wanting in every line of the right hand 
side of the obverse, and on the left of the reverse, and it is 
furthermore broken at one end, still owing to the happy 
circumstance that the lines on one side contain more 
words than those on the other, so that there are several 
more lines on the reverse than there are on the opposite 
side ; the lines never begin on one side with the same 
words as on the other. Thus, in spite of mutilation, this 
accidental circumstance has preserved a pretty full copy 
of the whole inscription, though not of the whole law. 

To judge from the style, and from the character of the 
letters, this inscription must belong to the first century, 
and may be set down to the time between Vespasian and 
Domitian. On the left of the front of the tablet under the 
word CONDUCTORI may be seen the numeral III, from which 
we may conclude that the law styled locationis condiictionis, 
or the regulations to be observed within the territory be- 
longing to the mines of this district, was engraved on 
various tablets, of which this is the third. The district of 
a mine comprised all the population thereabouts, for what- 
ever purpose there settled. The territoriuin Cai'thac/ena? 
in Spain, an instance in point, was twelve leagues in 

The metalla here described as situated in the vicus or 
villa Vipascensis, under the conventus juridicus Pacensis^ 
were fiscal, that is to say, l:)elonging to the state, and 
yielded silver, copper, slate, sand or perhaps clay. All 
living in the neighbourhood were under the jurisdiction of 
the Procurator metallorum. The products of such mines 
as he was himself unable to attend to, he was empowered 
to let out to others, whether individuals, towns or com- 
panies. The chief stipulation or basis of concession was, 
that in the regulation of the mines the authority of the 
Procurator was henceforth to be replaced (barring some 

discovered by the Company de miner- taken to work anew these ancient cop- 
ation transtayante which had under- per mines. 


exceptions) by that of the contractor (conductor). The in- 
scription which has thus come to Ught is one of the sub- 
ordinate regulations. It is a locatio-conductio vectigalium, 
revum operarum et operis. The conductor on the one hand 
received the centesima auctumum, the capitidarium on the 
sale of cattle and slaves, the scriptura of those who worked 
the (TKbjpia [scaurarii), and of the potters [testai'ii), and the 
fines for contraventions. On the other hand he had the 
management of the public bath, and received the payment 
made by the bathers : but it was enjoined him under 
severe penalties to have the bath always in readiness, and 
to provide all requisites at his own expense. At the ex- 
piry of his office [conductione peracta) he was bound to 
leave the building in the same state as he received it, save 
as regards the damage caused in course of time by the 
effects of the weather. 

In the instance of these mines the farming of the state 
revenues was made over to a company, for the conductor 
had a socius and an actor., sive syndacus per quern., quod 
cum minidis agi jierique oporteat, agatur, fiat. As we learn 
from Pliny, other mines in Spain, as the tin mines of Sisapo, 
the metallum Santarense and the Antonianum ^hoXh in An- 
dalusia, were in his day all worked by commercial com- 
panies, which rented them at fixed sums levied by the 
revenue officers. These conductores or private contractors 
who held mines under an Imperial Procurator must not 
be confounded with the Publicani who farmed mines un- 
der the Censores. The Publicani (properly so called) were 
only collectors of revenue ; the condaciores were agents 
who themselves administered and worked the mines. Thus 
the contract for the Vipascan mine comprised the letting 
of the bath, of the mines, of trades, of purveying the 
necessaries of life, with the power of sub-letting, as 
the tablet distinctly says. 

It may give some idea of the variety of things provided 
for the government of this mining district by this re- 
gulation, emanating from the Emperor, to whom the 
supreme dominion of the mine belonged, if I set down the 
divisions of the law which have remained to us. They 
are arranged in the following order : — 

1. Centesimce argentarice stipidationis — one per cent, 
levied on all sales. 


2. Scripturce prceconii — the one or two per cent, or poll 

tax paid to the public crier at all sales by 

3. JMinei fruendi — on the use of the public baths. 

4. Sutrini, of shoemakers — no one can mend shoes 

except by renting the trade from the contractor. 

5. Tonstrini, of l^arbers — no one can shave another, 

except servants their masters, except by renting 
the office from the contractor. 

6. Tahernarum fulloniarum — fullers' booths — no one 

can clean garments except by paying a rent to 
the contractor. 

7. ScripturcB scaur ariorum et testariorum — on the 

sums to be paid by those who wish to break, 
sort, or wash silver and copper ore within the 

8. Ludi magistri, or schoolmasters — they are freed 

from all taxes. 

9. Usurjiationis puteorum sive jnttaciariim — those who 

by means of a notice affixed thereto appropriated 
pits of mineral had to pay so much for each 
man employed in the work. 
The rubric concerning the public schoolmaster has given 
De Vit' a clue to the farther settlement of the date of this 
inscription. It is here provided that a schoolmaster for 
the children of this mining population shall be paid a 
salary from the public treasury. Now we know from 
Suetonius,- that the Emperor Vespasian was the first 
to establish a public stipend for the Latin and Greek 
teachers of rhetoric, while before that time there were 
none but private masters. This decree was issued, it is 
supposed, A.D. 74. But, as S. Jerome testifies in his 
chronicle, Quintilian was the first to i;eceive a state salary 
for teaching, a.d. 88. This rhetorician, however, had 
been brought to Eome by Galba, a.d. 68. As in the 
provinces, therefore, this law will have been carried out 
some time after it was put in force in the capital of the 
Empire, the regulations under consideration may with great 

• Opere varie, vol. vi., p. 418. non et artifices, Coae Veneris, item Colossi 

'■^ Im/enia et artes mcixi me fovit : primus refcctorem, insi{/ni Congiario iitai/naque 

e fisco latinis graecisque rhetoribus annua mcrcedc doncivit (Suet. Vit(( Vcsptmi/nu. 

centcnn constituit : pracstantes poctas, nee c. 18). 



probability be attributed to Domitian, about the end of the 
first century. 

Not the least interesting fact connected with the ac- 
cidental discovery in modern times of this record of by- 
gone da}'s, is the bringing to our knowledge of some Latin 
terms hitherto unknown to us, which have now, therefore, to 
be inserted in our dictionaries. Such words are lausice, 
jnttariarium, recisamen, rutramen^ scaurarius, testarius, 
uhertumhus and ostilis. All these words have been more 
or less diffusely discussed and interpreted,' with the ex- 
ception of uhertumhus and ostilis. The former of these 
two words has not as yet been properly deciphered ; the 
latter has been the occasion of much conjecture, and as it 
is connected with the matter of fuel supplied to a Eoman 
furnace, may form a fitting conclusion to the present 

The word ostilis occurs under the rubric Balinei 
fruendi, in the twenty-ninth line on the front of the tablet, 
and in the twentieth line of the back, and can be very 
clearly read on both sides. The passage in which it occurs, 
is as follows : — 


In these two lines we have two words hitherto unknown, 
recisamen and ostilis. The learned editor of the new Italian 
edition of Forcellini's Latin Dictionar}^, Professor De Vit, 
suggests the following as the only plausible reading : "The 
contractor is forbidden to sell wood, except such pieces of 
the branches of trees which shall not be suitable for mak- 
ing spears at some future time." 

It must be borne in mind that the contractor is bound 
to have at all times a store of wood for the heating of the 
public bath, sufficient to last for a given numl^er of da}'s, 
probably thirty. If he sells any wood fit for the military 
purpose mentioned above, or any wood except small fuel, 
the contractor will be liable to a heavy fine, viz., for every 
cart-load thus taken away, 100 sesterces. 

We must observe that ostilis is here considered equiva- 

' See the Ephemeris Epigraph lea, vol. original, but are admitted on all hands as 
iji, faflc. 3, Romac, 1877. the most evident reading. 

* The words in italica are defaced in the 


lent to astilis or luistilis} The absence of the asph'ate 
creates no difficuhy, and Varro himself says asta is so 
called quod astans ferri solet.- As for the o instead of an 
a there are many instances given by De Vit, as where 
vocatio stands for vacatio, vacua for vacua, vocivae for 
vacivae, voleo for valeo, etc., etc. 

That special provision should be made to keep the 
vast and scattered Eoman army well provided with 
wood for spears and javelins, is not extraordinary. 
The spears used by the different divisions of the 
Imperial forces varied greatly in form, but their 
number must have been very considerable. The Caesarian 
javelin or jtilum wsls nearly seven feet in length, the iron 
liead and the wooden shaft being each four and a half feet 
or three cubits long, the former extending half-way down 
the shaft. But besides the javelin carried by the Eoman 
luifitati and principes, we find in vase-painting that there 
were other spears from only two to three feet long, made 
not for thrusting with, but for throwing. In these latter 
the iron part is equal to one third of the entire length. 

Polybius says, that each soldier of the three great 
divisions of a Eoman legion carried two long javelins, 
which gave the name jAlani to the division of the Eoman 
army by which they were used. The first line of the Eo- 
man legion, called the l/astati, consisting of youths in the 
first bloom of manhood, had for their offensive weapons, a 
sword and a heavy javelin; 1)ut one- third of their number 
were more lightly armed with a spear [hasta), and a light 
javelin (gaesa). 

This first line of Ilastati, and the second line of Frin- 
cipes (men in the full vigour of life), amounting together 
in each legion to thirty maniples, each composed of sixty 
privates, formed what were called the Antepilani? Next 
came the Triarii, or veterans, who, in their triple ranks, 
equal altogether at one time to each of the two former 

^ Hiibner thinks ostilis stands for ustUis, vii, 1, Nomen autem Jiastn ab astu sum- 

and may be derived from irrere, to burn psit, undo et astutia, cf. other instances of 

(Ephem.Epigi-aph., 1. c. p. 176, and C./.Z-., the absence of the h in Orelli, n. 3452, 

vol. iii,p. 163 — 186.) HerrFlach derives the and in Henzen's Supp. ib. n. 76747. 

word from ostilum, a mediixival Latin ^Yide Smith's I)i<i. of Anti(juities, :\U(\ 

term, whence is derived the modern (iuhl and Koner's Z<i/'c o/i/fc ilrccks and 

French outil, iittiol or instrument. Romans, p. 241-2. 

" 5, LL., 54 ^ 115, Cf. Isidore, 18 Orig. 


di\-isioiis of the Eoinan legion, were armed also with the 
javelin, and were hence called simply Pilani. 

Of the Peltastai in Xenophon's army we read that they 
carried live shorter and one longer javelin. So the rest 
of the Eoman legion, l)esides hows, slings and swords, 
carried each seven javelins' or spears with slender points, 
like arrows, so that when thrown they bent and could not be 
easily returned by the enemy. 

As for the auxiliary forces of the Eoman empire they 
were, it is supposed, armed in the same way as the regular 
troops. That the Eoman cavalry made use of the javehn, 
appears from the book written l3y Pliny De Jaculatione 

The necessity for sucii enormous numbers of javelins 
and spears would naturally call for forethought on 
the part of governors scattered throughout the Provinces, 
and for measures that would provide a sufficient supply 
for regular armaments and for every emergency. Hence 
it is not surprising to read in the work of Vegetius on 
Military Affairs, that besides quantities of bitumen, sul- 
phur, li({uid pitch and incendiar}^ oils, a sufficient quantity 
of wood must be laid up amongst the military stores, 
which the Eoman soldiers, no doubt, during the long winter 
hours of forced inactivity, would have time to fashion into 
shape before the next campaign began. " The magazines," 
he says, "must be stored with iron, steel and coals, to make 
arms, together ivith wood projjer for sjiears"^ 

The injunction then that the bath-keeper in a Portu- 
guese mining district, during the reign of Domitian, should, 
in sorting his wood, have an eye to such pieces of timber 
as were of the proper length, strength and shape, to serve 
as shafts for spears in the never ceasing wars of that 
period, seems in itself far from improbable, though 
chance alone has, as in many other instances, but recently 
brought this particularity of a distant provincial's work-a 
-day life to our knowledge. If any confirmation were 
needed, it might besought for in tlie Geograpln' of Strabo, 
who tells us that in the region inhabited by the Salassi in 

'Knniiirf»iiy«of thesu latter /Jci/v(7-it, if iiiit - Std ct nos dixi'inis in (ibiv dcjaciUu' 

iif tlm J/asifiti ]n-<i]»jr lionc a/ucsti'i^.ii.J.vm.c.ab, ^'6) 

JJusluU e^itinjuiU kusUis, Jil/crrcun imbcr. ' Bk. iv. ch. 8. 


northern Italy, there were some gold mines, which had 
from ancient times been worked by themselves for their 
own profit. They too had fuel to provide for the smelt- 
ing furnaces, and had spears to make for their warfai-ing 
days out of the wood thus l)rought to theii- doors. When, 
then, the Koman general Valerius Messala came to pass 
tlie winter amongst them, it is recorded that he bought 
from these hardy and turbulent mountaineers not only 
wood for firing, but also wood to serve for spears, and for 
the gymnastic exercises of his soldiers. 

M.e(T(TaXag oe wXriaiov avnov (SaXaao'wv) "^ei/naoeviov Tijxiiv 
6,vX(ov KaTi(iaXe rwv rt KavaifXMv Kai tiov ttteXeivwv a/coiTKT/tarwv 
Kai riov yviLivaariKiov [I. IV., C. VI, §7). 

The gold mines in the hands of the Salassi were seized 
by the Consul Appius Claudius Pulcher in the year of 
Eome, 615. It may have been on this occasion that the 
Senate made a decree against these mines, as is mentioned 
by Pliny. 

It may be useful, in conclusion, to gather into a few 
sentences a sunnnary of what has been said on the subject 
of ancient mines, upon which we possess no treatise 
b}'" any ancient author, nor any article or book in the 
English language with which I am acquainted, in which 
the subject is treated in a consecutive manner, with the 
one exception of Boeckh's Dissertation on the Silver 
Mines of Laurium. 

There are two distinct ways in which State mines were 
worked by the ancient Eomans. Either they were let by 
the Eoman revenue-officers to the Publicani, or they were 
kept in the hands of the State, and were handed over to a 
Procurator. In the first case the Publicani themselves 
undertook to pay the revenue a fixed sum for the mines 
they farmed, while they themselves exacted such taxes 
from the owners or workers of those mines as to leave 
themselves a margin of profit for their trouble. In the 
second case, the Imperial Procurators either worked the 
mines themselves at the risk and profit of their masters, 
or they let them out to companies or individuals, who 

* fjsi quoque Valeria Messtilae, duni hastilia praehuerunt. (Freiiishemii snpple- 
vicinis locis aycbat, non nisi pretio acccpto, munta in locum, Lib. cxxxi, Liviuni). 
Ugna ad focum, et ad exercitationes ulmea 


paid them a certain rent fixed in proportion to the number 
of men employed in them. 

The Procurator, if he worked tlie mine himself, had 
under him : (1) a slave who acted as director of the work — 
senuis proactor ])rocaratoris\ (2) a foreman whose office it was 
to test and pass the work done (the formula was prohante 
N. N.) ; (8) an engineer who had charge of the mechanical 
contrivances [inachinator). If the Procurator let the work 
of the mine out to others, it was either to a single 
contractor, or to a company, who before the law had the 
status of Publicani, and were often given that name. The 
Publicani, however, properly so-called, were mere tax- 
collectors ; the former were real administrators of the 

In either case, however, that is, whether the Procurator 
himself worked, or whether he let out the mine, he had all 
the accounts of the commercial enterprise to keep in an 
office established for that purpose. In it the Procurator 
had under him a clerk or register-keeper [commentariensis)^ 
a steward or disbursar {dispensator), a collector or caster 
of accounts {tabular his) ^ and a treasurer {arcarms). 

Officers and soldiers were stationed to guard the mine 
and keep order amongst the workmen. For this purpose, 
either a tribune, a centurion, or a decurio was detached 
from his regular corps, and stationed in the mining dis- 
trict, either in a position of independence, or under the 
command of the Procurator. 

The workmen were either common slaves, hired free- 
men, soldiers, or convicts and prisoners. During the age 
of persecution, Cliristians were sent in thousands to the 
copper mines of Palestine, and to the various mineral or 
stone mines in Cilicia, the Thebaid and Cyprus, as after 
the taking of Jerusalem the captive Jews were in part 
condemned to work in the mines and quarries of Egypt. 
These poor prisoners, the confessors of the Faith, were all, 
like ordinary criminals, on being condemned to the mines, 
first 'beaten with rods. Wliile at work, their feet were 
kept in irons, they had to sleep on the bare ground, they 
were pinched in food, deprived of tlie use of the bath, and 
were almost naked. In the subterranean mines each 
workman bore a little lamp, fixed to his forehead, to guide 
his footsteps, and serve as a signal to others, wliile the 


air and stench in these ill-ventilated caverns was so great 
that the ill-treated labourers often swooned away. Pliny 
says how in his day these poor creatures were kept hard 
at work da}' and nii;'ht, many of them spendinn- whole 
months underground without ever seeing tlie daylight, for 
the burdens they carried on their backs they handed over to 
others, so that the last only of the file came near the 
mouth of the pit.^ 

It may not be uninteresting to conclude with an eloquent 
passage from one of the letters written by S. Cyprian, the 
great African Bishop of the third century, in which many 
of these particulars are set forth. It is inscribed to Neme- 
sianus, Felix, and other seven of his fellow-Bishops, likewise 
to his fellow-Presbyters and Deacons, and the rest of the 
brethren in the mines. ^ 

" But that, being first grievously beaten and stricken 
down with clubs, ye, by sufferings of that kind, entered 
upon the glorious beginnings of your confession, is a thing 
no wise to be abhorred by us. For a Christian body 
shrinks not at clubs, whose whole hope is in The Wood... 

And what wonder, that, being vessels of gold and 

silver, ye have been consigned to the mines, that is, the 
home of gold and silver, except that now the nature of 
mines is changed, and places which before were wont to 
3'^ield gold and silver, have begun to receive them. The}^ 
have also put fetters on your feet, and have bound with 
shameful bonds the blessed members and the temples of 
God ; as though the spirit also were l)ound with the body, 

or your gold could be tainted by the contact of iron 

feet, with fetters and cross-bars impeded for a 

while, but quickly in a glorious course to speed to Christ! 
Let envious or malignant cruelty hold you here as long as 
it will, with its bonds and fetters ; soon will ye from earth 
and from these sufferings come to the Kingdom of Heaven. 
In mines the body is not cherished by couch and pillows ; 
but cherished it is by the refreshment and consolation of 
Christ. On the ground lieth the toil-worn frame, but no 
punishment it is to lie down with Christ. Squalid, un- 
])athed, are the limbs disfigured with filth and foulness ; 
l)ut that is spiritually cleansed within, which without is in 

' N. H. xxxiii. 21. - Epistle Ixxvi, Oxford Trauslatiou, p. 305. 


tlie flesh defiled. Scanty is bread there ; yet not by bread 
alone doth nuiii live, but bif the word of God. Shivermg, ye 
have no clothing ; but whoso is clad with Christ is abun- 
dantly clothed and adorned. Rough is the hair of your 
hali-shorn heads [whereby they were marked as slaves] ; 
but since the head, of the man is Christy any thing must 
needs become that head, which is illustrious for the Name 
of Christ. All this deformity, detestable and foul in the 
eyes of the Gentiles, with what splendour will it be recom- 
pensed I This brief suffering in time, for what a reward 
will it be exchano-ed of brio^ht and eternal aiory, when ac- 
cordmg to the saying of the blessed Apostle, the Lord shall 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto His 
glorious body ! " 



There attaches to all things which excite our human 
interest a distinct character, and it is the object of criti- 
cism to detach this distinct character from overlying 
details. I wish to bring into prominence the ]3road features 
of historical interest belonging to this district, and to mark 
out as clearly as may be its individual character. A 
district may be studied and examined in much the same 
way as a great writer. It has its peculiar charms, its 
special lessons, a style and mode of expression distinctively 
its own. It has its epochs and its transitions, through 
which it passes without losing its individuality. 

In some cases these distinguishing features of local 
history are hard to disentangle and express with clearness. 
But there is no great difficulty in the case of Northumber- 
land. It possesses distinctive features which give it a 
special character, stamped alike on all the monumental 
records of the past, on all the lingering survivals of old 
customs and institutions, on all that is racy in the 
life and character of its people. It is above all things a 
" Border Land." 

I must own to a desire for a fuller recognition of the 
fact that English history is at the bottom a provincial 
history. This truth is chiefly left to be exhiljited by 
novelists and poets. The historian and the archaaologist 
investigate with care the separate origins of the early 
kingdoms, the steps by which they came under the over- 
lordship of the West Saxon kings, and their incorporation 
into a consolidated kingdom under the Norman successors 

' Read at the Annual Meeting of the appeared in ]\Iacniillan's JIagazine foi- 

Archaeological Institute at Newcastle, October 1884, but by Messrs. MaL-niillan's 

August 5, 1884, at the opening of the courtesy is here reprinted, with the 

Historical Section. The text of this paper author's unpublished appendices. 



of the West Saxon line. But at this point they generally 
cease their inquiries. The history of the central kingdom, 
the progress of the central administration, become so 
important and so full of interest that they absorb all else. 
It is true that curious customs are noted by the archseo- 
logist, and that particular institutions force themselves 
into notice. But the vigorous undercurrent of a strong 
provincial life in different parts of England is seldom 
seriously considered by historians. Yet the moment that 
English life is approached from the imaginative side, it is 
the strong provincial life that attracts attention. Our 
great novels are not English but provincial. Our best 
known types of character are developed within distinct 
areas, and owe their expressiveness to local circumstances. 
Squire Western, Job Barton, Mrs. Poyser, Andrew Fair- 
service, Tennyson's Northern Farmer, all live amid definite 
surroundings, and all are racy of the soil which bore them. 
I am sure that there is no better service to be rendered 
by your society to historical study than an attempt to 
bring the characteristic features of different parts of 
England into due prominence. Archaeology has done 
much for history in the past. It has gathered evidence 
ofttimes when written records are silent. It has pieced 
together fragments of the life of days of old when 
the human voice was still inaudible. It has settled dis- 
puted points by appeals to the eye on which there could 
be no doubt. In archaeology, as in all other sciences, there 
are those who say that almost all has been done that can 
be done. The records of stones have been ransacked, 
explored, classified, and interpreted. Even if this were 
so, which is scarcely the case, there remain innumerable 
traces of the past, still unrecognised and unsuspected. 
Local character, habits, institutions, modes of thought 
and observation, are all tlie result of a long process, 
differing in different parts of England. The}^ are onh' to 
be seen and understood by a sympathetic searcher and 
observer who looks upon each part of England in the light 
of its past, who sees that past, not only in ancient buildings, 
here and there, but on the whole face of the land, and in 
the hearts and lives of its inhabitants. I admit that this 
is no easy task. I admit that the resuUs of such inquiry 
must at first be very hypothetical, and its conclusion 


tentative. But I think that the inc^uiry is well worth 
pursuing, and it must be pursued speedily, if at all. The 
present century has seen an enormous change pass over 
the whole of England. Local customs, local peculiarities, 
even local dialects are rapidly passing away. Men no 
longer live on contentedly in the houses where their 
fathers lived before them. I said that English history 
had been provincial. It is rapidly ceasing to be so. 
Railways work every year unnoticed migrations of 
peoples multitudinous beyond the host of Ida the Elame- 
bearer. School inspectors demand from the children 
throughout the land uniform knowledge, uniform ideas, 
as much as may be, uniform pronunciation. Our old 
provincial character is doomed to destruction. Unless its 
remnants are carefully gathered, the key will be lost to 
much that will be of growing interest to the antiquarian. 

Of this provincial history, no part of England possesses 
clearer traces than does Northumberland. It has always 
held the same position in English history from its very 
beginning. It has always been a Borderland. It is true 
that the Border has varied in extent ; but whether it were 
great or small Northumberland has always been within it, 
and has generally formed its chiefest part. But we are 
met at the outset of our inquiry by the question, How 
came there to be a Borderland at all ? The answer to 
this question brings into prominence a part of English 
history which it is too much the fashion to neglect. The 
northern Borderland was the creation of the Romans, who 
mapped it out with accuracy and defined its limits. If I 
were asked, What permanent results were left of the 
Roman occupation of Britain ? I should answer that they 
marked out the territory between the Solway and the Clyde 
on the west, and the Tyne and the Forth on the east, to 
be a land of contention and debate, and that it remained 
with the character they impressed upon it down to the 
middle of last century. 

If we were so careful of our early history as are some 
folk, we would erect upon the wilds of Redeswire a 
statue of C. Julius Agricola as the founder of our Border 
State, the originator of the elaborate constitution contained 
in the Leges Marchiarum and other such like documents. 
It was Agricola who consolidated the Roman province in 


Britain, and first faced the difficulties of determining its 
limits. We know how in his first campaign he conquered 
the Ordovices and reduced the Isle of Mona. In his 
second campaign he brought into subjection the tribes 
of the western coast between the Dee and the Solway. 
He was careful to make good every step of his 
way, and keep open his communications. The trees 
felf before the axe of the legionary, and a rude but 
sufficient road was opened. Every night the Eoman 
camp was occupied in some secure position, every day 
chronicled a steady advance of the invader. Permanent 
forts were raised in advantageous spots, and Agricola 
united to the fire of a general the sagacity of an explorer. 
From the Solway his forts most probably ran along the 
Eden and the Irthing to the Tyne. He found a narrow 
neck of land which he could occupy with ease, and by 
holding it secure his retreat. Then in his third campaign 
he advanced against " new peoples," tribes who as yet 
had not felt the arms of Eome. He penetrated, it would 
seem, to the Tay, and then again paused to secure the 
territory which he had acquired. Again he occupied a 
narrow neck of land between the Clyde and the Forth. 
This was commanded by forts "so that the foe," says Tacitus, 
" were driven almost into another island." I need not 
follow Agricola's course of conquest to the Grampian 
hills, nor his voyage of circumnavigation, nor his projected 
reduction of Ireland. Agricola's career came to an end, 
and with it came to an end any plan for extending Eome's 
sway over the whole of the British Tsles. The only 
question which was considered by his successors was 
the boundary of the Eoman province. Should they hold 
the northern or the southern line of forts by which 
Agricola had secured his conquests for the time ? Eome's 
statesmanship and Eome's generalship never again con- 
tenq)lated the execution of Agricola's design of a complete 
conquest. For a time opinions wavered which boundary 
to choose. At length the line of forts along the Tyne 
and the Irthing was selected to mark the region south of 
which the " peace of Rome" was to be carefully maintained. 
The mighty rampart, which Dr. Bruce has taught us to call 
tjie wall of Hadrian, was erected as a majestic symbol of 
the [)ernianence of Eoman sway, as a dividing line between 


civilisation and barbarism. But this was done without 
prejudice to the future extension of the Eoman ocxupatiou 
to Agricola's farther Hue of forts. The Eoman province 
was to stretch in full security as far as the Tyne and the 
Solway. Rome's influence was to be felt as far as the 
Clyde and the Forth. Two great Roman roads, each with 
several branches, passed northwards througli the wall. 
Watling Street, with its supporting stations of Habitancum 
and Bremenium, traversed this county. The whole of 
Northumberland and the Scottish Lowlands are covered 
with traces of Roman and British camps, which tell clearly 
enough the tale of Border warfare in the earliest days of 
our history. They tell of a long period of constant 
struggle, of troops advancing and retreating, of a territory 
liekf with difficulty, of perpetual alternations of fortune. 
In the days of the Roman occupation the Border wears its 
distinctive features. Its future history is a changing 
repetition of the same details. 

But though we may generally gather that this was the 
history of the Roman Border many puzzling questions 
remain. Wliy did the Romans fix their boundary where 
they did? The military reason of obtaining a narrow 
tract of land to fortify is no doubt a strong one. But the 
Romans were a practical people and wished to make 
their province of Britain a profitable possession. It may 
be that the valley of the Tyne was the most northern point 
where they saw a prospect of making agriculture imme- 
diately remunerative.^ By the Tyne valley they established 
their boundary, and only kept such a hold of the country 
to the north CtS might help to secure the Tyne valley from 
invasion. It proved to be a difficult and in the end an 
impossible task. The sturdy tribes of the north learned 
to value at its true worth the intolerable boon of Roman 

^ I incline to think that the possession home. North of York the traces of Roman 
of the Tyne valley was more important remains are all of a mihtary character ; 
to the Romans than is generally recog- and signs of permanent civil occui^ation 
nised. At the time of the Roman inva- are only found in the immediate neigh - 
siun the valley of the Tyne was probably bourhood of the Wall. The importance 
theonlycorn-i^rolucing land of any extent of the land by the Tyne is shown in the 
between York and the Tweed. In early gi-ants made to the great barons of the 
times a great part of this district would Norman times. The Umfravilles who 
be covered by trees and scrub, with guarded Redesdale had the barony of 
narrow strips of fertile land in the deep Prudhoe to give a revenue. The ^lerlays, 
river valleys. Even where stretches of whose land ran uj) to Elsdon and Ruth- 
alluvial land broadened out, much of it bury, had Heddon on the wall, Benton, 
was marsh, in which the beaver found a KLillingworth and Shields. 


civilization, the colonist, the tribute and the tithe corn. 
In their moorland forts they resisted to the utmost. 
Constant warfare increased their discipline and power of 
combination. The growing wealth of the province offered 
a richer prize to their rapacity. Ever watchful for an 
opportunity they broke through the line of the wall and 
swept hke sl storm-cloud over the southern fields. Much, 
ver}' much, has been done in explaining tlie Eoman wall 
as illustrative of the life of the Eomans. Something 
remains to be done in studying it as illustrating those 
whom it was built to repel. I could conceive it possible 
that an arcliJEologist who was skilled in military science, 
and had the power of reproducing in his mind the local 
features of a bygone time — that one so gifted might make 
a military survey of the country round the Wall which 
might be full of suggestiveness for a picture of British 
life. I must own that the Wall is to me more interesting 
for the impression which it gives of the power of the 
Britons than of the mightiness of Eome. We know Eome's 
greatness from many other memorials. We know the 
bravery of the Britons only by the reluctant testimony of 
their enemies. 

As we muse upon the ruins of Borcovicus another 
question arises before us. How came it that the men 
who so stubljornly resisted the massive legionaries of 
Eome marching against them in their thousands, gave 
way before the onslaughts of the Angles who came in 
small bands in their boats ? It would seem that the need 
of resistance to Eome had called into being a premature 
organisation, a reckless patriotism, which produced a rapid 
reaction and degeneracy. The very greatness of Eome's 
power warned the Britons of their danger. Eome's 
advance was steady and threatened to spread northwards 
over the land. The Ambles who settled alon"" the east 
coast and passed up the river valleys did not awaken the 
same dread, or call out the same feeling of national danger. 
But the insidious progress of the colonists was more deadly 
than the warlike advance of the invader. Little by little 
the Britons were thrust into the hill country of the west. 
Tlie line of the coast and the river valleys were gradually 
occupied ])y tlie clearings of the Angles. The land was 
still a Border land, but the line of the Border no longer 



ran from north to south, but from east to west. When Ida, 
whom the fearful Britons called the Flame])earer, combined 
into a kingdom the scattered settlements of a common folk 
it was in the Eoman Border land that those settlements 
began. They reached from the Tweed valley northwards 
and southwards, till Ida occupied the rock of Bamburgh 
as a central point, and thence extended his domain to the 

The question of the Border between Briton and Angle, 
between east and west, was long contended and with 
varying results. The Britons on their part again united 
into the kingdom of Strathclyde, north of which was the 
Scottish kingdom of Dalriada. I will not impose upon 
your time and patience by tracing the variations of this 
western boundary. It will be enough to recall a few 
points of interest in the struggle. In 603 the combined 
army of Britons and Scots advanced to attack ^thelfrith's 
Northumbrian kingdom. They entered the vale of the 
Liddell, whence one pass leads into the valley of the 
Teviot and the Tweed, while another leads into the North 
Tyne. Here at a spot which Bede calls Doegsastan, a 
name still preserved in Dawstaneburn and Dawstanerig, 
was fought a battle which determined for many years 
the security of the Northumbrian Border. " From that 
time," says Bede, triumphantly, " no Scot king dared to 
come into Britain to war with the English to this day." 
The Angles recognised on this spot the weakness of their 
boundary, and copied the example of Eome. The remains 
of a huge earthen rampart, known as the Catrail, may still 
be traced along the wild moorland, hard by the spot 
where Doegsastan had run with blood. 

I recall this event because it is a definite mark of an 
important point in our provincial history. The boundary 
from east to west led to the severance of Cumbria from 
Northumbria. The English desired only to secure, not to 
extend, their dominion westward. They weakened the 
kingdom of Strathclyde by driving a wedge of settlers into 
the tableland which lay in its midst. They penetrated 
along the valley of the Irthing, along the Maiden Way, 
into the central plain, which gained from them the name 
of Inglewood ; but they left the mountainous district to 
the Britons. 


I need not recall the great days of the Northumbrian 
kingdom, the heroic times of early Christianity, when 
the lamp of civilisation burnt brightly in the Columbite 
monastery of Lindisfarne, and was reflected from the royal 
house of Bamburgh. This period of greatness, though of 
immense importance to English history, is unfortunately 
only an episode in the history of this district as a whole. 
Yet there is no spot in England more fitted to awaken a 
deep sense of gratitude to the past than is the land which 
lies rolled beneath the Castle of Bamburgh. No works of 
man have effaced the traces of the past. The rocks remain 
amid the surging of the waves, as when Cuthbert heard 
amongst them the wails of men's souls in the eternal 
conflict between good and evil. The village clusters for 
protection at the foot of the royal castle, much as it did 
when it was fired by Penda's host. The sloping uplands 
are dotted by scattered farms, which still continue to mark 
the progressive clearings of the English settlers. The 
ruins of the monastery of Lindisfarne still hide themselves 
behind the sheltering promontory of rock that they may 
escape the eye of the heathen pirate who swept the 
northern seas. There is no place which tells so clearly 
the story of the making of England. 

I pass by the days of the Northumbrian supremacy 
which ended with Egfrith's defeat at Nechtansmere, where 
the Pictish kino- avenged the slauo;hter of Doesfsastan. 
" From this time," says Bede, " the hopes and strength 
of the kino'dom of the English besan to ebb." The Nor- 
thumbrian kingdom still pursued its career of literary 
and ecclesiastical activity at Jarrow, Wearmouth, and 
Streoneshalh. It did not pass away till it had produced 
an historian of its greatness. But its boundaries north 
and west were ill-secured. Its premature progress gave 
way to social and political disorganisation. The long 
black ships of the Danish pirates spread ruin amidst the 
numerous monastic houses that had grown up along the 
eastern coast. The Scots of Dalriada had established 
their supremacy over the Picts, and a strong Scottish 
power ravaged the district between the Forth and Tweed. 
But Scots and English alike soon fell before the arms of 
the Danes who came as invaders, and concjuered and 
settled as they would. Churches and monasteries were 


especially hateful to the heathen Danes. Their buildin<,^s 
were burnt, their treasures were scattered, their liljraries 
were destroyed. The work of Benedict Biscop, of Wilfrid 
and Bede, was all undone. The civilisation of Northunibria 
was well-nigh swept away. Only round the relics of the 
saintly Outlibert a little liand of tremljling monks still 
held together, and wandered from place to place, kept 
steadfast by their faith that Cuthbert would not forsake 
them. It was the West Saxon Alfred who checked the 
career of Danish conquest; it was his wisdom that pre- 
pared a way whereby the Danes ceased to be formidable 
and l)ecame a new but not alien element of English life. 

The Danish settlement had little effect on the northern 
part of the Northumbrian kingdom. The Danes chose 
Deira, not Bernicia ; their traces are found in Yorkshire, 
not in Northumberland. Their incorporation into English 
civilisation, and the limits of their settlement in Northum- 
bria, are alike illustrated by the story of Guthred. To 
escape a civil war amongst themselves the Danish host 
listened to the counsels of Alfred, aided by Eadred, the 
prior of the wandering monks of Lindisfarne. Eadred 
counselled them to choose as their king Guthred, a young- 
man of the royal blood, who had been sold as a slave to a 
widow woman at Whittingham. Guthred, grateful for 
St. Cuthbert's aid, settled his brethren at Cuncachester, 
now Chester-le-Street, and gave as the patrimony of St. 
Cuthbert the land between the Tyne and the Tees, with 
privilege of sanctuary. This was the beginning of another 
step in our provincial history. It was the origin of what 
was known till very recent times as the Bishopric. It was 
the foundation of the authority of the Prince-Bishops of 
Durham. It marks the cause which severed the county 
of Durham from the county of Northumberland. 

The Danish kingdom in Deira ran its course, and in due 
time submitted to the Lords of the West Saxon king. 
In Bernicia, meanwhile, members of the old royal house 
were allowed to rule over their devastated lands, for 
which they paid tribute to their Danisli lords. When the 
Danes made submission to Eadward the Elder the men of 
Bernicia submitted likewise. But the men of the north 
were unruly subjects, and were hard to reduce into 
harmony with the men of the South. Edmund and Eadred 



both strove to make a peaceful settlement of their 
northern frontier. Edmund gave Cumberland to Malcolm, 
King of the Scots, on condition that he should be his 
" feUow-worker by land and sea." He wished to show- 
that there need be no collision of interest between England 
and Scotland. It was a question for decision on grounds 
of expedienc}^ how order could best be kept in tlie doubt- 
ful portions of Northumbria and Strathclyde. Edmund 
handed over this responsibility, as far as Cumberland was 
concerned, to the Scottish king, and the plan succeeded. 
In later days William Eufus reclaimed the district south 
of the Solway, and so fixed the definite boundaries of the 
English kingdom on the western side. Eadred had still 
to face the difliculty of dealing with Northumbrian inde- 
pendence, which had degenerated into anarchy and 
disorder. The last king was driven out, and an earl was 
set to rule in his stead ; but so strong was local feeling 
that the earl was chosen from the old house of the lords 
of Bamliurgh. Eadred's successor Edgar ventured a step 
farther, and divided this great earldom into two. More- 
over he followed Edmund's example of friendly dealings 
with the Scottish king. The land north of the Tweed was 
of little value to the English. Lothian was ceded to the 
Scottish king, most prol3a])ly by Edgar, though it was 
afterwards recovered, but finally ceded in 1016. 

The hopes of Edgar that Northumberland would settle 
into peace and order were destroyed by the renewed 
invasion of the Noi'thmen. Again all was in confusion. 
Again the terrified monks bore off St. Cuthbert's l)ody 
that they might save it from sacrilege. Their wanderings 
were miraculously stayed, so goes the legend, upon a 
hill- top amid the waving woods that clad a l)old pro- 
montory round which flowed the waters of the Wear. 
This hill-top of Dunholm was chosen as the site on which 
rose the mighty minster that holds St. Cuthbert's shrine. 
The saint had left the bleaker regions further north which 
he had loved so well. The outward signs of devotion ibr 
his memory were not to gather round the scenes of his 
labours. The chief centre of ecclesiastical civilisation 
was henceforth fixed far away from ]5amlnirgh, on a spot 
which had no associations of the old days of Northumbria's 
greatness. This northern district was abandoncnl by its 


patron saint, as though a destined theatre for ads of 
lawh\ssness and deeds of blood. 

The lawlessness and bai'barism of Northuml^xn-land in 
(liese days we know from the history of its earls. Uhtred, 
who sprang from the old line of the lords of Bamburgh, 
covenanted, as a condition of his marriage with a citizen's 
daughter, to espouse the blood feud of his father-in-law 
and slay for him his enemy. Though the marriage was 
broken oil' and the covenant was unfulfdled, the enemy 
who had been threatened bided his time, and slew Ulitred 
in the presence of King Cnut. The feud was carried on 
l)y Uhtred's son, who slew his father's slayer, and was 
himself pursued in turn. The two foes grew weary of 
their lives, spent in perpetual dread; they were reconciled, 
and undertook together a pilgrimage to Eome. But the 
sea was tempestuous, and they shrank before the voyage. 
They agreed to dispense with the solemn religious vow 
and to return home in peace. But on the way home the 
old savage passion for revenge revived, and one slew his 
unsuspecting fellow as they rode through the forest of 
Kisewood. We see the growth of the wild spirit which 
supplied the material for the Border feuds of later days. 

Still, lawless as Northumberland might be, it could not 
forget the days of its former greatness. Though it could 
no longer hope for supremacy, it struggled at least for 
independence. Its resistance to the family of Godwine, 
its rejection of Tostig for its earl, caused dissension within 
the house which seemed to hold England's future in its 
hands. The refusal of Northumberland to help King 
Harold was one great cause, we cannot say how great, of 
the victory of the Norman William by the " hoar apple 
tree " on the hill of Senlac. Perhaps the Northuml)rians 
hoped under William's rule to establish their independence. 
But William was not the man to allow the formation of a 
middle kingdom. He soon learned the lawlessness of the 
Northumbrian temper. His first earl, though of English 
blood, was attacked at Newburn, and the church in which 
he sought shelter was burned to the ground. His second 
earl was driven away by a revolt. His third earl, a 
Norman, was massacred in Durham with all his men. 
William saw the gathering danger tlireatened by tliis 
northern loVe lor independence. His answer to the 


northern revolt was swift and decided. He let men feel 
his starkness by his remorseless harrying of the north. 
The lands between the Humber and the Tees, and then 
the lands of the Bishopric, were reduced to a waste. The 
])opulation fell Ijv the sword or died of hunger. North- 
umberland was left powerless for any further revolt of a 
serious kind. The soutliern portion of the old kingdom of 
Deira lost all outward sign of its former position. Its old 
independence needed no further recognition, and no earl 
was appointed for south Xorthumberland. Hence the old 
name was transferred entirely to the northern part, which 
being a border land against the Scots still needed some 
responsiljle governor. That northern part, which is far 
north of the Humber, alone retained the name which can 
recall the memories of the greatness of the Northumbrian 

But though the independence of the north had Ijeen 
thoroughly broken by systematic devastation, still William 
paid some heed to its local feeling by giving it an earl 
sprung from the old Northumbrian line. Though he did 
so, he regarded Earl Waltheof with a jealous eye, and 
demanded from him a loyalty which he did not find in his 
Norman barons. Slight cause for suspicion brought upon 
Waltheof condign punishment. William knew no mercy 
for the last English earl, whose tomb at Crowland men 
visited as of a martj'r and a saint. William then con- 
ferred the earldom of Northumberland on the Lotharingian, 
Walcher, Bishop of Durham. Again the lawless spirit of 
the Northumbrians l^roke out, and they took prompt 
revenge on the bishop for a misdeed which he did not 
punish to their liking. At a moot held by a little chapel 
at Gateshead the men of the Tyne and Eede gathered in 
numbers. As the talk w^ent on, a cry was raised, " Short 
rede, good rede, slay ye the l)ishop ! " and Walcher was 
slaughtered at the chapel door. Again Northumberland 
was hai-ried, and Roljcrt, tlie king's son, on his way from 
Scotland, laid the foundation of a castle opposite the spot 
where l)isliop Walcher had been shiin. Its walls rose as 
a solid and al)idhig warning to a turl:)ulent folk. Near it 
were the remains of a lioman bridge across the Tyne — 
Tons ^EHi, the l)ridge that the Emperor ^Elius Hadrianus 
had Ijuih. Hard ])\' was the little township of Pandon 


and some remains of a camp, which may liave allorded 
slielter to the monks, and so gained the name ol" 
Monkchester. In distinction to the ruins of this old 
camp, the rising fortress was called the new castle. Soon 
a population gathered round it which extended to Pandon 
and Monkchester alike, and these old names were aljsorbed 
into that of Newcastle. 

Nor was the fortress of Newcastle the only sign of the 
presence of the con(|uering Normans. The three great 
baronies of Kedesdale, Mitford, and Morpeth, held by the 
Umfravilles, the Bertrams, and the Merlais, extended in a 
belt across the district. North of them the Vesci lords of 
lUnwick built their castle on the banks of the Aln, and 
laid the foundation of the second Northumbrian town. 
The land was again committed to the care of a Norman 
earl ; but it would seem that the lawlessness of the 
Northumbrians was contagious. Earl Mowbray plotted 
against William Rufus, who took the castle of Tynemouth, 
but was foiled by the strength of the rock of Bamburgh, 
which could not be taken till Mowbray's imprudence 
made him the victim of a stratagem. After this we hear 
no more of official earls. Northumberland depended 
directly on the crown, and went its own way for a short 
time in peace. But the weakness of Stephen had well 
nigh allowed Northumberland to go the way of Lothian, 
and become attached as an appanage to the Scottish 
crown. David I. had married the dauixhter of Earl 
Waltheof, and Stephen recognised this claim to the 
earldom of Northumberland. If Stephen had had a less 
statesmanlike successor than Henry II. the English Border 
might have been fixed along the old frontier of the 
Koman Wall. But Henry II. regarded it as his first duty 
to undo the mischief of Stephen's reign. He demanded 
the restoration of the northern counties, and from this 
time the limits of the English Border were definitely 
settled. It is true that there was a small piece of land on 
the Cuml^rian Border about the possession of which 
England and Scotland could not agree. This Debateable 
Land was occupied as common pasture by the inhabitants 
of both countries from sun rising to sun setting, on the 
understanding that anything left there over night should 
be fair booty to the finder. On the Northumbrian Border 


also the fortress of J3erwic;k was an ol/ject of contention 
and often changed hands, till the luckless town of 
13erwick-upon-TM''eed received the douljtful privilege of 
ranking as a neutral state, and its "liberties" were exposed 
to the indiscriminate ravages of English and Scots alike. 
Nor should it be unnoticed that the castle of lioxburoh 
was generally in the hands of the English king, as a 
protection of the strij) of low-tying land south of the 
Tweed, where the barrier of the Cheviots merited into the 
river valle}'. 

I have now traced the historical steps in the formation 
of the English Border, and the causes which gave the 
modern county of Xorthumberland a separate existence 
and a distinct character. The rest of its history is written 
on the county itself, and tells its own story in the various 
interesting remains of antiquity which cover the land. I 
will briefly draw attention to the chief periods which they 

1. From the beginning of the twelfth to the beginning 
of the fourteenth centuries baronial and monastic civilisa- 
tion did much to bring back order and prosperity. The 
details of the management of a Northumbrian farm 
have been preserved in the compotus of the sheriff' of 
Northumberland who held for six months the lands of 
the Knights Templars at Temple Thornton, which were 
seized by Edward II. in 1308. The sheriff's account is 
compiled with business-like precision, and enables us to 
judge with accuracy of the details of Northumbrian 
farming at the time. They show a system of farming 
(^uite as advanced as that which existed at the end of 
the last century, and among the expenditure is an entry 
for ointment for the sheep. ^ The total receipts were 
94/ 2*. 7<i., the total expenses were 33/. 10*. 7^., leaving 
a l)alance of 60/. 12s., a proportion to his expenditure 
which any modern farmer would be glad to obtain.'-^ 

2. This period of prosperity was already passing away 
when the sheriff' penned his accounts. He had "to sell 
some oats and ])arley in a hurry, projiter metum Scotorum 
siiperrenieiiciinii — tlii'ough dread of a raid of the Scots. 
The Scottish war of Edward I. led to the ruin of the 
English Ijorder. The nova taxatio of the goods of the 

' Sec Appendix No. 1. 2 ggg Appeudix No. I. 


clerLjy, made in 1818, estimates the eonlesiastioal revenues 
in the Archdeaconry of Northunil^erland at 28/. ().§. Sd. 
for the benefices of Newcastle, Tynemouth, Newliurn, 
Benton, Oviuii'ham. and Woodhorn. Then follows an 
entry that all the other l)enelices are vasta et destructa 
et in eisdem nulla bona sunt invenia —are ba!"ren and waste, 
and no <>-oods are found in them. For the northern part 
of the county there is an enumeration of the benefices 
with the remark that the}^ are vastata et penitus destructa 
— wasted and wholly destroyed.' It was this state of 
things which led to the organisation of border defences. 
The office of Lord Warden of the Marches, established 
under Edward I, became a post of serious responsibility. 
Castles, which had been built to overawe a turbulent 
population, or to increase the power of their owners 
against the crown, became necessary means of protection 
to the country. The land was dotted with pele towers — 
small square rooms of massive stones, strong enough to 
give temporary refuge to fugitives till the marauding 
troop had passed by on its plundering raid. Elsewhere were 
earthen or wooden huts which contained nothing that 
could attract cupidity. An Italian traveller, ^5^neas 
Sylvius Piccolomini, has left a picture of a journey 
throuo'h Northumberland in 1435. The folk fed on 
poultry but had neither ])read nor wine ; white bread 
was unknown among them. At nightfall all the men 
retired to a pele tower in the neighbourhood, through 
fear of the Scots, but left the women behind, saying 
they would not he, harmed. ^Eneas sat in terror by the 
watch-fire amongst a hundred women, till sleep overcame 
him, and he lay down on a couch of straw in one of the 
huts. His slumbers were disturloed by the cows and 
goats who shared the room with the family and nibliled 
at his bed. At midnight there was an alarm that the 
Scots were coming, and the women fled to hide them- 
selves. The alarm, however, was groundless, and next 
day ^Eneas continued his journey safely. When he 
reached Newcastle he seemed to himself again to be 
in a world which he knew. " For Northumljerland " he 
says, "was uninhal^itable, horril)le, uncultivated." 

3. The more pacific attitude towards Scotland adopted 

^ Hodgson's History of Northumberland, v(j1. I., part 3, p. 3.')5. 


by Henry VII. brought a little peace ; but the battle of 
Flodden Field and the events that followed mark a 
determination on the part of the English government to 
use Border raids as a means for punishing Scotland, and 
gradually wearing out its strength. The lords wardens 
are urged on to the work of devastation by the Privy 
Lords of the King's Council, and send in hideous accounts 
of their zeal in this barbarous work. Thomas, Lord Dacre 
writes with pride that the land, which was tilled Ij}^ 550 
ploughs, owing to his praiseworthy activity "lies all waste 
now and noo come saune upon none of the said grounds."' 
Again he tells Wolsey how the lieutenant of the middle 
marches entered [Scotland with 1,000 men and " did very 
well, Ijrought away 800 nowte, and many horses. My 
son and Ijrother made at the same time an inroad into the 
west marches, and got nigh 1,000 nowte. Little left upon 
the frontiers except old houses, whereof the thatch and 
coverings are taken away so that they cannot Ije burnt." 
The records of Border warfare throw light upon the cold 
])looded and deliberate savagery which characterised the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. We recognise it 
clearly enough in other countries : we tend to pass it over 
leniently at home. 

4. Under Elizabeth at last came peace between England 
and Scotland, and things grew better on the Borders. 
Deeds of violence were still common and disputes were 
rife. But Elizabeth's ministers were anxious that these 
disputes should be decided by lawful means, and that 
disorders should be as much as possible repressed. An 
elaborate system of international relationships was es- 
tablished. Every treaty and agreement about the 
government of the Borders was hunted up and its 
provisions put in force. The wardensliip of the English 
Marshes was no longer committed to Percies, Greys, or 
Dacres, but to new men chosen for official capacity. 
There was no longer need of Border chiefs to summon 
their men for a foray and work wild vengeance for 
wrongs inflicted. Aspiring statesmen like Sir Ralph Sadler 
and Sir Robert Carey were entrusted with the task of 
organising a system of defence. Scotland was overawed 
not so much by armed force as by red-tape. The 

* Rnine's History of North Durham, p. vii. 


Scottish Council was long employed in answering pleas 
and counterpleas wherewith the technical ingenuity of 
the English wardens constantly plied them. The amount 
of ink shed over the raid of Eeedswire is a forecast of the 
best methods of modern diplomacy. Scotland was pes- 
tered by official ingenuity into a serious consideration of 
Border affairs. The English Borders were elaborately 
organised for defence. The county was mapped out into 
watches, and the obligation was laid upon the townships 
to set and keep the watches day and night. ^ Wlien the 
fray was raised every man was bound to follow under 
penalty of fine and imprisonment. Castles and pele 
towers were converted into a system extending across the 
Border, with signal communication from one to another. 
A brief quotation from some articles made at Alnwick in 
1570 may serve to illustrate the thoroughness of the 
system : " That • every man that hath a castelle or a tower 
of stone shall upon every foray raised in the night give 
warning to the contrey by fier in the toppe of the castelle 
or tower in such sorte as he shall be directed from his 
warninge castelle, upon paine of iijs. iiijrf."- 

The S3^stem in itself was admirable. Its only defect 
was that in proportion as it led to momentary success it 
tended to decay. Sir John Forster writes from Berwick 
in 1575 : " Thanks be to God we have had so longe peace 
that the inhabitants here fall to tilla^^e of QTounde so that 
theye have not delight to be in horse and armors as they 
have when the worlde ys troblesome. And that which 
theye were wont to bestowe in horse they nowe bestowe 
in cattell otherwayes, yet notwithstandinge whensoever 
the worlde gravetli anye thinge troblesome or unquiet 
theye will bestowe all they have rather than theye will 
want horses." We see how statesmen were learning 
political philosophy in Elizabeth's reign. They contemp- 
lated in peace the possibilities of disaster ; they recognised 

^ In Bishop Nicholson's Leges Marchia- lation of the townships then and at the 

ruHi, p. 215, &c., is printed "The Order present day shows at once how niucli 

of the Watche upon the West Marches, more populous Northumberland was in 

made by my Lord Wharton in the vith the 16th century. It was then occupied 

year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord by small freeholders, ready to fight for 

King Edmund the grate.' ' This " Order their own homes. The feudal lords were 

of Watche ' ' gives the number of armed mainly their military leaders rather than 

men in each township fit to keep watch their landlords, 

every night. A comparison of the popu- - See Appendix II. 



the law of the alternations of human affairs. However 
quiet things might be, there would come a time, for which 
they must be prepared, when " the worlde would be 
troblesome." It is worth while noticing Sir John Forster's 
remedy for the carelessness whicli peace engendered. He 
advises tliat " a generall comaundement should come from 
her majestie to the noblemen and gentlemen here to favor 
their tennants as their auncestors have doon 1)efore tyme 
for defence of the frontiers." ^ 

" To favor their tennants as their auncestors have doon 
before t}ine." I believe that in these words we have the 
key to much of the social history of the English Border. 
You will see in your rambles through .Northumberland 
much that will tell you of the former greatness of the 
feudal lords. You will not so readily distinguish the 
sites of the townships, which once largely consisted ■ of 
freeholders, who armed themselves and fought for house 
and home. Northumberland at the present day is regarded 
as a great feudal county, with feudal antiquities and feudal 
memories visible at every turn. I believe, on the contrary, 
that in no part of England did the manorial system sit so 
lightly, or work such little change. Traces of primitive 
institutions and primitive tenures are found in abundance 
whenever we penetrate beneath the surface. First of all 
there is a noticeable feature which especially marks the 
district comprised within the limits of the old Northum- 
brian kingdom ; the survival to the present day of a very 
large number of townships, which are still recognised 
as poor-law parishes and elect their own waywardens, 
overseers, and guardians of the poor. Even at the 
present day there are only thirty ecclesiastical parishes 
in this county which are conterminous with a single 
township. The remaining 132 parishes contain among 
them 513 townships. There are as many as thirty town- 
ships contained in a single parish, and the general number 
is four- or live. This can easily Ije accounted for from the 
facts of local history ; but it shows the need which was 
felt for tlie maintenance of small separate districts with 
some powers of self-government. Again, the ecclesiastical 
vestries of the ancient parishes of Northumberland consist, 
almost universally, of a body of four-and-twenty, who are 

' See AjuieuclLx III. 


appointed by co-o})tatioii. The term "vestry" does not 
occur in the church l)U()ks, which uniformly speak of a 
" meeting of the four-aud-twenty." This seems to point 
to an original delegation of power into the hands of 
representatives from the dillerent townships comprising 
the parish. These townships were village connnunities 
holding land in connnon. I will not atteni[)t to co-ordinate 
my evidence al)Out them with any general theory of land 
tenure, but will simply tell you a few facts relating to 
them. The township in which I live, Embleton, lies 
within the baron}- granted to John Vesconte by Henry I. 
A deed, dated 1730, at which time the Earl of Tankerville 
was lord of the manor, contains the award of arbitrators 
appointed by tlie consent of all parties to have the lands 
of the townships divided. It recites that the Earl of 
Tankerville and eight others are " severally seized of 
the farms, cottages, and parts of farms in the township 
fields," Lord Tankerville of 16i farms, the others of 
quantities varying from 3 farms, IH of a farm, to Hh 
part of a farm. It then proceeds : " The premises 
above mentioned lie promiscuous in common fields un- 
divided." The only holder in severalty was the vicar, 
whose " parcel of ground known as the East Field " 
aflbrds (he onl}' known landmark from which the 
division can l)ejjin. The (j^eneral result of the arl)itra- 
tors' award is that the vicar receives an average of fifty-six 
acres for each of his three farms, Lord Tankerville gets an 
average of sixty-four acres for each of his 16^ farms, and 
the other holders average seventy-six acres for each of 
their eight farms. The varying quantity seems to depend 
on the quality of the land allotted in each case. 

I will not trouble you with evidence on this point, but 
wiU quote a statement made by a man who was in the 
employment of a solicitor in Morpeth, and who represented 
a legal memory extending back as far as 1780. He says : 
" I believe that in former times the word farm was used 
in many parts of this county to express an aliquot part 
in value of a township, being one of several portions of 
land of which a township consisted, each one of such 
portions having originally been of equal value." He 
supports this by reference to cases of allotments in which 
he was hhnself concerned. 


This use of the word farm to signify an original unit 
of land-tenure is peculiar to Northumberland, and pro- 
bably has led to much interesting evidence being 
overlooked, as the ancient use of the word for a fixed 
interest in undivided land is easily confounded with its 
modern simification of a fixed amount of land. But 
many traces can still be found by one who searches for 
them. The records of vestry books show that contribu- 
tions to parochial purposes were assessed upon each 
township in proportion to the number of ancient farms 
which it contained. In many cases this continued long 
after the division of the lands of the township, and long- 
after the old meaning of the word farm had been 

Church rates were paid on farms ; so were customary 
payments to the parish clerk and sexton. At Warkworth 
the vestry in 1826 resolved to rebuild the church wall, 
each farm being responsible for two yards of walling. It 
is curious to observe how long it was possible for an 
ancient institution to exist side by side with a new one. 
In the townsliip of North Seaton the assessment of church 
rates on farms ceased in 1746, but the assessment of poor 
rate remained on the ancient basis down to 1831. Still 
more noticeable is the case of the township of Burradon. 
I have no record when the enclosure of the greater part of 
the township took place ; but two parcels of land were 
left unenclosed. One was divided in 1723, the other in 
1773. Upon both divisions each freeholder had appointed 
to him a part of the common in proportion to the number 
of ancient farms of which his enclosed lands were reputed 
to have consisted. Even after this final division the old 
system did not entirely disappear. Up to the year 1827 
poor rates and highway rates were assessed at so much 
per farm, not so much per pound. 

The evidence which I have at present, proves the 
ancient division into farms of forty-eight townships. A 
calculation of the areas of these farms, after they were 
divided, shows a great variety. They range from 1,083 
acres to 50. No doubt this can easily be accounted for. 
In the less fertile parts of the county tliere were large 
tracts of waste which ultimately were absorbed by the 
townships scattered at a considerable distance from one 


another. But there are eight townships where the average 
farm is below 100 acres, nine other townships where the 
average is between 100 and 120 acres, and nine where it 
is between 120 and 150 acres. This great variety renders 
it difficult to account for the Northumbrian farms by any 
of the modes of reckoning which have hitherto been pro- 
posed as of universal application. The Northumbrian unit 
seems to point solely to the actual facts of the needs of 
each township at the time of its original settlement. 

The relations of these townships to the feudal lords 
varied, I believe, as much as did their unit of land tenure, 
though on this point it would be necessary to search the 
manor rolls in the case of each one separately. A few 
facts, however, may be stated on this subject. The manor 
of Tynemouth consist of eleven townships. Three of them 
are of freehold tenure. The remainin<>' eio;ht were in 1847 
held partly in copyhold, partly in freehold. Each copy- 
hold farm made a payment for " boon days," and also paid 
a corn rent. This rent varied in each township, but pay- 
ment was in every case made according to the number of 
ancient reputed farms or parts of a farm of which the land 
consisted. We have no difficulty here in tracing a case in 
which the lord's demesne was scattered in eight out of the 
eleven townships contained in his manor. Three town- 
ships belonged entirely to freeholders, and freeholders were 
settled in the other townships also. 

I pass to another instance, the township of North 
Middleton. The rolls of the court baron of the 
barony of Morpeth, which is held by the Earl of 
Carlisle, show that transfers of land in that town- 
ship were accomplished by the admission of the new 
owner on the rolls of the manor. The township of North 
Middleton consisted in 1759 of fourteen farms, of which 
ten were held by the Duke of Portland, one by the Earl of 
Carlisle, and three were divided among six other free- 
holders. The condition of the township in 1797 is 
described as follows :— "The cesses and taxes of the 
township are paid by the occupiers in proportion to the 
number of farms or parts of farms by them occupied. 
These farms are not divided or set out, the whole town- 
. ship lying in common and undivided, except that the Duke 
of Portland has a distinct property in the mill and about 


ten acres of land adjoinino-, and that each proprietor has 
a distinct property in particular houses, cottages, and 
crofts in the village of North Middleton. The general rule 
of cultivating and managing the lands within the town- 
ship has been for the proprietors or their tenants to meet 
together and determine how much or what ])articular 
parts of the land shall be in tillage, how much and wliat 
parts in meadow, and how much and what parts in pas- 
ture ; and they then divide and set out the tillage and 
meadow lands amongst themselves in proportion to 
the number of farms or parts of farms which they are 
respectively entitled to. And the pasture lands are 
stinted in proportion of twenty stints to each farm." 

In this case we have the three-field system, with sepa- 
rate homesteads. The lord has a small share in the com- 
mon lands, but has no separate demesne. The freeholders 
have mostly parted with their interests to a wealthy land- 
holder ; those who still remain hold small portions varying 
from seven-eighths to three-eighths of an original farm. 

Take another instance. The township of Newbiggin- 
by-the Sea was in a manor which ultimately passed into 
the hands of the Widdringtons. In 1720 Lord Widd- 
rington's lands were forfeited and were sold to a London 
company, who claimed manorial rights which the free- 
holders of Newbiggin would not allow. The proceedings 
of a long Chancery suit, in which the freeholders were 
left with their privileges unimpaired, show us a com- 
munity completely' self-governed, with no interference 
from a lord and little from the crown. They had a grant 
of market and fair, and tolls on ships coming into their 
little harbour, and paid to the crown a fee-farm rent of 
£10 6s. In 1730, to which date the freeholders' books 
survived, we find the arable land ali-eady divided, but the 
pasture land still in common. The freeholders meet and 
make bye-laws for the pasturage. They appoint constables, 
ale tasters, and bread weighers. They levy tolls on boats 
and ships, and receive payments ior carts loading sea-weed 
from the shore, for lobster tanks in the rocks, for stones 
f[uarried on tlie foreshore. The money received from these 
rents of the rocks is divided among the freeholders in pro- 
portion to the ancient freeledges, or farms. 

These three instances may serve to show the exceeding 


variety of social life in Northumberland, and the compara- 
tively slight effects of the imposition of the Norman 
manorial system upon the ancient townships. No doubt 
this great variety was due to the exceptional character of 
the county. The lords were bound to " favour their 
tenants for the defence of the frontiers." They meddled 
little with the freeholders of the townships, who formed a 
stalwart body of soldiers ready to follow the fray.' 

But this same habit of following the fray had its disadvan- 
tages. It created a wild and lawless habit of life among 
the borderers. It brought all those evils which attach 
to any society which is haunted by a sense of insecurity. 
Though war ceased between England and Scotland, feuds 
and robberies by no means ceased between the borderers 
on each side. " The number is wonderful," write the 
English commissioners in 1596, "of horrible murders and 
maymes, besides insupportable losses by burglaryes and 
robberies, able to make any Christian eares to "tingle and 
all true English hartes to bleede."^ They estimate the 
murders at 1,000 and the thefts to the value of £100,000 
in the last nine years. The union of the crowns of England 
and Scotland under one sovereign swept away all pretence 
for hostility on the Borders, and left the problem of re- 
ducing a lawless people to order. This worlv was begun 
by the strong sense and capacity of Lord William Howard 
of Naworth. A student and a man of business at once, he 
lived on the Borders, doing his own duty and demanding 
that every one else should do likewise. His object, in his 
own words, was " to reduce these partes into civilitie ;" 
his motive was " dutie to his majestic and care of the well 
doinge of the countrie I live in." His real success was 
due to the fact that during a long life he steadily pur- 
sued his^ course, and raised an hitherto unknown standard 
of public duty amongst the chief men on the English 
Border. He exposed abuses in the pubhc service ; he re- 
buked neghgence ; he insisted on a rigid application of the 
laws, and on firmness in their administration. From his 
days onwards order began to be maintained and civiHza- 
tion to advance. 

It would be an interesting and profitable study to trace 
exactly the disappearance of savage ways and riotous 

1 See Appendix IV. s Raine's North Durham, p. xlvi. 


tempers. The work has, at all events, been done in a 
thorough and satisfactory manner. In no part of England 
can there be found a more orderly, peaceable, law-abiding 
folk than are the Northumbrian peasantry. In no part of 
England is greater friendliness and hospitality shown to 
the wayfarer than in the valleys of the Cheviot Hills, 
which were once the haunts of moss-troopers. I never 
wander over the lovety moorland, and look upon the 
smiling, peaceful fields below, without feeling comfort 
amid the perplexities of the present by the thoughts of the 
triumph of the past. The frowning castles of the feudal 
lords now stand embowered in trees, and teU of nothing 
save acts of friendliness to those who dwell around. The 
peel towers in their ruins defend the flocks and herds from 
nothing save the inclemency of the heavens. Goodly 
farm-houses and substantial cottages for the peasants be- 
token prosperity and comfort. The sturdy good sense of 
Enoiish heads, the endurino- strength of Ensflish institutions, 
has solved a problem in this Border land at least as 
difficult as those which trouble us in the present and cast 
a shadow over the future. 

Appendix I. 

Northmnhrian Farming in 1309. 

I append the • compottis of Guy chard Charon, Sheriff of Northumber- 
land, who renders an account of the receipts and expenditure of the hands 
of the Knights Templars at Temple Thornton, in the township of 
Thornton, in the parish of Harthurn, about six miles west of Morpeth. 
On the dissolution of the Order their lands were seized by the Crown, and 
Guychard Charon, as sheriff, managed the farm from November 1308, to 
March 1309. I give a summary of the chief items of receipts and 
expenditure, so far as they illustrate the system of farming and the price 
of produce. 

Receipts. £> s. d. 

.580eg"s ... ... ... ... 2 '5 


Farm of the dovecot 1 ... ... ... 3 

Peat ... ... ... ... ... 3 

71 hens2 ... ... ... ... 5 11 

' The right of having a pigeon-house show that the habits of the people must 

was confined to the lord of the manor, have resembled those prevalent in France 

and the destruction of pigeons was pun- at the 7>resent day. So ^-Eneas Sylvius 

ished by severe penalties. The average says " Gallinrc et anseres afferebantur in 

price of pigeons was 3d. per dozen. esum, sed neque vini neque panis quic- 

'■* The number of eggs and poultry sold (juam aderat." 



24 quarters of wheat, 6 quarters of rye and maslin, 
14 quarters of barley, 8 ({uarters of barley and 
oats mixed, 86 (luartors of oats 

2 stock oxen^ 

3 cows, 3 calves and G l)arron cows 
3 steers ... 

3 heifers 

2 bull calves 

3 vear-old stirks and 3 calves 

1 bull ... 

107 ewes, 108 muttons, 17 hogs 

88 lambs 

Skids ... 

21 hogs (swine)- ... 

6 geese ... 

4 skins of oxen who died of murrain^ ... 

2 ditto ... 

69 fleeces of sheep who died of murrain 
184 fleeces weighing 17 stone 1 lb."* ... 

3 bushels of corn ... 

Total of Receipts 








































Expenditure. £ s. d. 

9 quarters 2 bushels of wheat at 6s. 8d. per quarter, 
50 ({uarters 6 bushels of oats at 2s. 6d. per quarter 
for seed -^ ... ... ... ... 9 8 6^ 

' Stock oxen for the plough. Walter de 
Henley, (quoted by Roger, History of 
Prices, i, 329) writing in the 14th century, 
says that ploughing by oxen is cheaper 
than ploughing by horses, and is equally 
speedy. He reckons that a team of oxen 
beginning at daybreak, and leaving off at 
3 2).iii., will plough 3^ roods, or an acre of 
the second or third jjloughing. This is 
about the same as is done at this day. 
The cost of a horse, Henley says, during 
25 weeks between St. Luke's Day, Oct. 
18, and Holy Cross, May 3, is 12s. 5^d., 
without forage or chaff. ThLs sum is made 
up by \ bushels of oats daily, valued at 
Is. 2d., Id. for herbage in summer, and Id. 
a week for shoeing. An ox can be kept for 
the same time on Is. worth of herbage 
and 3^ bundles of oats in the ear every 
week — the total expense being 3s. 7d. 
Besides, he says, when an ox gets old you 
may fatten and eat him, and get some- 
thing considerable for the skin, whereas 
there is no such economy in a horse, 
whose flesh is worthless and the hide of 
little value. 

".Pigs were an important article of food. 
In the spring they wei-e let loose, ringed, 
to search for roots ; after harvest they 
were driven into the fields and woods to 
search for acorns and mast. They were 


under the care of a swineherd, whoso 
wage was |d. a week. 

■'Murrain was a generic name for disease, 
by which the loss of stock was enoi-nious 
in media3val times. Walter de Huale\' 
(Roger's History of Prices, i, 334) says: — 
If a sheep die put the flesh at once into 
water, and keep it there from daybreak 
till three o'clock, then hang it up to 
drain, salt and dry it, and it will, at 
least, do for your labourers, 

■* According to this, the price of woi )1 
was 4|d. per lb., and each fleece weighed, 
on an average, 1 lb. 5 oz. The sheep were 
small haired, and of a fine delicate breed, 
probably like the Welsh or mountain 
sheep. Their fleeces seldom weighed 2 lbs. 
and the wool was coarse with hairs, as is 
seen in cloth of the period. At the present 
day fleeces average 7 lb. 

* As the amount of land under corn was 
37 acres, we see that the quantity of 
seed per acre was two bushels, almost the 
same as at present. But the produce at 
that time was rarely more than 9 or 10 
bushels per acre. Walter de Henley (in 
Roger's History of Pricas, i, 270 n.) says: 
If wheat does not return more than three 
times the seed, a loss is incurred, except 
in dear years, i.e., when the price is above 
4s. a quarter. He reckons thus : — the 




22^ q;iarters of rye, 13 quarters 2| bushels of mas- 
lin at 6s. Sd. per quarter, for the use of servants 

4 ([uartevs i)f oats for servants porridge^ 

6A- quarters of oats, bouglit in slieaves for oxen 
and cows 

5 (piarters of oats for provender of oxen 
^Mending jiloughs and liarrows 

Turf dug to burn in winter ... 

Ointment for tlie sheep 

AVages of a man for keeping 88 lambs, id. a 

day for 90 days 
Milk for the lambs, and washing and shearing 192 

Weeding 37 acres of corn and 101 1 acres of oats 

at i per acre 
Cutting, spreading and carrying 21 acres of hay... 
Mowing, collecting and binding 37 acres of corn 

and 101-^ acres of oats at 7d. per acre of corn 

and 6d. per acre of oats ... 
Wages of an extra man for 30 days at 2d. per day 
AVages of six carters, one cowherd, one shepherd 

and one man for keeping house and making 

porridge for the year 
Wages of a swine herd for 16 weeks ... 
Wages of two men harrowing for 31 days in 

winter and lent 
2 bushels of salt for porridge 

11 12 














3 1 







land is plouglied three times, each 
ploughing costs (id. an acre, hoeing Id., 
two bushels of seed Is., second hoeing 
l.s. 2d., reaping 5d., carrying Id., the 
strav pays for the threshing. If six 
bu.shels only are readied to the acre, they 
will bring 3s., and have cost 3s. l^d. 
Here no rent is paid. 

' The food of the servants wa-s oatmeal, 
maslin and lye, much of it made in the 
form of porridge, sometimes with 
" braxy," or the salted meat of animals 
that had died of muirain. The farm 
servants were paid wages and lived round 
the farm, receiving also then- food. This 
system still prevails in Northumberland 
to some degree. The farm labourers are 
called " hinds," and each hind is supposed 
to supply two " bondagers " or assistant 
workers, generally women. The hind is 
engaged for the j-ear, and receives his 
wage, even if prevented by illness from 
working. He has a house assigned him 
near the homestead, and has potatoes 
giown for his use on one of the farm fields. 
Fifty years ago the money Wiige w;> very 
small, and the hind was paid in farm 
produce— and kei)t a cow of his own. 
Tl.'is is the same system as i.-i sIkjwu in 
the SherifTB ivccounts. Most probably the 

labourers at that time were housed in 
rude beehive huts, and it is veiy possible 
that some remains which are assigned to 
pre-historic times may really be explained 
as clusters of peasant houses. At the 
beginning of this century the houses of 
the Northumbrian hinds were little 
superior to the beehive huts. They were 
built a.s follows : — the couples of heavy 
oak, with legs resting on the ground, 
about five feet high, weie first placed ; 
then undressed stones were heaped 
beneath and plastered with mud to make 
the walls ; a small hole was left for a 
window, and another for a chimney ; a 
thatched roof was put on the top. The 
floor was simply the eaitli beaten down, 
and in some cases mixed with lime. Each 
occui)ier brought with his furniture a fire 
jilace and a window. The chief article of 
t'uruiture was a " box-bed," which made a 
partition in the dwelling. The cow stcjod 
in one end, and the family lived in the 
other. Many old people, now alive, 
remember this as the state of things in 
their young days. Their food was porridge 
and milk, with flat cakes of barley and 
pease meal mixed. They never ate fresh 
meat, but kept a pig, and had bacon as a 


Repairing walls of grange ... ... ... .3 

Tlu'cshing and winnowing 21 quarters df corn, 8 

(quarters of barley and 44 quarters of oats ... 8 G 
Wages of one servant for keeping the manor at 

l^d. day ... ... ... ... 1 19 4.} 

Total Expenses ... ... £33 10 7^ 

The following is preserved among the Templars' Rolls, Ed. II: — 

Compotus Guychardi Charon, nuper Vicecomitis Northunibri(^, do 
exitibus terrarum et tenementorum j\Iagistri et Fratrum Milicie T('nq)li 
in Anglia, in eodem Comitatu, a die doniinica proxima post fcstum Sancti 
Martini, videlicet, xyj. die Novembris, anno regni Regis Edwardi iilii 
Regis Edwardi secundo, usque festuui Sancti Michaelis proximo sequens, 
et ab eodem festo Sancti Michaelis usque diem dominicum proximum 
ante festum Sancti Cuthberti proximo sequens anno tercio, (juo die libev- 
avit terras et tenementa predicta Ricardo de Horsleye ^ tunc Vicecomiti 
Northumbrie custodiendum quamdiu Regi placuerit, ad respondendum 
Regi de exitibus inde provenientibus per breve Regis et iudenturam inter 
eos factam. 

TnoRNTONB CUM Membris. — Idem reddit compotum de Ixiij s. iiij d. 
de redditu assise diversorum tenenciuni diversa tenementa de j)redictis 
Magistro et fratribus de Manerio de Thornetone et diversis villis adjacen- 
tibus ad idem Manerium, videlicet Wotton, ISIitford, Morpatlie, 
Neubigging, Werkesworthe, ad terminos Pasche et Sancti Michaelis, sicut 
continetur in Rotulo de particulis quem liberavit in thesaurario, et in 
extenta de predicto manerio facta per Adam de Eglesfield, et ad Scaccar- 
rium retornata ; et de xj 11. xiij s. xd. ob. de redditu assise libere 
tenendum et custumariorum in villis de Heylee, Corbrigge, Trepwodc, 
Novi castri super Tynam, Fennum, Ryntone, Jesemuthe, et Redewode ad 
eosdem terminos, sicut continetur ibidem ; Et Ix s. j d. ob. de consimili 
redditu assise diversorum teuencium in villis de Mildrom, Shottono, 
Heddon, Parkeston, Kyllum, Langetone, Lillcburn, Welloure, Alnewyke, 
et Baumburghe ad eosdem terminos sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de x li. 
xviij s iij d. de redditu assise diversorum tenenciuni diversa tenementa 
in Foxdene, Pisshopeston, Coone, villa Castri Bernardi, Somerhous, et 
Peltone in Episcopatu Dunelmensi ad eosdem terminos sicut continentur 
in Rotulo et extenta predictis ; Et de x s. de v quarteriis avene de redditu 
assise in villa de Foxdene ad eosdem terminos, sicut continetur ibidem ; 
Et de xl s. de quibusdam terris dominicis dicti manerii dimissis ad firmani 
hoc anno ad firmam {sic) in Fennum cum quibusdam operibus ad certum 
positis ibidem, ad eosdem terminos sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de c s. de 
firma molendini de Thornetone ad eosdem terminos sic dimissi ad firmam 
per annum sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de xviij s. de firma molendini de 
Heylee per idem tempus sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de x s. de redditu 
Bracinarum in viUis de Thornetone et Heylee ad festum sancti Michaelis, 
sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de ij s. v d. de Diiij'''' ovis de redditu assise 
in Thornetone, Heylee, et Fennum ad festum Pasche venditis sicut con- 
tinetur ibidem ; Et de v s. xj d. de Ixviij operibus estivalibus et 

^ In Fuller's list of the Sheriffs of does not appear uutil 37 Edw. III., and 
Northumberland " Guid. Charroum " again 43 to 46 Edw. III. 
occurs, 2 Edward XL Richard de Horsele 


luitiuunalibus venditis^ sicut contiuetur ibidem; Et de iij s. do firraa 
Colunibario ap\id Thomtone a festo pasche usque festum Saucti Michaelis 
per dimidiuiu annum sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de iij s. de turbariis 
venditis per idem tempus sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de v s. viij d xj d. 
(v/c) de Ixxj gallinis de redditu assise in villis de Thornetone, Fennum, et 
lieyltje ad festum Xativitatis Domini sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de 
xxiiij li. XV s. de xxiiij quarteriis frumenti, vj quarteriis siliginis et 
niixtilionis, xiiij quarteriis ordei, viij ipiarteriis ordei et avene mixte, et 
iiij^^vj quarteriis avene, receptis de Roberto ile Fandone per indenturam, 
et sic statum venditis propter metum .Scotorum superveniencium, sicut 
continetur ibidem : Et de xij s. de ij bobus de instauro venditis sicut 
continetur ibidem ; Et de Ixxvj s. viij d. de tribus vaccis et tribus vitulis 
de exitu carundem, et vj vaccis sterilibus, venditis circa gulam Augusti 
per mandatum domini Regis ; Et de xxvij s. de tribus boviculis ejusdem 
iustauri, et per idem mandatum sic venditis, sicut continetur ibidem ; Et 
de XV s. de iij juvencis ejusdem instauri per idem mandatum venditis sicut 
continetur ibidem ; Et de vj s de ij bovettis ejusdem instauri per idem 
mandatum venditis sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de xiij s. vj d. de iij 
stirkettis superannatis, et iij vitulis ejusdem instauri, per idem mandatum 
vencbtis, sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de x s. de uno tauro ejusdem instauri 
l)er idem mandatum vendito sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de xj li. xiij s. 
de cvij ovibus matricibus, cviij multonilms, xvij hogastris, de remanen- 
tibus compoti precedentis receptis per indenturam, sicut continetur ibidem ; 
Et de xxxvj s. viij d. de iiij'^'^viij agnis de exitu venditis sicut continetur 
ibidem ; Et de vj s. viij d. de viij capris venditis ante Xatale Donuni sicut 
continetur ibidem ; Et de xxviiij s. de xxj porcis venditis sicut continetur 
ibidem ; Et de xviij d. de vj aucis venditis sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de 
viij s. de iiij coreis bovinis debilibus mortuorum de morina sicut 
continetur ibidem ; Et de xiiij d. de coreis ij affrorum mortuorum 
in morina sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de xljx s. viij d. de vij-^^ix 
Itellibus ovium matricum, multonum, et liogastrorum lanutis mor- 
tuorum in morina venditis sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de iiij li. v s. v d. 
de x*^iiij velleril)us ponderantibus xvij petras j libram lane venditis 
sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de ij s. vj d. receptis de iij bussellis frumenti 
venditis .super computum sicut continetur ibidem. 

Summa totalis Recepte iiij^xiiij li. ij s. vij d. 
Expense. — Idem computat in ix quarteriis ij bussellis frumenti, 
E quarteriis vj bussellis avene, empti.s ad seminandum, ixli. viij s. vj d. 
ob., videlicet, pro quolibet ijuarterio frumenti vj s. viij d., et pro quolibet 
quarterii avene ij s. vj d., sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in xxij 
quarteriis dimidio siliginis, xiij quarteriis ij bussellis dimidio mixtilionis, 
emptis ad liberaciones famidorum xj li. xij s. j d., preciuni quarterii 
vj s. viij d. ; Et in iiij quarteriis avene emptis pro farina ad potagium 
fanudorum x s. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in vj quarteriis dimidio 
avene emptis per estimacionem in garbis ad sustentacionem bovium et 
vaccarum xvj s. iij d. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in v quarteriis avene 
emptis ad prebendam affrorum, et expenditis in prebenda eorundem 
tenqjore seminacionis, xij s. vj d. ; Et respondet ex altera parte Rotuli ; 
Et in carucis et herciis emendis pervices xij s. sicut continetur ibidem ; 

' This w;u5 a coinpoijition for " boon Jiiw teuants to jJuugh his lauda. 
days," dayw wheu thi' lord might require 


Et in turbis fodiendis atl conburcndum in yeme iij s. siciit coiitinclur 
ibidein ; Et in imcto empto pro bidentibus ungendis per vices iij s. sicuL 
continctur ibidem ; Et in stipendio nnius boniinis custodicntis iiij'^Mij 
agnos dc exitu a festo pnrificacionis beate Marie usque fcstum invencionis 
sancte crucis proximo sequcns per iiij^^x dies capientis per dicmi ob., 
iij s. ix d. sicut continetur ilndem ; Et in lacte ])ro sustcntacione dictorum 
agnoruni, et pro ix^^xij niultonibus lavandis et tondcndis iij s. xj d. (["■ 
sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in xxxvij acris frumenti, cj acris dimidiu 
avene sarclandis, precium acre ob., v s. ix d. sicut contineiir ibidem ; Et 
in xxj acris feni falcandis, spargendis, et levandis, tam infra clausum 
Curie quam in campis, xiij s. j d. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in xxxvij 
acris frumenti, cj acris dimidio avene metendis, colligendis, et ligandis 
Ixj s. xd. ob., videlicet, pro qualibet acra frumenti vij d. et pro qualiljet 
acra avene vj d., sicut continetur ibidem ; Etin vadiis unius hominis exis- 
tentis ultra messores per tempus autumpni, videlicet, per xxx dies, 
cap. per diem ij d., vs. ; Et in stipendiis vj carucariorum, j vaccarii, j 
bercarii. et unius bominis custodicntis manerium et facientis potagium 
famulorum, per totum annum integrum, xl s. sicut continetur il)idem ; 
Et in stipendis unius porcarii per xvj septimanas, xij d. sicut continetur 
ibidem ; Et in stipendiis ij bominum euncium ad herciam tempore 
seminacionis per xxxj dies, tam tempore seminacionis liyemalis (^uam 
quadragesimalis, v s. ij d. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in ij bussellis 
salis emptis pro potagio famulorum x d. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in 
parietibus grangie emendandis iij s. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et in xxj 
quarteriis frumenti, siliginis, et mixtilionis, viij quarteriis ordei, et xliiij 
quarteriis avena triturandis et ventandis viij s. vj d. sicut continetur 
ibidem ; Et in vadiis j servientis custodientis Manerum per tempus 
compoti ut supra xxxix s. iiij d. ob., cap. per diem j d. ob., sicut con- 
tinetur ibidem. 

Expense Templarioeum. — Et in expensis fratris Michaelis de Soureby, 
fratris Walteri de Gaddesby, fratris Galfridi de Wittone, et fratris Roberti 
de Cammulle de ordine ililicic Templi, existencium in custodia dicti 
Guycliardi in castro Novi Castri super Tynam a die dominica proxima 
post festum Sancti Martini anno regni Regis Edwardi secundo usque 
festum Sancti Michaelis proximo sequens anno regni Regis Edwardi 
tercio, videlicet, per cccxv dies, cuilibet capiendo per diem iiij d., xxj li. 
sicut continetu:' ibidem ; Et in expensis dictorum iiij fratrum, viij 
hominum equitum, x bominum peditum missorum cum dictis fratribus 
inter Novum Castrum super Tynam et Eboracum pro eisdem salvo et 
secure ducendis ibidem per tres dies, per breve Regis et per speciale man- 
datum ejusdem, et morando ibidem antequam liberabantur Vicecomiti 
Eboraci et Constabulario Castri ibidem, xl s. sicut continetur ibidem. 

Summa Expensarum Ivj li. x s. vij d. ob. q". 

Et debet xxxvij lixj d. q^ Et respondet infra. 
Erumentum. — Idem reddit compotum de ix quarteriis ij bussellis 
frumenti de emptis ut supra ; Et totum compotum in semine super xxxvij 
acras, videlicet, super acram ij bussellos. 

Avene. — Idem reddit compotum de liiij quarteriis vj bussellis avene 
de emptis ut supra ad semen et potagium famulorum sicut continetur 
ibidem ; Et de v quarteriis avene receptis de emptis pro prebenda ecjuorum 
tempore seminacionis sicut continetur ibidem ; Summa lix (^uartcria vj 
busseUi j De quibus in semine super cj acras dimidiam 1 quarteria vj 


busselli ; et in prebenJa diuorum tempore semiiiacionis ut supra v 
quarteria ; Et in potagio famuloriun iiij quarteria ; Et equat. 

MixTURA AD LiBERACioxK.s FAMULORUM. — Ideiu redclit compotuiu de 
xxij quarteriis demidio siliginis, xiij quarteriis ij bussellis dimidio 
inixtiliimis, cinptis ad liberacioues fainulorum, Summa xxxv quarteria vj 
busselli diuiidius ; De quibus in liberacionibus v carucariorum per xlv 
septimanas, videlicet, jier totum tempus compoti xxij quarteria diiuidium, 
Et in liberai'ionibus unius bercarii et uuius vaccarii a die dominica proxima 
post fostuni Sancti Martini us(pie diem Sabbati in crastino Sancti Petri ad 
vincula proximum pc-r xxxvj septimanas et v dies, cap. quarterium pro xij 
septimanas, v quarteria iij busselli dimidium sicut continetur ibidem, Et 
in liberacione unius porcarii custodientis porcos per xvj septimanas infra 
tempus predictum j ([uarterium, et in liheracium unius bominis custodientis 
curiam et facientis potagium famulorum per xlv septimanas ij quarteria 
vj busselli, et in liberacione unius carectarii euntis ad carectandum cum 
cquis de manerio et cum ecpiis dicti Guychardi post mortem equoram de 
manerio, a predicto die dominica proxima post festum Sancti Martini usque 
diem Lune proximam post festum Sancti ^licliaelis proximo sequens, per 
xlv septimanas, cap. quarterium per xij septimanas, iij quarteria' vj 
busselli ; Sunmia xxxv quarteria iij buselli dimidius ; Et in venditis super 
compotum ut patet superius iij busselli ; Et equat. 

Affki. Idem reddit compotum de iij affris roceptis de Roberto de 
Famdone per Indenturam ; de quibus — in morine ij : Et remanet j. 

BovES. Idem reddit compotum de xxv bobus receptis de eodem per 
eandem Indenturam ; De (j^uibus in morina iiij ; In venditis ij ; 
— Et remanent xix. 

Vacce. — Idem reddit compotum de ix vaccis receptis de eodem per 
eandem Indenturam ; Et vendite ut supra ; et equat. 

BovicuLi. — Idem reddit compotum de v boviculis, iij stirkettis, 
receptis de eodem per eandem Indenturam ; et vendite omnes ut supra ; 
Et ecjuat. 

JuvEXCE. — Idem reddit compotum de iij juvencis receptis de eodem 
per eandem Indenturam ; Et vendite omnes ut supra ; Et (iquat. 

ViTULi. — Idem reddit compotum de iij vitulis de exitu Imjns anni ; 
Et vendite ut supra ; Et equat. 

Taurus. — Idem reddit conq)otum de j tauro recepto de eodem per 
eandem Indenturanr ; Et venditus ut supra ; Et equat. 

UvES. — Idem reddit compotum de ix"'' ovibus matricibus receptis de 
eodem per eandem Indenturam ; Et vendite ut [supra] ; De quibus in 
morina Ixxiij, et in venditis cvij oves ; Et equat. 

IMuLTONES. — Idem reddit compotum de vij^'viij. niultonibus receptis 
de eodem per eandem Indenturam ; De c^uibus in morina xxiiij, et in 
venditis cviij ; Et equat. 

H(jGAaTRi. — Idem reddit compotum de Ixix hogastris receptis do 
eodem per eandem Indenturam ; De quibus in morina Iij, et in venditis 
xvij ; Et equat. 

Agn'i. — Idem reddit compotum de iiij"viij. agnis de exitu hujus 
anni ; Et venditi ut supra ; Et equat. 

Capre. — Idem reddit compijtum de viij capris receptis de eodem, per 
indenturam, ft vendite ut supra ; Et equat. 

PoRCi. — Idem redilit comi)otum de xxiiij [lorcis receptis de eodem per 
Indenturam ; De ijuibus in morina iij ; et in venditis xxj ; Et equat. 


AucE. — Idem rcJdit compotum de vj aucis rcccptis de eodem per 
Indeiituram ; Et vendite ut supra ; Et equat. 

Pelles.— Idem roddit compotum de xvij petris de cxlix pellibus 
l)identium de moriua ante tousuram ; Et veudite ut supra ; Et equat. 

Lana. — Idem reddit couipotum de xvij petris et j libra lane provcmi- 
entis do ciiij"" velleribus ; Et vcmdite ut supra ; Et equat. 

CoREA. — Idem reddit compotum de ij coreis affrorum de moriua Et 
iiij coreis bovinis de morina ; Et venditi ut supra ; Et equat. 

Galli, Galline, et Ova. — Idem reddit compotum de Ixxj gallis, 
gallinis, Diiij"^ ovis de redditu ; Et veudita ut supra ; Et equat. 

MoRTUUM Staurum. — Idem respondet de tribus carucis cum toto 
apparatu, receptis de eodem per Indenturam, precium cujuslibet xviij d. ; 
ij plaustris precium iij s. ; ij plumbis precium j raarca ; j cuva magna 
cum ij barellis precium v s. ; j lotorio cum parva o]la enea ; feno ad 
sustentacionem averiorum dicti manerii ; j carecta ferrata precium xiiij s. ; 
iiij cistis ; ij minoribus bareUis ; cum omnibus cartis, scriptis, et 
monumentis, sub sigillo fratris Michaelis, quondam custodis ejusdem 

Ornamenta Capelle. — Memorandum de uno calice, uno vestimento 
integro, uno missali, uno gradali, et una legenda inventis in manerio de 
Thornetoue predicto, et remanentibus penes Robertum de Fandone, qui 
ea adbuc retinet, et liberare dicto Guichardo recusavit. 

CoMPOTUS ejusdem Guychardi de eisdem terris a festo Sancti Michaelis 
anno tercio usque diem dominicum proximum ante festum Sancti Cuth- 
berti proximo sequens, quo die liberavit predictas terras et tenemeiita 
Ricardo de Horsley, nunc Custodi earumlem per breve Regis et indenturam 
inter eos inde factam. 

Idem reddit conqDotum de v s. xj <1. de Ixxj gallinis de redditu termino 
Natalis Domini sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de iiij s. vij d. de coreis, ij 
bovium, et coreo j affri mortuorum in morina venditis sicut continetur 
ibidem ; Et de xxx s. v d. de iiij quarterns dimidio j bussello frumenti 
ventlitis, precium quarterii vj s. viij d. sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de 
XV s. iij d. olj. de vj quarteriis j bussello avene venditis super compotum 
sicut continetur ibidem ; Et de xiiij s. de j carecta ferrata veudita super 
compotum sicut continetur ibidem. 

Summa Recepte Ixx s. ij d. ob. 

Expense. —Idem computat in vadiis unius servientis custodientis 
manerium predictum a die dominica in festo Sancti Michaelis anno supra- 
dicto usque diem dominicum proximum ante festum Sancti Cuthberti 
proximo sequens, per clxv dies, cap. per diem j d. ob., xx s. vij d. ob. ; 
Et in stipendiis ij hominuni euntium ad herciam tempore seminacionis, 
tarn hyemalis quam quadragesimalis, per xxxj dies, ij s. vij d., cap. per 
diemj d. ; Et in x quarteriis frumenti, xxx quarteriis avene triturandis 
et ventandis iij s. ij d., videlicet, per quarterium frumenti ij d., et per 
quarterium avene j d. ; Et in stipendio unius fabri emendantis ferra- 
menta carucarum per tempus istius conii)oti, ex certa convencione secum 
facta pro medietate anni, v s. 

Summa Expensarum xxxij s. iiij d. ob. ; 

Et debet xxxvijs. xd. ; Et debet de remanentiljus compotis pre- 
cedentis xxxvij li. xj s. xj d. q^ Summa conjunta ([ue debetur xxxix. li. 
ix s. ix d. q"*. ; Sed respondet in Rotulo sexto in Northumbria. 



Frumentum. — Idem reddit conipotum de xvij quarteriis j bussello 
frumenti, De quibus iu semine super xxij acras terre v quarteria dimi- 
dium, et in venditis ij quarteria ut supra, et in liberacione facta Ricardo 
de rioi-sleye vij quarteria, et in venditis ut supra iiij quarteria v 
busselli : Summa xvij quarteria j bussellus. 

AvEXA. — Idem reddit compotum de iiij-^'^v, quarteriis avene de 
exitibus grangie ; De quibus in semine super xxij acras xj quarteria 
ilimidium, videlicet, super acram dimidium quarterium, et in liberacionibus 
iiij carucariorum a festo sancti ]\Iichaelis usque diem dominicum proxi- 
nnim post festum Sancti Cutlil^erti proximo sequens, per xxiiij 
septimanas, cap. quarterium per xvj septimanas, xvj quarteria, et in 
liberacione unius ancille custo<lientis curiam et faciontis potagium famu- 
lorum, per dictum tempus iij (juarteria, cap. quarterium per viij septimanas, 
et in sustentacione ix bovium per estimacionem in garbis vj quarteria, 
et in farina facta pro potagio famulorum per tempus compoti j quarterium, 
et in liberacione facta Ricardo de Horsleye per indenturam xlj quarteria 
iij busselli : Summa Ixxviij quarteria vij busselli ; Et in venditis super 
compotum ut patet superius vj quarteria j bussellus. 


Affri. — Idem reddit compotum de j affro de remanentibus ultimi 
compoti ; Et mortua (.<iic) est in morina hoc anno ; Et nichil remanet. 

BovES. — Idem respondet de xix bobus de remanentibus ; De quibus 
in morina ij, et in liberacione facta Ricardo de Horselay, habenti cus- 
todium terrarum et tenementorum per breve Regis et indenturam inter 
ipsum [et] Guychardum inde confectam, xvij boves ; Et equat. 

^loRTUUii Staurum. — Idem respondet de tribus carucis cum toto 
apparatu, de remanentibus ultimi compoti, precium cujuslibet xviij d. ; 
ij plaustris precium ij s. ; ij plumbis precium j marca ; j cuva magna cum 
ij bareUis precium v s. ; uno lotorio cum parva olla enea ; feno ad 
sustentacionem averiorum dicti Manerii ; iiij cistis ; ij minoribus barellis 
cum omnibus cartis, scriptis, et monumentis, sub sigillo fratris Micliaelis 
quondam custodis ejusdem Manerii, et liberatis predicto Ricardo de 
Horselay per indenturam inter ipsum et prefatum Guychardum inde 

Et memorandum quod dictis Guychardus liberavit predicto Ricardo de 
Horseley x plaustra feni per indenturam, undo habet respondere super 
compote suo. 

Appendix II. 
(Foreign, Eliz. Record Office. Vol: 11.5. No. 924.) 
Articles accorded by the Right Honorable Thomas Earle of 
At Alnewick, Sussex vizcount Filzwalter, Lordc Egreniont and Burnell, 
xij™°N"1570. knight of the moste honorable Order of the Garter, Cap*^^" of 
the Gentlemen pencioners and Gentlemen at Amies, Chefe 
Justice and Justice in Oyer of all the Q : Ma*' forests pks 
Cliaces and Warens by Sowthc Trente, L. President of her 
Ma'" Councoll establisshed in the Northe, and her highnes 
Lieutenant ( ioncu-all of the .said Xorthe pts : the Wardens 
of the east and middle INIarches : And the principall 
gentlemen of the Com : of 2s^orthumberlande, Whose names 
be under ^v^itten. At Alnewick xij"" Novemb. 1570. 


That the night watches for townos and fourds shalhe kepte punctually in 

the towiies and at fourds fitt to Im' watohod, and the otlier fourds damp- 
ned. And that day watclies slialbe also kepte in places accustomed. 
And the setters searclun-s and ov'secrs appointed as they \v(!r(> in former 
Avatches. And if any be dcade : others to supplj'' by the appoiritem"'' of 
the wardens antl gentlemen and that diligent search be niaile by the 
Watches for apprehending of such as passe into .Scotland, or owt of S'"' 
w*'' tres or messages. 

That ev'y mane apon the fraye raised by night or by day shall follow 
the fraye upon payne of ymp'som"*^ for vij dayes and losse of iij>* iiij''. 

That the p'sons that shall faile in answering and following of the 
fraye shall answer the Valew of the goods lost (if any be lost) and the 
p'sons reskewing the goods shall apon a manifest desert by adventure 
have for ther travell in peace tyiue (if it l)e w*''in english grownde) 
after the rate of xij'' in the pouncle. And if it be w*''in S"^' growndi^ 
after the rate of ij-^ in the pounde of tlie goods reskewed. And the 
owner to have his goods presently. And the Reskewer to have his 
porc'on of the owner, and if tlie owner refuse to deliv' it the Warden to 
compell him. 

That if any scottishman shall come into England and shall take and 
carry away by stealth or otherwise unlawfully any goods belonging to any 
englishman and the said S'' man shall ether going to the facte or retorning 
from the fact be received by any Englishman or 8^' man dwellingin englande: 
the p'tie so receiving shall answer the goods loste and be compelled therto 
by the Warden of the Marches where the goods were lost. And if the 
p'tie that lost the goods and the receiver dwell in sev'all Wardenries 
then bothe the Wardens shall joyne to see dew exe([un'con of this 

Tliat ev'y man that hath a castell or a tower of stone : shall upon ev'y 
fray raised on the night give warning to the Contrey, by fier in the toppe 
of the castell or tower in such sorte as he shalbc directed from Ids 
Warninge Castell : apon paine of iij^^ iiij''. 

That some two or iij or more speciall placs may be appointed in 
ev'y Wardenry as warninge placs Where Watch shalbe nightly kepte, to 
til ende that apon fier descried to be gevin in the other castells: ther 
may be also fier gevin there to Warne th oole Contrey. And that the 
placs be kuowen to the people that they may knowe the cawse of the 
fyringe of those placs to be onely upon the raising of the fraye, And 
not for such other cawses as other beakons be comonly fyered. And that 
the Contrey be devided into pts. Wherby the castells of evy pte shall 
knowe howe to receive the Warning. 

That evy pson that shall have any goods stoolen or takin shall w*''in 
tene dayes after the losse therof deliver to the Warden or his Deputy of 
the Mche where tlie goods were lost a bill of the goods lost, and (if he 
can) of the names of the psons that tooke it, to th ende the Warden may 
at evy monethes ende make upp his booke of the hurts done in his office 
that moneth, And by Whome (if it may be knowen) Whereby he shall 
understand the state of his Office evy moneth and kepe a pfite boke 
therof, W'-'' for many respects is very necessary. 

That all gentlemen and freeholders shall kepe horse Anno' and weapon 
for them selfs And ther families, And cawse ther ten'^nts to kepe horse; 



Anuo'" And weapen According to tlie Ancient use and custome of the 

That I'v'y landliinlc sliall appoint sutficiont grownde to ev'y of his 
tcn'^nts, Wlun- upon lie may iinde liorse and anuo'' according to the 
custuine of tlie borders. 

That no huidlordo shalbe pniitted to suffer any pte of his lande (that is 
fitt to he manured) to lye waste w^'^out a tennt or occupier longer then of 
necessity ho shalbe forced. 

That the landlords apon the borders shall consider what they and ther 
tonnts .shalbe liable to dooe to inclose ther townes apon the borders. And 
the Whole Contrey shall joyne in Ayde to helpe them w*'' that they can 
(if tliem selfs (loo so as they may inclose this yeare certein townes upon 
the Fringe of the borders w*'' diche and quicksett, And others the next 
yeare, And so yearly untill all be inclosed neare to the Fringe, Wlierby 
the pts being streingthened : the people of england w*'' ther 
goods uiay lye in suerty. And the Scotts entering engiande come in pill, 
and when the bordo'' towns be inclosed: the borderers shall ayde the 
ijdande men to inclose ther townes. 

That no mane receive any Scottishman to be his teniite w*^'out lycense 
of the Warden of the Marche under his hande writinge. And that ev'y 
mane w'''in One moneth make certificate to the Warden of the names of all 
such Scottishnien as be his tenfits at this present. And w*^'' of them be 
deni.sons and w''' be not, And that ev'y man that hath any Scottishman to 
to his S^'vnte shall deliver his name to the Warden w*'''in One monethe, 
And evy mane that hereafter shall take any Scot to his S^'vnt : shall before 
he leceive him to his service give his name to the Warden, and that evy 
man that hath or hereafter shall have any Scot to his serunt : shall bring 
forth his servant to Answer or shall Answer for him during his abode w*'' 
hinij And that no man shall putt away any such Scot fnmi his service 
before he first lu-ing him to the Warden, to offer him to Answer to all 
matters wherw"' he. shallx' charged : to th ende ev'y Warden may make a 
pfite boke therof and therby have knowlege of all the Scotts w'^'in 
liis charge from tyme to tyme. 

That good order be given to apprehend all such p'sons as shall reporte 
any sediciowse, lewde or slanderowse tales or rumo""*, towching ether the 
Q : Ma*", or any of Ilci' lliglmes Prevy Councell, or any of the Xobility 
or ]inncipall officers of Llie Kealme, or that shalbe din-ogative directly or 
indirectly to the goode yeace and ((uiet of the Realme. 

Tlie JCarle of Lieutei\'nt genall of the Northe. 

S"" John Forster kniglit Warden of the middh; jM'ches. 

S'" AVillm iJrury knight ^Marshall of Barwick, having the charge of 
Barwick and the caste INIarclicb by the (.Queue's Ma^ Order in the 
absens of the lorde of llunsdon. 

S^ Valentine Brown knight Treasurer of Barwick. 

S'" George Hearon knight deputy Waidi'ii of llic .Midillc Marclics 
and kej) of Tyndale and Riddesdale. 

John Selbyc Deputye Warden of the east M'ches. 

Th(- L. (Jgle AVillm. Hearon Bailif of Tlcxaiu 

S"" John Witherington Clciucnt Ogle 

SMlcorgc Kadclif Kdwardc Witlicringbni 

S"" Thomas (;ray(! Rol)te. iMiddletou 

S'' (Jutbert Colliugwodd Robte. Rames 



Thomas Ogle 

Roger Cutbei't Carnaby 

Thomas Forster 

Nicholas KiiUlley 

Thomas Swin1)orne 

Thomas Iklerton 

George Mustiens 

Robtc. Witheriiigtoii 

Robte. Claveriug 

Tliomas Clavi-riiig 

Lanceh)t Tlnillway 

Mighell Ilelboni 

Robte Horsley 

John Horsley 

John Car of Hetton 

Edmond Crayster 

John Car of Fourde 

Luke Ogle 

Thomas (Jgle 

George Ogle 

Richard Fallowfelde Constable 

John Musgrave 
Gilbert Erington 
Edwarde Byelnell 


Anthony Radclif 
John Shaftoo 
( iawain Rotherfordc 
Mighell Fiaiwik 
Rog(!r Fcnwik 
Alexander Ilearon 
Gerarde Hearon 
John Witherington 
James Ogle 
Lewes Ogle 
John Ilearon 
Oswolde Midforde 
( )swold Witherington 
Laurence Thorneton 
Stephen Fenwik 
Richarde Fenwik 
Thomas Selby 
Robte Clennell 
Roger Proctor 
John Fenwik 
Martin Fenwik 
Gilbert Park 
Cutbert Midi'orde 
Marmaduke Fen wick. 

Appendix IIL 

(Record Office. Foreign, Eliz : Vol. 1.34. No. 153.) 

Endorsed 1575, 6 Junii. From Sir John Forster to my lords of the Vituller of 
Berwick, of the decay of Horses on the Borders. 

Pleaseth yt yo*" hon''' to be advertised that Edwarde INIerye Victu- 
aller of Barvvyck under S"" Valentyne Browne hath beinc av*' me and 
geven me warninge that upon comaundemente geven unto him l)y ti'c 
frome his M'' S'' Valentyne he will execute the victuallinge of the .said 
towne of Barwyck no longer than Myclsomer next. Wherof I thought 
I could doo no les but advertise yo*". ho : that some farther order maye be 
taken therin as yo''. LI : shall thinke convenient. 

Wlieras I receyved yo"" ho : tre beringe date IX*^' of Maye to have 
conferance w*-^' such gentlemen of mj Wardenrye as are inclined to good 
orders and of best Judgement and vSecrecye, T have doon accordingo to 
yo'' LI : comaundement therin And the opinion ys that there are sonilrye 
cawses whye that the borders are not so Avell furnished w*^' horsemen as 
theye have beine before tymes. 

The fyrst is that thankes be to God we have had so 

longe Peace longe peace that the Inhabitants here fall to tillage of 

gronde so that they have not delight to be in horse and 

armore as theye have when the wordle y' troblesome. And that w''*' 

they were wont to bestowe in horse they nowe bestowe in cattell other- 


wayesyc't iiotw"^'' stanJinge whensoever the WDrdle yraveth ..anye thinge 
troljlosoiue or unquiet theye will T)estowi' all thcye have rather then they 
will want horses. 

An other eawse y^ that the most parte of all the good horses of theis 

partes of Englande that are bowght at jNIawten fayrc 
The conveveng and Ryppon fayre are lirought into the west jNIarches 
(if horses into and there open sale made of them into Scoteland 1 
8coteland. remember 1 spake; tn ni}- L. Treasurer therin a longo 

tyme since and his ho : wroti; down tres to the Justices 
of })e{ice w''''in Yorkeshire to take the markes of the horses bowght there 
And the byers name And to advertise the wardens thereof to th entent 
they shoukl not pas their m'ches w^'^owte knowledge w'^'' notw^^'standing 
ys usi'd dayly contrarye wise. 

The thyrd eawse y'' that otherwise tlicii hath Ijeine accustomed in the 

frontors, ther is leases taken daylye So that the Tennant 
The excessive oftentimes takes y^ at the Seconde or thyrde hand. And 
fynes. wheras the fyrst taker payetli two or three yeres fyne 

the Tennant jmyeth ix or x yeres w^'' is ther utter 
undoiuge. This matter doth not consist onlye in the Queynes Ma*''^'* 
TiMinants here but also in the Tennants of noblemen and gentlemen for 
they take suche gersom'es and enhauncements of rents that the pore 
Tennants are not able to kepe hors and armpre as they have doon before 

The fowrth y^ that when any Inhabitant here hath gotten anye Interest 

in a Tent beinge scant sufficient for the menteignaunce 
The de vision of of one pson yf he chaunce to dye having two sonnes he 
y*^ tenements. devydeth the said Tent betwixt them bothe and thus 

the taverninge of the Queynes land ys hinderance for 
kejiinge of hors and armor. 

Wlieres men are 8o geven to troble and often tymes those of the porer 

sorte that yf theye cannot get that w^^^ they desyre 
Contention by and are satesfyed withall at Yorke, they will forthw*'' 
lawe. repaire to London for trefling matters w*^^' ys a great 

Impoverishinge of the Contrie w*^^ in o^ Opinions were 
a cheritable deade that there were some reformacon therin. 

So that in o'' opinions consideringe that the Queynes Ma*^^*^' doth not 
chaigc the Contrie here wi'''^ taxes or subsides as other Contries are a 

general! Comaumlement cominge frome her Ma*''^ or 
The Kemedye: her highnes privie Counsell both to the noble men and 

gentlemen here to favo' their tennants as their Auncetors 
liave doon before tyme for defence of the f routers, and to geve in certifi- 
cate to the Wardens what nound^er of horsenuiu they are able to mak(; 
shall put them in more terror then ordiuaric comaundements that comes 
frunie the Wardens, And so 1 liumlily take mv leave At barwyck this 
vj"' of .June, 1575. 

Yo' bono" luaubly lo comaumle, 

John Fijstkk. 



Nortkaiitbriau Village Goimiiiuiities. 

Till! opinion ('xprossed in th(^ text is tliat tl\c townshi])i« of Nortluiiuhiir- 
land were original units of land tenure and represent ancient connnnnities 
holding land in coninion. In proof of this it is necessary to show liow 
the land was held hy the township and how it passed into separate 
ownership. The partition deed of the township of Emljleton may serve as 
an example. I give it in full : — 

" To all people to whom these presents shall come Thomas Wood (jf 
il'allodon in tlu? County of Northumberland Esq'' ^lajor Algood of 
Brandon in the said County (xent'. John ])oubloday of Alnwick Abbey 
in the said County Cent'. William Cook of l>rainshaugh in tlu; said 
County Gent, and Edward Haggeston of Ellingham in the -said County 
Es(i'' send Greeting, Whereas the E'- Hon^''- Charles Earl of Tankcrville 
Ricliard AVitton of Lupsett in the County of York Esq'' George Darling 
of Embleton in the said County of Northumberland yeoman Ralph 
Christen of the same yeom Robert Christon of the same yeoman Thomas 
Wood and John Wood both of Embleton aforesaid yeoman and Joan 
Darling of Embleton aforesaid Widdow are severally seized of the 
severall Farms Cottages and part of Farms in the Township fields })re- 
cincts and territories of Embleton aforesaid hereafter particularly men- 
tioned (that is to say) the said Charles Earl of Tankerville of sixteen 
Farms and one half of a Farm and eight Cottages or Coathuids the 
said Richard Witton of two farms the said Grace Darling of one Farm 
and Eleaven Twelve parts of another Farm the said Ralph Christon of 
one Farm and Eleaven Twelve parts of another Farm the said Robert 
Christon of one Sixth part of a Farm the said Thomas Wood and John 
Wood of one Farm the said Jean Darling of one Fann, And whereas 
the Premises above mentioned lye promiscus in Com'on Fields undevided 
And whereas Dr. Blossiers Tovey Viccar of Embleton aforesaid is 
seized in right of the Church of Embleton aforesaid of and in three 
Farms in Embleton aforesaid and as Trustee to a Charity kSchool thereof 
a sixth part of a Farm And whereas there's a large Moor or Com'on 
belonging to the Townshipp of Embhiton aforesaid, And whereas the 
said Charles Earl of Tankerville Richard Witton George Darling Ralph 
Christon Robert Christon Thomas Wood John Wood Joan Darling and 
Dr. Blossiers Tovey have by Common Consent agreed to have all the said 
Farms parts of Farms and Coatland in Embleton aforesaid of which they 
are soe seized as aforesaid divided (except a parcell of ground called or 
known by the name of the East Fiekl and which is i)art of the Lands 
belonging to the Vicarage of EmlDleton aforesaid which is to continue and 
be unto the said Dr. Blossiers Tovey and his successors as it's now) as it 
is now enjoyed by him so as a just and equal division and allottment 
shoidd be had and made according to there respective Interests therein 
And also to have the said Moor or Com'on divided according to the respec- 
tive Interests of the said parties therein And for that end by their 
Indenture Trepartite under their severall hands and seals and by them 
duely (ixecuted bearing date the twenty eight day of October last past 
have l)y mutual Consent and agreement Inditi'erently elected nondnated 
appointed and Chosen the said Thomas Wood Major Algood John 


Dou1)letlay Edward Haggerstoii Com'"'^ or arbitrators to divide allott and 
set out in severallty to the said owners of the said primisses according to 
tlieir respective Interests therein their several & respective shares i)ro- 
portions of Sc in tlie said primisses so always as the said award order & 
determination of the said arbitrators of for and concerning the premisses 
mentioned in the said Indenture be duely executed on or liefore the 
tifteenth day of ffebruary next ensueing the date of the same Indenture 
as in and by the same Indenture amongst divers other matters and things 
therein contained whereunto relation being had more fully and at large it 
may and dotli appear 

Now know ye that the said Tliomas Wood Major Algood John Double- 
day William Cook and Edward Haggerstiju haveing pursueant to the 
said Election taken upon them the said division doe first allott and set 
out unto the said Dr. Blossiers Tovey in right of his Vioarage lands (over 
& besides the said East field) twenty acres two Eoods and ten perches 
seituate in Embleton Town fields as dowelled or marked out and bounder- 
ing on Dunston^ grounds on or towards the south on the said East Field 
on or toward the East and on Embleton Innfield grounds on or towards 
the north and west and also to him (in trust for the said Charity School 
in Endileton aforesaid) five acres seituate also in Embleton town fields 
and lying next and adjoining to the school house in Embleton afore- 

Item the said Tliomas Wootl ^lajor Algood John Doubleday William 
Cook and Edward Ilaggerston Do allott and set out unto the said 
Charles Earl of Tankerville for his said Cottages or Coatlands three 
Acres and three roods in Embleton Town Fields next and adjoining to 
and on the north side of the said Schoolhouse and lands above allotted. 

Item the said Thomas Wood Major Algood John Doubleday William 
Cook and Edward Haggerston do allott and set out unto the said Dr. 
Dlossiers Tovey in right of his said Vicarage Lands sixty eight acres of 
the said INIoor or Common boundering on Brunton^ grounds on or towards 
tlic Xorth on that part of Embleton Moor now called or distinguished 
by tlie Middle part on or towards the West on Embleton Inn field 
grounds on or towards the South and that part of Embleton Moor here- 
after mentioned to be allotted to the said Earl of Tankerville for his 
cottages on or towards tlie East. 

Item the said Tliomas Wood Major iVlgood John Doubleday and 
William Cook and Edward Ilaggerston do allott and set out the remainder 
of the Infield grounds of Embleton aforesaid and of the said Moor (not 
yet allotted or set out) except the said Eastfield into three equal parts or 
divisions and now called and distinguished by the several names of the 
west ])art the middle part and the east part as they are now severally 
marked out or dowelled out the west part containing five hundred and 
thirty two acres and boundering on Dunston and Stamford^ grounds on 
or towards the south and south east on Rock^ grounds on or towards the 
west and on tlie mitldlc part on or towards the north and north east. 
The middle part containing six hundred and one acres boundering on the 
said west i)art on or towards the south and south west on ifallodon 
grounds on or towards the north and north west on that part of the said 

' Tlie ;ulj;iceiit tuwii.sjiijiri iire Dunsbin, whoBc boundarie.s arc necessary fur the 
bUimford, Uock, Nuwtou and Falludon, allotment. 


above allotted to the said Dr. lUossiers Tovey and to the said Earl of 
Taidvcrvillc for liis said Cottages or Coatlands on or towards the north 
and on Enibleton Inntield grounds and part of the said moor on or 
towards the east the east part containing tive hundred and thirty-thr(!0 
acres boundering on the middle part on or towards the west on Newton 
grounds and that part of the said Moor allotted to the said Cottages or 
Coatlands on the north and north-west on a part of ground called the 
Newbiggin and also on the sea on or towards the east and on Dunston 
Steed grounds and the said Eastfield l^elonging to the said Viccarage 
on or towards the south . . . We do allot and set out unto the 
said Charles Earl of Tankerville the said west and east parts and unto 
the said Richard Witton George Darling Ralph Christon Robert Christon 
Thomas Wood John Wood & Joan Darling the said middle part and 
whereas the number of Farms and parts of Farms of the said Richard 
Witton George Darling Ralph Christon Robert Christon Thomas Wood 
John Wood & Joan Darling before tliis Division consisted of twelve 
acres more than the like number of Farms and parts of farms which the 
said Earl of Tankerville ... as good in quality We therefore do 
allott Sz set out unto the said Richard Witton George Darling Ralph 
Christ')n Robert Christon Thomas Wood John Wood and Joan Darling 
the said twelve acres out of that part of the said east part .... 
allotted and set out unto the said Earl of Tankerville as lyes next and 
adjoyning upon the said miildle part so allotted and set out unto the said 
Richard Witton Grace Darling Ralph Christon Robert Christon Thomas 
Wood John Wood and Joan Darling. 

Item the said Thomas Wood ]\lajor Algood John Doubleday William 
Cook and Edward Haggerston do order and award that the said Charles 
Earl of Tankerville shall erect and build or cause to be erected and built 
and for ever after maintained and kept in good repair one moiety or half 
part of a Dike or Hedge to separate and divide his said allottments of 
the premisses from the said Richard Witton George Darling Ral[)h 
Christon Robert Christon Thomas Wood flohn Wood and Joan Darling 
their said allottment of the premisses and also from the said Dr. Blossiers 
Toveys allottment and that tlu; said Richard Witton George Darling 
Ralph Cliriston Roltert Christon Thomas Wood and Joan Darling shall 
erect and build or cause to be erected and built and for ever after main- 
tained and kept in good repair a moiety of the Dike or Hedge to separate 
and divide their said allottment of the premisses from the said Cliarles 
Earl of Tankerville and also from the said Dr. Blossiers Tovey and that 
tlie said Dr. Blossiers shall erect and build or cause to be erected and 
built and for ever after maintained and kept in good repair a moiety of 
the Dike or Hedge to separate and divide his said allottment of the 
Premisses from the said Richard AN^itton George Darling Ralph Christon 
Ro})ert Christon, Thomas Wood John Wood and Joan Darling their said 
allottment and also from the said Cliarles Earl of Tankerville. 

In Witness whereof we have hereunto said our hands and seals the 
Thirteenth Day of ffel)ruary in the fourth yeare of the Reigne of oiu- 
Sovereigne Lord George the Second by the Grace of God of Great 
Britain &c anno Dom. 1730. 

Thomas Wood. Major Allgood. John Doubleday. 
William C^Iook. 


"We whose names are underwritten being tlie within mentioned Com- 
missioners do Certify that tho' the Lands within mentioned and given by 
the said written award to Dr. Tovey only, without any notice benig taken 
of his successors and tho' no mention T)e made yt he y*-' s<i Dr. Tovey is 
likewise to enjoy to him and his successors two small butts of Land 
belonging to the' Right Hon''''" l*2arl of Tankerville and which is bounded 
on the east west and north sides of the Viccarage East Field and on the 
south by Dunster land ; and tho' no part of the moor whatever by this 
written" award allotted to him y'= s'' Dr. Tovey in trust for the Charity 
School of Embleton It was our intention and agreement nevertheless 
at the day and time within mentioned that the said Dr. Tovey should 
enjoy the said Lands to hhn and his successors, and also the said two 
Butts of Lands, as also three acres and a half of the said moor lying at the 
foot of the Cadger Ways and bounded by Fallodon in the west George 
Darling on the east Thomas Wood on the south and Joan Darling on the 
north in trust for the said School and that such omissions proceeded only 
from the Clerk who reduced our award to writing. We do likewise 
further order and award that it shall and may be lawfi;ll to and for the 
within mentioned Earl of Tankerville and Joan Darling their heirs and 
assigns to pass and repass with their Corn and Hay to and from their 
present stack garths by the most usuall and convenient Avays ; any 
alterations that may have been made in them by the Division notwith- 

Major Allgood. 

Thomas Wood. 

John Do\ibleday. 

William Cook. 
. Edward Haggerston. 

An extract from the Terrier of the parish Church of Edlingham, dated 
1681, shows liow in earlier times the rights of the freeholders were 
invaded by great landowners : 

" One full fifth part of the South Demesne of Edlingham aforesaid did 
of right belong to the said Vicaridge, but the late S'' John Swinburn 
refuseing to allow thereof, the said late Vicar Ralph Carr continued a 
suite and recovered the same in or about the years 1663 or 1664, and 
after it was recovered the said late Vicar and the late Sir John Swinburn 
did agree to refer the matter then in difference to Ralphe Clavering late 
of CoUowle in the s*^ county esq"' & Thomas Burrell late of Broompark 
in the s'' county gent' now l)oth dece'^. 

" As also the eighth stint throughout the whole North Demesne which 
did belong to the said Vicar in lieu of the said Sir John Swinburn and 
Vicar did agree that the s'' two arbitraters should sett of a piece of 
ground for tlie said Vicar in lieu of the said eighth stint. And s"* 
arbitraters did sett of a piece in lieu thereof which goes by the name of 
the Hutt, and the late Vicar Ralph Carr enjoyed the same in lieu of the 
s'' eighth stint through the s'' North Demesne. 

"2\nd the s'' Arbitraters alsoe ordered the s"^ late Sir John Swinburn 
.should pay or cause to be paid unto the said late Vicar and his successors 
yearly and every year Three Pounds Six Shillings and Eight Pence in lieu 
of the s*" lifth part of s*" South Demesne, the .'<ame to be paid half-yearly 
at Whitsuntide and Martinmas which said sume of three Pounds six- 


.sliilling.s and ('ight-])Ciice was after received by the said late Vicar iluriii^^ 
his Life and since; his decease Ly the present Vicar Carrand his Tennants, 
as the same hcicanie half yearly due Hut there was noe award niadi! by 
the said Arbitraters in Writin_i; nor confirnied by the Bishop." 

The rights Avhich the Vicar alienated for the yearly payment of 
.£3 6s. Sd. are described in a terrier of 1663 : " every fifth Kidgi; in a 
field called the 8outh Domayne of Edlingham, but wrongfully and 
forcibly dctayncd from the Church ever since the late Troubh^s began in 
England." It would seem that Sir John Swinburn took the opportunity 
allbrded Ijy the ( Treat Rebellion to deny the rights of the Vicar, who 
only recovered them after a suit. In his old age, when weary of the 
contest, he M'as persuaded to submit the (piestion to arbitration. The 
arbitrators were two neighbouring laudt)\vners who did all they cinihl for 
Sir John Swinburn, and were so ashamed of themselves that they never 
even reduccul their decision to writing. The old Vicar was left to the 
mercy of Sir John Swin1)urn. Ilis claims had i)robably not brought lum 
much income for some time j)ast, and he was satisfied with a money pay- 
ment, which was prol)ably soon discontinued ; at all events there is no 
trace of it at present. If a freeholder so important as the Vicar was 
thus dealt with by the great landowners what must have been the treat- 
nu^nt of the smaller freeholders ? 

The great source of information respecting thi' land tenure (if the 
Northumbrian townships is the evidence collected in a Chancery Suit,^ 
Attorney General v. Trevelyan, which was tried in the years 18IG-4-8. 
The voluminous evidence in this suit has been put in my hands, and I 
make a few selections which may be of general interest. The history of 
the suit is as follows — 

On the dissolution of the Monasteries the lands of the great Abbey of 
Newminster passed into the hands of the Crown. Part of them were 
granted by Edward VI for the foundation and maintenance of a Grammar 
School at Mor[)eth. The lands so granted were the lands belonging to a 
Chantry of S. Giles which lay in the township of Netherwitton. In the 
Particular for Grants, 5 Edward VI they are thus described. 
Nuper Cantaria Sancti Egidii fundata in Cai)ella de Wyttone in parochia 
de Hartborne in comitatu Northumbria?. 
Terras et tenementa cum pertinentibus diet* nuper Cantariie 
Sancti Egidii. 
Firma unius tenementi cum pertinentibus in Xether- 

weton in tenura Johannis Smythe per annum xiiij'' 

Firma unius tenementi cum pertinentibus in Nether- 

weton prsedicta in tenura Thomae Potts per annum xiiij'^ 

Firma unius tenementi cum pertinentibis in Nether- 
, weton in tenura Alexandri Ansone pt!r annum xiiij-' 

Firma unius tenementi ibidem cum pertinentibus in 

tenura Johannis Rogerson per annum xij** 

Firma unius vast* ibidem cum pertinentibus in tenura 

Richardi Snawdone per annum xs 

These lands were granted to the Bailiff and burgesses of Morpeth and 
their successors to the use of a School. They were leased by the Ijurgesses of 
Morpeth to the Thorntons, who were lords of the Manor of Netherwitton. 
These leases generally ran for peiiods of twenty-one years, till in IGS.") a 
lease was granted to Nicholas Thornton for a period of live hundred years 



;it a .yt-'iiily rent of forty-live pounds. In 1710 the Master of the School 
at ^Morpeth was discontented with this arrangement, and instituted a 
Chancery suit to have it set aside or amended. The diliiculty lay in 
iliscovering what part of the lands of the township of Netherwitton 
belonged to the Grammar School of 3Iorpeth. At the time of the 
original grant the lands in the township lay promiscuous and undivided. 
Since then the Thorntons had accpiircd all the lands Avhich belonged to 
the ancient freeholders and had leased the lands which Ijelonged to the 
Grammar School. There were no boundary marks or divisions of any 
kind ; there was no means of determining the extent of the possessions of 
the School. Luckily, however, a chui had been accidentally preserved. 
Nicholas Thornton was a Koman Catholic, and his lands, owing to his 
recusancy, Avere subject to doul)le taxes. This fact led to a separate 
taxation of the lands of the j\Iorpeth School, according to the principles 
stated by his farm steward in an afhdavit sworn in the case, Attorney 
General v. Radcliffe, 1710 : — 

" The townshi]) lands of iS' etherwitton during all the time of this 
Deponents being the said Nicholas Thornton's servant and living under 
him were computed and reckoiu^d to consist of nineteen farnies and one 
half farme, and saith that hve f amies and one halfe farnie thereof were 
then usually assessed and taxed in the Land Taxes at the single rate or 
tax as belonging to the said Grammar School in ]\Iorpeth, when as at the 
same time the other lands there l)elonging to the said Nicholas Thornton 
Escy^' were assessed and taxed at the double rate or tax for his Ijeing a 
Koniish Recusant." 

Much evidence was given of the same kind, and the result was that the 
rent of the School lands in the township of Netherwitton was raised from 
i;45 to £100. This sum continued to be paid without further question 
till the records of this suit came accidentally to light in 1844, and a iiew 
suit was instituted for the purpose of securing for the School lands a rent 
more in proportion to the increased value of land since the decision of 
1710. This suit was brought forward just in time to save from oblivion 
a mass of evidence about the ancient meaning of the word funii as 
denoting a unit of tenure of undivided lands in a township. I quote as 
an instance the affidavit of Robert Coxon of Morpeth, who was born in 
1778, and was in the employment of a solicitor in Morpeth who died in 
1826 at the age of seventy-one. He consequently represents a far 
reaching memory of legal matters. He says : — 

"Infonner times the word farm was used in many parts of this 
county to express and was an ali(piot part in value of a townshij), being 
one of several portions of land of which a township consisted, each one 
of such portions having originally been of equal value, and in particular 
I believe that it was so used in the parish of Hartburn in the said county. 
And I know that prior to the year 1805 nearly the entire townshij) of 
North Middleton in the said parish of Hartburn was undivided, both 
tillage and pasture ground being occupied in common, each jjroprietor's 
share and interest being estimated by the number of anticnt farms or parts 
of a farm of which his land was known to consist. And in the year 1805, 
in consequence of a deiid of agreement entered into by and between the 
said landowners in the said township the lands therein were allotted and 
set apart, such allotment and division being made according to the 
number of ancient farms or iiart or the i)arts of a farm which lielungcd to 


eacli landowner, tliat hein.^- the only criterion by which the proportion of 
each owner's interest in the said land could be ascertained, and that in 
such division each farm was regardad as of equal value. All the business 
relating to the said allotment having passed through my hands I am well 
acquainted with tlie abiwc^ mentidui'd facts and circumstances." 

A few more particulars may Ijc added about the township of North 
Middleton mentioned in the above affidavit. 

(1). An Indenture of feoffment, March 27, 28 Charles II (167G) 
conveys "One quarter or fourth part of one farme and lialfe a farme 
the said farme and half e a farme into fower partes equally to be divided 
situate and being within the townslii]» fields precincts and territories of 
North iMiddletoii." 

(2). An Intlenture of release, April 15, 1766 conveys in fee "all the 
messuages with a garden behind the same and all the several pieces or 
parcels of arable land meadow and pasture ground thereunto belonging, 
lying dispersedly in tlie several fields precincts and territories of North 

(3). William Davison of Middleton Mill testifies July 21, 1847. 
" From the time I first came into the township the poor rates were 
assessed and paid at so much per ancient farm, not so much in the pound, 
each farm paying the same sum, and every fractional part of a farm a 
sum in proportion thereto. For the last twenty-four years I have always 
been one of the overseers of the poor of the said township, and have 
received and paid the poor rates when assessed in manner aforesaid. 
The poor rates were first assessed iipon the annual value of the heredita- 
ments and tenements in the said township about ten years ago." 

(4). North Middleton township Avas included in the Barony of 
Morpeth Castle. The following is an extract from the " Courtleet of the 
Barony of Morpeth Castle with its members," held Oct. 5, 1714. 

" It's found by the Jury that Joseiih Yellowly of Carter moor marry'd 
Jane Jameson, and in riglit of his wife the said Jane -Jameson is become 
seised and possessed of a third parte of a farme in North Middleton 
within the jurisdiction of this Court, and held of the lord of this manrir 
by suite of court and the certain yearly rent of and that the 

said Joseph Yellowly is admitted tenant accordingly." 

These extracts, taken together, give materials for the continuous history 
of a township. 

I pass on to give instances of evidence which shows the traces of tliis 
ancient system of land tenure by curious survivals of institutions 
deriving from it. 

The records of the Church books show that contributions to parochial 
purposes were assessed upon each township in proportion to the nmnber 
of ancient farms, and this in times long subsequent to the division of the 
lands of the township, and long after the old meaning of the word farm 
had been forgotten. 

Let me take a typical instance. The parish of Earsdon consisted of 
eight t(iwnships, which in the Church books appear as follows : 
Newsham 6 farms, ^ farms and ^ of a farm. 

Seaton Delaval 1 1 farms. 
Hartley 9 farms. 

Back worth 10 farms. 

Earsdon 8 farms. 


Seghill 10 farms. 

Buiradon 5 farms. 

HolyAvell 6 fanns, ^ farms and ■} of a farm, 

makin<( in all 66), farms. Each of these farms so lately as the year 1847 
l»aiil to the Vicar 6s. 8il. per annum. Until the year 1841 Church rates 
wore assessed at so much per farm. 

In the year 1841 the Vestry resolved that the Church rates should he 
paiil upon the £ rental or actual value of the lands. The Vestry of the 
parish of Earsdon, like that of all the ancient parishes of Northumberland, 
consistiMl of a body of Four and Twenty, who Avere appnint(;d by co- 
.i|. tat ion. A few extracts from the records of the proceedings of tliis liody 
will show how parochial business was managed : 

May ."). 1G97. It is this day ordered liy die major part of the four and 
twenty at the Chapelry of Earsdon that an assessment be levy'd 
on tlie said parish at the rate of five shillings p farm for and towards the 
repairing of the said Church or ChapeU to be levyed and collected by the 
churchwardens for the time being at or before the thirtieth day of this 
present month. 

Nov : 14. 171-5. It is this day ordered by the major part of the four and 
twenty of this parish that an assessment of ten shillings a farm for the 
repairs of the Parsonage house and other incident expenses of the said 
i'arisli, and that the Church wanLms do take care to levy the same 

^Farch 7. 1744. At an appointed meeting of the four and twenty it is 
agreed that an assessment of two shillings and sixpence p farm be 
immediately collecte(l towards defraying ye chargi; of ye parish for tlu» 
y(!ar 1743. 

April 20. 1810. At a nuM'ting of the Minister Churchwardens Four 
and Twenty and principal inhabitants of the parish held in the Vestry 
room this day, It was agreed that an assessment of sixteen .sliillings per 
farm on the 66^ farms in the said parish be collected to defray the 
expenses of the preceding year. 

In many other parishes the entries are equally explicit ; but in some 
they are more obscure, because the older books have disappeared and the 
more modern ones quote the old phraseology, after the old schedules, to 
which it oi'iginally referred, have disai)i)eared. These Church books contairi 
orders, "That the book of the rates," or "double the book of the rates be 
laid on." In these cases the "book of the rates" copied at the Ix'giiining of 
the vestry book merely has the names of indivi(hials and a certain sum 
set against them. There can be no doubt that this corresponds to the 
number of farms, from each of which an average annual payment had been 
found by experience to cover current expenses. In other cases these 
nominal sums are called " Ancients " or " Ancient rents." I believe that 
a careful searcli in Churcli books would bring many more instances to light. 
]>ut I leave these doul)tfuI cases and return to the townshii)s whei'e 
the farms were undoubtedly recognised as the units of land tenure. Not 
oidy w(!re Church rates paid upon the farms, but in many cases there 
were in this century customary payments made to the parish clerk by the 
owiKjrs of these anci(;nt re])ute 1 farms. Thus in Netlierwitton in 1830 
the parish clerk received f(iurj)euce per annum from each of the 40i farms 
contained in the ])arish. In the ])arish of Warkworth the clerk received 
one shilling anil sixpence, and the sexton ninepence a year from each 




















farm, till the year 1842 when the Vestry resolved, " That the Clerk and 
Sexton respectively should receive out of the Church rates certain fixed 
stipends on conseutiuL;- not to colle(;t or claim the sums to which they 
w(;r(^. customarily eutitliul." The Church hooks of Warkworth also con- 
tain a resolution of the Vestry in 1826 that the wall enclosing the Church- 
yard should he rehuilt, the owncu* of each farm l)uildin<i; two yards in 
length of it. " An account of what each township repairs of the Church wall 
being at two yards per farm, beginning at the N^orth East corner and so 

Again in otlier townships old rate books shew that poor rates were at 
one time assessed on the basis of farms. Thus in the township of North 
Seaton the ass(!ssment of Church rates on farms ceased in the year 1746 ; 
but the assessment of poor rates remained on the ancient basis down to 
the year 1831. I append an extract from a rate book of 1829. 

1829. Feb : 12. W" Watson esq. 1 farm at £1 5 per farm 

W. J. Straker 4 

Jolm Sanderson S^ 

John Swan 3 

Jas. Ogle U 

W" Ogle ij 

James Haggup 1|- 

16 at £1 5 

There are also instances of land tax and fee farm rents paid upon the 
basis of farms and so stipulated in indentures of release, l^'inally divisions 
of comnu:)ns show that in some cases the ancient basis of farms was 
employed even when the lands had been already enclosed and divided. 
It is noticeable that the desire for a division of lands was felt earlier in 
some townships than in others, but this division of lands did not obliterate 
at once tlie old state of things. Thus in the township of Burradon there 
were formerly two parcels of unenclosed lands, called the South Side and 
the North Side, the first of which was divided about the year 1723 and 
tlie latter about the year 1773. Upon both such divisions each freeholder 
had appointed to him a part of the common in proportion to the number 
of ancient farms of which his enclosed lands consisted. Even after this 
final division the ohl assessment did not pass away. Up to the year 1827 
the poor rates and highway rates were assessed at so much per farm and 
not so much per pound. 

I have now indicated the nature of the evidence by which the existence 
of Xorthumbrian townships as Village Comunities holding land in 
common may b(! established. The evidence itself which at present has 
come into my hands enables me to determine the number of ancient farms 
into which forty-eight of the Northumbrian townships were formerly 
divided. I have little doubt that a more extended investigation would 
very largely increase that number. 

These forty-eight townships are as follows : I have added the size of 
the farms calculated on the acreage size of the townships. 
Paridt of Earsdon ^°- '^f farms. Area of caqlifarm. 

Newsham containing ... 61 and -V farms l.'")3 acres. 

Seaton Delaval ... iT ' ... 214 

Hartley ... 9 ... 155 




.. 144 



.. 153 




Burra Jon 




6i and }r 

Pid'ish of Kirk Wlieljvnrjtnv. 

West Whelpingtnii 


.. 205 of Bof/ial. 


^-'3 5 

... 132 

Pariali of Wuodhorn. 

Xortli Seatou 


... 87 

Parish uf Rothhartj. 







Parish of Alicinfov. 






... 153 

Parish of Elsdon. 



... 817 



... 1083 



... 315 



... 35C 



... 360 

Parish of Ilarihurn. 

North ]\riddleton 



Parish of Win tit on. 







Ogle ' 





... 110 

Parish of Bedlinriton 


... 131 

Parish of Tyncmoufh. 



... 223 



... 120 



... 130 



... 300 



... 103 

Parish of Netherwittov. 



.. .356 



... 117 

Parish of Warhvorfh 









... 106 






... 120 



... 135 






Sjjittle and Lower liuston 


Wark worth 






Biitlcy ... 10 

East Chcvington ... 14 ... 156 

West Chevingtoii .. 12 ... IGl 

Hadstone ... 8 ... 130 

111 some Cluu'cli books tlu; phrase " plough or plougliLiud '' iillerii.iLes 
with "farm " ; lait " farm " is by far the commonest expression. 

Kegardiiig the rehitioii of these ancient farms to the lords of th 
manor I give the; following extracts from JNIanor rolls : 

(1). The manor of Tynemouth contained several farms which were of 
copyhold tenure ; each of which paid to the lord 2s. 6d. per farm for 
" boon days " or " days work money," and 32 bushels of bigg or liarley 
and 16 bushels of oats. The following is an example of the records of 
the Court Baron. 

" Manerium de Tynemouth. You arc to eiupiire what copyhold lands 
farms and tenements Ralph Grey of Dackworth Esq dyed seized and 
possessed of within the manor of Tynemouth aforesaid and who is the 
next heir to the same according to the custom of this manor and as you 
find present under my hand this 17th day of Aprill anno D'ni 1700. 
We hnd that the said Ralph Grey dyed possessed of eight severall 
copyhold farms and one half a farm with the appurtenances situated lying 
and being in Backworth aforesaid and also of and in one copyhold farm 
or ten'' with the appurtenances situate and lying and being in Preston and 
also of and in one third part of two copyhold or customary tenements in 
Earsdon and also of and in one quarter of one customary tenement or 
farmhold in INIonkseaton and also of and in eight stints or beast gates 
in Billy Milne moor, and that W'" Grey of Backworth Esq'' is the next 
heir of the said Ralphe Grey to all the aforesaid copyhojd lands or 
customary farmholds." 

(2.) The Call book of the Court Baron of the Barony of Morpeth 
contains all the freeholders within the barony headed by the Duke of 
Newcastle for lands in Shilington, Twizell and Saltwich, as well as the 
tiwners of the manors of Netherwitton and Wallingt()n who are sulyect 
to an annual payment and owe suit and service. A few extracts are 
interesting : 

" Chief court and Court leet of the barony and Castle of Morpeth with 
its members held the 6*^ day of October 1724 before John Aynesley 
seneschall of the said Court : 

"You are to enquire for and on behalf e of the lord of this niannor of 
how many farmes the tounship of Ulgliam now consists and how many 
farmes there do belong to the said lord of this mannor and who are or is 
owner or owners of the other farm or farms ami whether any or what 
part of the said tounshippe belongs to George Lawson, Gent. You are 
also to enquire what part and share of that parcell of ground lyin" in 
Ulgham aforesaid called the east part of the Whins doth belon<^- to the 
said George Lawson. 

" Upon the oath of Gawen Robinson of Ulgham aforesaid" aged eighty 
years and upwards We doe find that the tounshipp of Ulgham now and 
formerly consisted of twenty four farmes and that twenty three farmes 
thereof did and doe and time l)eyond memory have belonged to the lord 
of this manor and his ancestors And that one farm only in the said 
tounshipp now doth and formerly did belong to the said George Lawson 
and his ancestor And we lind that about lorty years ago a parcell of 


ground in Ulgham called the Whins was divided into three parts two pts 
of which were entirely allotted to tlu' said Lord or liis ancestor and that 
seven parts of the other third part thereof called the east part doth of 
right belong to the Lord of this inannor And that the other eighth part 
thereof (two ridges belonging to the Church l)eing taken out of the whole 
eight parts) doth belong to the said George Lawson of which eight parts 
one ridge lyeing on the west side of the freehold by and on the south 
side of the said town being taken to be a part of the said George 
Lawson's said eighth part and that noe other or greater part thereof doth 
belong to the said George Lawson." 

In the Court baron of 1732 is an entry : 

" Whereas Jane Swann of Longhorseley widow dy'd seized of one 
farnie and a halfe of land situate lying and being in Longhorseley afore- 
said within the barony having' an estate for life and after her decease tlie 
said farm and a halfe descended to Robert Potts in right of his wife 
William Dobson in right of his wife and George ]\[oore who purchast a 
fourth part of tlie said fanne and a halfe of John Lawson whereby they 
the said Robert Potts William Dobson and George Moore are become 
severally seized and legally intituled to three parts of the said farme and 
a halfe 'within the jurisdiction of tins court paying an antient yearly free 
rent of 6d. to the Rt. Honoble the Earle of Carlisle Lord of tlie Mannor 
and suite of court having severally paid their fees are admitted tenants 
accordingly for three parts of the said farme and a halfe." 

In 1733 there is a similar record of admission to a fourthe part and a 
halfe a farm in North ]Middleton on payment of an " antient yearly (piit 
rent the sum of three half pence." 

(3). Newbiggin by the sea is a small fishing village with a rude harbour. 
The following facts are known about its past history. In 1240 the manor 
of Newl)iggin was held by John de Baliol, whose estates were granted by 
Edward I to the Earl of Brittany and Richmond, to Avhom in 1308 was 
made a grant of market and fair at Xewbiggin. In 1319 Edward II made 
a grant "bailivis et probis hominibus de Xewbiggin" of tolls on ships f(n- 
the purpose of repairing their pier. In 1326 the lands of the Earl of 
Richmond were seized by the Crown, and in 1335 the King granted Xew- 
bi""in to John de Denton, who was mayor of Newcastle in 1336. Denton 
conveyed to the Widdrington family in 1343. In their hands the manor of 
Xewbiggin remained till the forfeiture of William 4th Lord AViddington 
after the rebellion of 1715. His estates were purchased of the Crown by 
the Governor and Company of Undertakers for raising the Thames Water in 
York Buildings. The purchasers filed a bill in Chancery to establish their 
rights as Lords of Manor, which was stoutly resisted by the freeholders. 
The following extracts are taken from the proceedings in the suit 
" Gregory /;. Pattinson," instituted in 1733. 

The freeholders of Newbiggiu assert " that the township of Newbiggin 
hath for all the time of their remembrance been distinguished by whole 
Freeholds and lialf Freeholds" ; that Newbiggin Common has been stint- 
ed bv them in proportion to their Freeholds : that there are certain rocks 
adjoining the said stinted ])asture which extend to low water mark, and they 
insist tliat thcfse rocks belong to the saiil Freeholders. They have constantly 
and in the most open manner rode the boundaries thereof down to low- 
water mark and have won and got limestones and freestones forth of the 
.sinie ; they have gathered sea\vi!ed from the said rocks and have had pay- 
ment from others to whom they have granted liberty of cutting seaweed. 


They have constantly received anchorage money and have converted to 
their respective use such shi|)wrecks as have been (h'ivcu ashore within 
the boundaries of the township. They payed no (][uit rent to Lord 
Widdrington or his ancestors ; but there was a fee farm rent of £10 Is, 
payable to the heirs of Edward Noell, Esq*', issuing of the several freehold 
lands at Newbiggin and payable in certain proportions amongst themselves. 
They go on to say " The Widdrington family being a very opulent 
family and Imving numbers of people within their influence by reason of 
several beneficial farms at Woodhorn and elsewhere in the neighbourhood 
of Newbiggin, some of which were let to some of the freeholders at New- 
biggin at very low rents, and the ancestors of the late Lord Widdrington 
having a desire to lay a foundation of a future claim to the said Xewbiggin 
Common as a place from whence several considerable benefits might be reap- 
ed, did about sixty years ago first take upon themselves to hold a Court at 
Newbiggin and did prevail upon such of the Freeholders at Newbiggin 
as were their dependants and friends to appear at such pretended Court 
and did prevail upon them to accept admittances upon pretence that the 
same were only copies of their entrances in the Court KoUs as tenants at 
the Lord's Court. But the said several persons afterwards finding that 
by these means attempts were formed to make them copy holders and to 
subject them to fines and the bondages to which Copyhold estates are 
by law subjected the said several persons utterly declined and refused to 
appear any more at the said pretended courts and accordingly the said 
pretended Court was dropt and hath been declined not only since the 
year 1715 but for some time before." 

A few extracts from the Freeholders' books show how they exercised 
their privileges. 

" Constahells for the year 1730. 
Ephraim Johnson ) and they are to take care of the pinfold belonging to 
Joseph Payevett ) the town and the pinfold in the moor be kept in 

sufiicient repare. 
Comen Dryevers for the year 1730 is 

Eobert Dawson Ralph Smeth. 

Ale tasters and bred waers for the year 1730 is 

John Pattson Thomas Johnson 

and theay are to heave att every Alle house in the town won quartt." 
1731. The freeholders agree to pay one shilling a freehold to defend 

their " rites and privaliges." 
1744. "Whereas there is some Freeholders who does not contribute 
towards the Chancery suit now depending, we the said freeholdevs 
do agree that the said Constaliles or any other freehold shall im- 
pound the s^ freeholders cattle or horses grazing upon the common or 
Town pasture till such time the payment be made, and if they 
will not pay up their proportion we the said freehold does agree that 
these agressors shall forfeit and loose their rights and propei-ties 
belonging to the said Town of Newbigin." 
1757. Ordered that John Swan of Linefield is to pay one guinea 
p wain for loading ware or sea-weed, 

Mr. Cresswell is to pay £2 2 for liberty of keeping lobsters in 
the Rocks or sands belong^ to the Township. 
1762. Ordered that the Constable weigh all butter and bread that shall 

be off"ered for sale in s'' township. 
Similar entries are found up to the date of 1829, 



During tlie recent and successful Congress, held by the Institute at 
Newcastle, tlie ^layor and Corporation of Morpeth exhibited in the 
temporary museum, formed in the Black Gate, their great mace ; and as 
that mace is a little singular in form, and otherwise of much interest, I 
propose to describe it rather carcifuUy, and to compare its heraldry with 
the heraldry of Naworth Castle : the reason for this will presently appear. 

In form the Morpeth great mace, which is 2 feet 2| inches long, is 
simple, consisting of a shaft with three knops, and a bell-like bowl, whose 
sides contract towards the top, or " tuml)le home," as a sailor would say. 
The mace is silver, but the bowl and knops are gilt. The knops are much 
flattened spheroids, and are best described by being likened to oranges 
Avithout their skins. The bowl has a cresting formed of thirty fleurs-de- 
lys ; on its top, or table, which is four inches in diameter, is a small flat 
boss, two inches in diameter, surrounded by a similar cresting of fifteen 
fleurs-de-lys. On this boss a sliield is engraved bearing the royal arms, as 
used by the Stuarts, 1G03 — 1689, enamelled in their proper colours, viz. : 
Quarterly, 1 and 4 grand quarters, France modern and England quar- 
terly ; second grand quarter, Scotland ; third grand quarter, Ireland ; 
above the shield is the date 1604, filled in with dark blue enamel. This 
is the usual place for the royal arms on civic maces. 

Below the cresting of the bowl is a naiTow band five-sixteenths of an inch 
wide bearing the following inscription, in two lines, in italic characters. 
Doim: Dm: Wil : HOWARD: Dm: de : MOEPeth : Filii : 
Ducia : Norff' : Frafris: AimncuU : Nepotis : et : Cognati : Com- 
ita : Arundell : Surrei/ : Suff': Northampt : et NoUingh : et Dilo' 
Eliz : Vxnris : Eins : Sororis : et : colieredis : Georgii : Dni : Dacre : de : 
Gilsland : et Greistock : A" Dni : IGO4. : Volo: non : Voleo : WH^ 

The inscription begins with the Howard badge of a cross crosslet 
fitchee, and ends with the Howard motto of A^OLO non Valeo, which 
acconq)anies Lord William Howard's shield of twenty-two quarterings 
over the entrance to the inner court of Xaworth Castle, at which 
place there is also in the Oratory a chest for vestments, painted red, 
and scmee with the silver cross crosslets litchees of the Howards and the 
silver escallops of the Dacres. 

Below the inscription is a cable molding, under which, on the bowl, are 
engraved the eight shields following, eacli surmounted by the name of the 
family it l)e]ongs to : — 

' 'fbe letters W H ftre combined ; the last stroke of the W forms the first of the H. 

Plate I. 


1. Howard. On a J>end hciwcfiii six croHS-crossletn Jitchees a mullet. 

2. Brotherton. Three lions passant gardant in pale ; a label of three 


S. Mowbraij. A linji. raiiipaid. 

.If. Wafrcn. Cln'C(iaei'. 

5. Marley. Three birds finar//rfs) in pale. 

6. Dacre. Three escallops, 2 and 1. 

7 . Greistoclx. Three lozenges (should Ix; cnshions), 2 and, 1. 

8. Grimthorj). Barrg of six, tlire," (■luiplcts, 2 and. 1. 

Four of these are Howard quarterings and four Daore. 

Under tlie foot of the mace is engraved a shield hearing : — 
(Quarterly 1. Howard (the bend plain). 

2. ])rotherton. 

3. Mowbray. 

4. Warrenne. 

in the fess point a mullet for difference. 

This shield was undoubtedly once enamelled, but the colouring mutter 
has completely disappeared. 

The following quotation from Canon Ornsby's Introduction to The 
Household Books of Lord William Howard of Naworth Castle, sums up 
the position so well, that I cannot do better than quote : — 

" Lord William Howard was the third sou of Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, by 
his secoiul marriage with Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Sir Tliomas 
Audley of Walden. He was born December 19, 1563. His mother did u-jt long 
survive his birth. Shortly after her death the duke contracted a third marriage with 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Leybourne, of Cunswick, in the county of 
Westmoreland, and widow of Thomas Lord Dacre, of Gilsland. This alliance 
had an important influence upon Lord Whliam's after life. Lord Daci-e left four 
children, a son, George Lord Dacre, and three daughters, Anne, Mary and Elizabeth. 
By their mother's second marriage these children all came under the Duke of Norfolk's 
care, and by grant from the Crown he had the wardsliip of the young Lord Dacre. 
The Dacre patrimony was very large. It had been greatly enhanced in extent and 
value by the marriage in 1507, of Thomas (the gi-eat Lord Dacre, who fought at 
Flodden), with Elizabeth, granddaughter and heir of the last Lord Greystock, and 
the Duke's ambitious views had led him to form plans for the aggrandisement of his 
own children's fortunes by marriages with these youthful representatives of the 
ancient houses of Dacre and Greystock. His scheme was to marry his daughter Lady 
Margaret to the young Lord Dacre, and his eldest son Lord Arundel to Anne, Lord 
Dacre's eldest sister ; Mary, the next sister, he intended for his second son Lord 
Thomas Howard ; and Elizabeth, the youngest, for his third son Lord William. The 
untimely death of the young Lord Dacre at the age of eight years, by the accidental 
fall of a wooden vaulting horse, frustrated the Duke's project as to liis daughter's 
marriage, and Mary Dacre died in early youth. But having obtained the wardship of 
the Ladies Anne and lilizabetli Dacre after their brother's death his plans, as regarded 
their respective marriages with his two sons, Lord Arundel and Lord William Howard, 
were eventually carried out ; and the rich inheritance of which their brother's death 
made them the co-heirs, jiassed through that double alliance into the Duke's family 
and is enjoyed to this day by his descendants."^ 

Lord William Howard Avas one of the original founders of the first 
formed Society of Antiquaries, and from the catalogue of his library, and 
from memoranda in his handwriting, it is evident that his lordship was 
fond of and skilled in genealogy and heraldry. Over the entranc(! to the 
inner court at Naworth, is the armorial achievement of Lord William 
Howard, viz., a shield with twenty-two (|uartering.s, between two lions as 
supporters : Crest, upon a helmet and mantling, the well-known Howard 

' Sui'tees Society, vol. Ixviii, p. 8. 


lion. ]\Iottu : " Volo nou vaJeo." Tlie whole is under a hood molding 
which has the Dacre escallop at each end. 
The twenty-two quarterings are as follows : — 

I. Howard. Gules, on a bend between six cross crosslets fitchees arg. 
" a dchnj lion Geiilex, piei'ced throiKjli the tnouth loith an arrow within a 
doable tressurc Jioioered of the same, in the midst of the bend of the 
If award Anns." This is the augmentation for merit given to Thomas 
Howard, then earl of Surrey, but afterwards second duke of Norfolk, 
for his victory at Flodden Field. 

-. FiTTON. Azure, three ciiKjuefoils pierced anjent. 

3. Eois. Ermine, a cross sable. 

4. Scales. Gules, six escallops ar<jcid. 

5. Texdringe. Azure, afess betv:een two chevrons argent. 

6. MowBKAY, Gules, a lion rampant argent, armed and langued 
azure. Brought in by Lady Margaret Mowbray, eldest dnughter of 
Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshall of England and of 
Elizabelh^Fitzalan, as heiress of Richard Fitzalan, earl of Arundel. She 
was the penniless bride of Sir Robert Howard, (tempore Henry V.) for 
her poor fortune of £200 was never paid, but "the Howard family," 
writes Mr. Henry Howard, " owe their chief illustration, honours, and 
power " to her.^ By her there came to her descendants the dignities of 
Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshall of England, &c., great estates, and four- 
teen quarterings to their coat of arms : from No. 6 to 19. 

7. Albany. Gules, a lion rampant or. 

8. Segrave. Sable, a lion rampant argent, crowned or. 

9. Bigot. Partij per pale or and vert, a lion rampant gides. 

10. ]]rotherton. Gules, three lions pjossant guarda^it in pale or, a 
label of tliree pjoints argent. This is more properly l)lazoned, as 
England a label of three points argent. It is the arms of the Plan- 
tagenets, differenced by a label. 

II. Mowbray. As before. 

12. Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel. Barry of eight, or and 

13. Albany. As before. 

14. Lupus. Sable, a wolfs head erased argent. 

15. Earl of Chester. Azure three garbs or. 

16. Woodville. Argent, a fess and dexter canton gules. 

17. jMaltravers. Sable, a fret or. 

18. Clun. Argent, a chief azure. 

19. Warren. Ciiecquy, or and azure. Brought in by Lady Margaret 
Mowbray. The fifth Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, married Alice, daughter 
and heir of William earl of Warren and Surrey. Hence the Howards 
got the title of Surrey. 

20. Tilner. Argent, a chevron betweeri three gryphons^ heads erased 

21. RocHFORT. Quaiierly or and gules, within a bordure sable 

22. Thorpe of Norfolk. A?:nre, three crescents argent. 

' " MemorialK of the Howiird Family," this latly. See Burke's " Dormant and 

App. III. See iilso " The Great Govern- Extinct IJaronage of England," vol. i, p. 

ing Familietj of England," vol. ii, p. 308. 12. It came in later on by the marriage 

The eai-ldom of Arundel did not come by of the fourth Duke of Norfolk. 

Plate H 







Dae re 


VV.H S' J ,H OL^ 


Shields from the Morpeth Mace 


Crest : On a chapeau, a lion statant fjuardant, his tail extended, or, 
and ducallij gorged argent. 

Supporters : Tivo lions rampant. 

Motto : " Volo 71071 valeo." 

In the inner court, over the entrance to the great hall, is the same 
coat of twenty-two quarterings impaling a coat of eight (juarterings. 

1. Dacre. G^des, three escallop)^ argent. 

2. New Greystokb, or Grimthorpe. Barrij of six, argent and 
azwe, three chaplets of roses. 

3. Old Greystoke. Gides three cushio7is argent. 

4. MuLTON. Barry of six, argent and gales, on a canton of the second 
a lion 2)assa7d or. Introduced by the marriage of Kanulph de Dacre 
with Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas de Multon. 

5. BoTELER OF Wemme. Gides, a fess checqiuj or and sable, hetwee7i six 
C7'0sses jtattees fitcJiees or. 

6. MoRviLLE. Azure, se7nee-de-lis and fretty or . A Multon quartering. 

7. Ferrers. VaiA'y or and gules. 

8. Vaux. Cliecquy or and gules. A Multon quartering. 

( )1(1 and Xew Greystoke, Boteler, and Ferrers were brought in by Lady 
Elizabeth Greystoke. The heiress of the lirst house of Greystoke married 
a Ralph de (xiimthorpe, who took the name of Greystoke, l)ut retained 
his own arms, which succeeding Barons of Greystoke quartered as New 
Greystoke. The pedigree below^ shows how Boteler of Wemm and 
Ferrers came into the armorial bearings of Lady Elizabeth. 

Crests : Two. The Howard lion to the dexter, and the Dacre bull to the 
sinister. They are respectant one another. 


Gules a fesse componee or and sable, bettveen six crosses patees aryent, or six cross 
crosslets or. 

William Boteler, 2nd Baron=pJoaue, dau. and co-heir of 
Boteler of Wemme. John Baron Sudeley 

. I 

Elizabeth, dau.^Robert Ferrers, 1st Baron 
and co-hen-. I Ferrers of Wemme. 

Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron^Joanne Swinford, dau. of 
Ferrers of Wemme John of Gaunt. 


Elizabeth, dau.^John Greystock, 6th 
and co-heir. I Baron Greystock. 


Halph Greystock 7th=f=Elizabeth, dau. of 

Baron Greystock. 

William Baron Fitz 


Robert Greystock, =f=Elizabeth, dau. of Edmund 
ob. v.j). I Grey, second Earl of Kent. 

Elizabeth, daughter:=Thoma.s Dacre, 2nd Baron 
and heir. Dacre. Fought at Flodden. 


Supporters : A lion rampant for Howard to the dexter, and a bull 
rampant for Dacre to the sinister. 

Motto : " Volo Non Valeo." 

These elaborate compositions are of later date than the IMorpeth mace ; 
indeed, the following entry in the "Household Books," for the year 1626, 
probably refers to one or other of them, as Canon Ornsby suggests : — 
Janu. 10. To Wm. Buckle, by bill, for bringing a stone of my Lord's 
Armes from Heddon super murum, xliiijs. jd."i 

It is further probable that in designing these elaborate shields, showing 
considerable research into pedigrees. Lord William had the assistance of 
his intimate friend Camden, the Clarencieiix King-of-Arms. 

One thing strikes one at once ; on the Morpeth mace of 1604 the 
Howard's arms are without the Flodden augmentations, whereas it occurs 
at jS'^aworth ; on the mace Lord William differences his arms with a 
mullet — the mark of the third son ; the shields at Naworth liave no 
mark of cadency. ^ 

It has been already stated that of the eight shield.^ on the uiace, four 
are Howard quarterings and four Dacre. The four Howard are selected 
for very obvious reasons — Howard itself — then Mowbray— the Blanche 
Lion of Mowbray, brought in by Lady Margaret Mowbray, to Avliom the 
Howards owed so much — tliirdly, the royal arms of England, ditferenced 
by a label for Brotherton -^ and fourthly Warren, representing the 
Norfolk second title of Earl of Surrey. 

Tlie Dacre quarterings on the mace are Dacre, Marley (or jNIerley) 
Creistock (old (Treystock), and Grimthorp (new Greystock), and the 
introduction of the last two into the Dacre shield has been already ex- 
plained. Lord William Howard himself tells how the Barony of ^Nlorpeth 
[and so the De ]Merlay arms] came in. " The Baronie of Morpeth came 
to Thomas of Greistock by j\Iarie his wife, daughter and co-heir of Koger 
de ^Nlerlay, and from tliem in lineal descent to Eliza de Greistock and so to 
Lord W. Dacre her son."^ 

The De Merlay arms do not occur un the Dacre tombs at Lanercost, 
which are rich in heraldry, nor do they occur at Naworth Castle, except 
among the arms put up in the great hall since the fire of 1841. They 
are there given as, Barry of ten pieces (irgeid and (jules, on a hordure 
azure eight martlets or ; as given in Banks's Dormant and Extinct 
Baronage. This agrees with the arms of the borough of Morpeth, granted 
by WiUiam Hervy, Norroy, May 20, 1552, which are Barry of ten arrjent 
and gules, a triple towered castle, or ; on a hordure azure eight vuirflets 
gold. On the mace the Merlay arms are simply three birds (martlets) in 
pale ; this is no doubt the older form of the Merlay arms, and the silver 
and red bars came in by some marriage ; suppose a cadet of the Multons 
to have married an heiress of De Merlay and to have taken her name, he 
might well assume as arms his own silver and red bars within an orle of 
De Merlay, that is, aw orle azure charged loith martlets or ; but this is a 

' Lord W. Howard's " Household -^ For the assumption of these arms, 

B(|okh," SurteeK Society, vol. 68, p. 238. which were granted by Richard II to the 

'■'The chest at Naworth, painted red Jlowbrays, Ilcnry earl of Surrey was 

and semee with the cmss cro.s.slets fitchee« attainted in l.^)4J. 

and the e«callop sIicIIh, has on one end ^ Lord William Howard's " Household 

the IJIanche Lion of Mowbray charged on Books," Surtces Society, vol. xlviii, p. 

the neck with a mullet sable. 391 n. 



The following skeleton pedigree shows how the donor of the I\Iorpeth 
mace was related to the Earls he enumerates ther(;on. 

1. Eliz, f1. and h.=pThomaa, earl of Surrey, commanded=j=2. Agnes, d. of 
if Sir F. Tiliiey. at Flodden, created (2nd) duke of | Hugh Tilney. 
Norfolk 1514. 


Thomas, :3rd Duke. 


Other issue. 

William, created Lord 
Howard of Effingham. 

Other issue. 

Henry, E. of Surrey, 
ob. v.p. 

Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, 
defeated the Armada, created ]<). of 
Nottingham 1596, d. 1619. 

l.=FThomas, 4th D. of Norfolk.=r2. 

Henry, created E. of 
Northampton 1603. 

Philip, E. of- 

=Anne Dacre. 

Thomas, created E. 

of SUFKOLKl603. 

Lord WiLEiAM^=Eliz. Dacre. 

Thomas, created E. 
of Surrey 1603. 

In the east window of that portion of Lanercost Priory used as the 
parish cliurch are the arms of Sir Thomas Dacre the Bastard, soji of 
Thomas lord Dacre, the shield of eight quarterings described on page 93 
ante, with a bend sinister Argent over all. It is very curious that Sir 
Thomas the Bastard in addition to the four Dacre quarterings takes also 
the four Greystoke quarterings of his father's legitimate wife. 

By the Rev. J. F. HODGSON. 



Bolton Priory Church, Yorks. — The priory of Bolton was first 
founded at a place called Embsay, in the parish of Skipton, by William 
de Meschines and Cecilia de Roniille, baroness of Skipton, his wife, in 
1120; and endowed by them with the mother church of Skipton, and 
its chapel of Carlton, In 1151, it was translated by Alicia, or 
Adeliza de Romille, daughter and coheiress of the founders, the then 
patroness, with the consent of her son William, to a new site on the 
manor of Bolton in the same parish, which she had bestowed upon the 
canons in exchange for those of Stretton and Skipton. There it was 
rebuilt, and continued till the Dissolution, from which disastrous time till 
now, the nave has been used as a mere parochial chapel. 

Lanercost Priory Church, Cumberland. — Founded between 1164-9 
in honour of S. Mary Magdalene, by Robert de Vallibus, lord of 
Gilsland, on a quiet and sequestered spot to the north of the river 
Irthing, about eleven miles from Carlisle. As will be seen by the sub- 
joined extract from the charter of foundation, it was endowed by him with 
the whole of the neighbouring churches ; the absence of any mention of 
a church at the place itself, affording the clearest evidence that none such 
previously existed there ; while tlie fact that no vicarage, or other pro- 
vision for the cure of souls was established therein, proves equally clearly 
that, from the time of its foundation onwards, it continued t(j be purely 

*' Robertus de Vallibus &c. Sciatis me concessisse Deo 

et sanctse Mariae Magdalene, et priori di^, Lanercost eandem 

landam de Lanercost per has di visas, &c Et ecclesiam de ipsa 

Walton, cum capella de Triermano, praeterea concessi eis ecclesiam de 
Irthington, et ecclesiam de Brampton, et ecclesiam de Karlaton, et 
ecclesiam de Farlam, cum omnibus (juae ad easdem ecclesias pertinent," 
&c.— (Dug. vi, 236.) 

Until a recent period, the north aisle of the nave of this fine and 
interesting church was used as a parochial chapel ; the nave itself being 
roofless, as shewn in Buck's view taken in 1739. The nave has since 
been roofed in and now forms the parish church. 


Lees, or Leybs Priory Church, Staffordshire. — Tannor says tliat, 
" At a place of this name cither in this coiiiity or Dorhyshirc, seems to 
have been a house of Austin canons dedicated to St. Michael, ar.d ccill to 
the abbey of Roucester, to which Fulcher fil. Fulcheri, temp. Henry II, 
.i,'ave the church of St. Peter at Edensor, in the county of I)er])y." 

" Omnibus &c. Fulcherus filius Fulcheri, salutem in Domino. Noscat 
universitas vestra, me dedisse. , . Deo et S. Marioe, et S. Michaeli 
archangelo, et abbati Roucestrite, et canonicis de Leyes, prsedictse ecclesiae 
Roucestripe obedientibus . . . ecclesiam S. Petri de Edneshoure, cum 
omnibus pertinentiis suis," &c. — (Dug. vi, 411.) 

As no parish of this name — under any possible form of s])elling — 
exists in either of the two counties above referred to, it follows that 
the priory church of Lees, wherever situate, must of necessity have been 
a purely conventual one. 

North Fbrriby Priory Church, Yorks. — Here, according tn 
Tanner, was a priory of Knights' Templars, founded by the Lord 
Eustace de Vesci, which, on the suppression of that order, was changed 
into one of Austin canons. These, however, still continued to use the 
old seal of the Templars, till at least as late a date as 1463, when it was 
attached to an instrument acknowledging the Lord Vesci as their 
founder. The priory church would seem — from such account of it at 
least as I have been able to gather — to have been quite separate and 
distinct from that of the parish. The following is the evidence : — " The 
present church is a modern one, not more than thirty-live years old ; it 
was, however, built upon the site of the old one, which was merely a 
wide nave with two east windows and a square tower, but neither aisles 
nor chancel." Letter of the Rev. T. M. Theed, Vicar of North Ferriby. 

" I never heard anything said about North Ferriby Church, that I can 
recollect, as to its having lieen attached to a priory, or any other 
monastic building. There was nothing about the church that led me at 
the time to suppose that it was anything else than an ordinary parish 
church. There were certainly no domestic buildings in connection with 
it, nor do I remember any foundations of what might have been such 
buildings. The plan of the church was a nave with a north aisle, a 
chancel with, I think, also an aisle, and a west tower at the west end of 
the nave. There were, I think, three arches dividing the nave from its 
north aisle. I am sorry that I cannot give you any more information, it 
is so long ago, and all my papers with reference to it are, I fear, 
destroyed. I remember hearing it said that there were once some old 
buildings existing at Wauldby, which is not far from Ferriby, and that 
all the land about there had belonged to the church ; and it wa? very 
much on account of this fact that Mr. Raikes sold it. I built a small 
chapel somewhere on the site of the old buildings for Mr. Raikes." — 
Letter of Mr. J. L. Pearson, architect. 

ScoKiRK, Skewkirk, OR TocKWiTH Priory Ciiurch, Yorks. — 
Skewkirk priory was a cell to S. Oswald's at Nostell, and appears to 
have owed its existence to a gift of two bovates of land there made by 
Geoffrey Fitz Pain to that house, at some date prior to 1114, when 
certain of the canons were sent to settle on the spot. It was (halicated 
in honour of All Saints. 

vol. xlii o 


" Henricns rex &c duas bovatas tevvM quas Gaufridus filius 

Pagani eis dedit in Tockwid," &c. 

" Albertus de Tockwid, salutem. Nouerit me concessisse 

et ecclesise Omniuiu Sanctorum de Scokirke et canonicis de Sancto 
Oswaldo, ibidem Deo servientibus, i^^c." — Dug., vi, 102. 
The site of this priory was at a place called Scokirke, now Skewkirk, 
in what, till lately (when it was erected into a separate parish), was the 
township of Tockwith, in the parish of Bilton. 

" A farm house (once a country residence) now stands on the probable 
ground where the old monastic buildings will have been. The old 
remains — cross, window, and corbels — are simply built up anyhow in 
walls of the present farm buildings, so in no way in their original 
places." — Letter of the Kev. B. Burdett Xewcnham, Vicar of Bilton. 
The parish church of Bilton is under the invocation of S. Helen. 

Thurgarton Priory Church, Notts. — The priory of Thurgarton 
was founded, according to Tanner, by Ralph D'Eyncourt, circa 1130, 
and dedicated in honour of St. Peter. 

" Ego Kadulfus de Ayncourt, pro salute animse meae, filiorum, filia- 
runKjue meorum ; et pro aninia patris et matris mei ; et pro anima 
Basiliie mulieris mese, et omnium parentinn, et antecessorum meorum, 
fundaAa, domum religionis apud Thurgarton, et in ejusdem domus funda- 
tione concessi . . . totam Thurgartonam, et Fiskertonam, et jjarcum 
juxta Thurgarton, et omnes ecclesias de totu terra mea," &c. 

The case of the church of Thurgarton is somewhat peculiar, since it is 
ouL' which might with almost equal fairness, jjerhaps. be ranged either 
among those which are purely conventual, or conventual and parochial as 
well. On the whole, however, it would seem to belong more properly to 
the former class, since the priory, from the first moment of its existence, 
was endowed, not only with the church, but the whole parish of Thurgar- 
ton. Thus, apart from the priory itself, there ceased, thenceforward, to 
be any such thing as either parish or parishit)ners ; the whole parish 
becoming at once and thereafter the private estate, and the whole scanty 
population the absolute servants or de[)endents of the canons, and un- 
possessed of any separate or independent rights whatever. Their place, 
in short, during the whole continuance of the house, was simply that of 
the ordinary outdoor servants of any other purely monastic establish- 
ment, neither more or less. As to the priory church, until 1854 — when 
it was repaired and enlarged — the sole remaining fragment of that once 
magnificent structure consisted of the north-west tower, and the three 
western bays of the nave — the whole of pure thirteenth century work. 
At that time a north aisle and porch were added, together with a 
cliaiiii'l and vestry ; the building being thus brought to its present 
dimensions. Of the lady chapel, choir, and transepts, wliich are known 
to have existed, not a trace remains visible ; the whole having been 
swept away and levelled to form garden ground. A modern dwelling- 
house, it may be added, the successor of an Elizabethan mansion, 
(iccu]iies the site of the south-west tower — the stump of which existed in 
Thoroton's time — as Avell as that of the western range of the ciaustral 
buildings, the cellarage of which still remains entire. — Letters, with 
sketch ground plans, of the Rev. A. M. Bayley, vicar. 


Sucli is tlic account I have to ((Her of those cliurchcs of Austin canons 
wliicli were jiurely (;onvi'ntual, and [ have, next in order, to enter upon 
an examination of such of tlieni as were not so. In a concludinj^ sentence 
of the introductory part of this paper I have said (vol. xH, p. ■i7^), tliat 
tlie churches of Austin canons will be found, on careful examination, 
" to resolve themselves into two clearly defined, but very unequal 
,<;rou])S, viz.: 1st, those which were purely conventual ; and 2nd, those 
which were conventual and parochial as well." Now, if we once more 
betake ourselves to the Monasticon — with all its short-comings, the only 
available quarter for the purpose — we shall find, on counting, that the 
whole number of black canons' churches, as there set forth, amount to 
exactly two hundred and fifteen. To tliese, however, must be added 
three more, given in another part of the work, and under a dilferent 
heading, viz. : — those of ]5odmin, S. German's, and S. Frideswide's, 
( )xford, Avhich thus bring tlieni up, all told, to two hundred and eighteen. 
lUit we cannot stop even here. Besides these churches of black canons, 
it is necessary — as well for the purposes of this enquiry, as for the sake 
of comparison — to take into account also those of the other section of 
Augustinians, viz. : — the Premonstratensians, or white canons. Of 
these there were exactly thirty-six. The full number of Austin canons' 
churches in England, therefore, was just two hundred and fifty-four. 
And now, with these facts before us, we shall be able to see presently 
what the proportion of purely conventual Austin churches to those of a 
mixed, or semi-parochial character, really was. If those of the former 
class — belonging exclusively to the order of black canons — comprised 
in List I, be enumerated, they will be found to amount to one hundred 
and eighty one. But to these the whole of the thirty-six Premonstra- 
tensian churches must be added en bloc, since they were all, without 
exception, purely conventual ; a fact, not only sufficiently remarkable in 
itself, but the more so in this connection, since they were the only 
monastic churches, those of the Carthusians and Mendicants necessarily 
excepted, among which no single semi-parochial example can be found. 
Added to the rest, they bring up the full number of purely conventual 
Austin cluu'ches to no less than two hundred and seventeen. And now, 
finally, if from the whole two hundred and fifty-four of both kinds, we 
proceed to take these two hundred and seventeen away, then there 
remain to us as the sum total of those churches which were conventual 
and parochial as well, but just thirty-seven ! Thus may be seen at a 
glance, not only the proportion which these two groups of churches bore 
to each other; but the exact value of the allegation that the churches 
of Austin canons were always, or nearly always, parochial. Of those 
which were reaUy so, I now proceed to give an account in — 



IJamuurgh Pkiory Church, Northumberland. — King Henry I, 
according to Tanner, having given the churclies of S. Oswald and 8. 
Aidan of Banibnrgh to the priory of Nostell, some regular canons of that 
house were forthwitli settled on the spot as a cell. Dug., vi, 103. 

The priory buildings, now entirely destroyed, appear to have stood near 
the church towards the east ; and, though nothing can now be certainly 
affirmed on the subject, there can be little doubt liut that the large and 
singidarly stately chancel constituted the conventual choir of the canons. 

Bethgelert Priory Church, Caernarvonshire. — This church, which 
was of much more ancient foundation as that of a monastic l)ody than the 
introduction of the Austin canons into it, was possibly, also parochial. 
The present parish church is built partly on its site ; Avith its materials ; 
and has portions of its walls, &c., incorporated into its structure ; facts 
which, as far as they go, seem to point in that direction. 

Blackmorb Priory Church, Essex. — The priory of Blackmore would 
seem to have been established in the church of S. Lawrence there, about 
the time of Henry II, by Sir John de Saundfoot. It continued till 
1 527, when it was dissolved, and granted to Cardinal Wolsey in aid of his 
new college at Oxford. 

The church is still used as the parish church of Blackmore. 

Bourne Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. — An a])bot and canons were 
settled in the parish church of Bourne, in or about a.d. 1138, by Baldwin 
Y itz Gilbert, as appears from the following extracts from the Inspeximus 
of 1 Edward III. :— 

" Baldwinus filius Gisleberti omnibus, &c., Sciatis me concessisse . . . 
domino Gervasio abbati de Arroasia ecclesiam de Brunna, &c. Ita vithi- 
licet, quod praedictus abbas secundem consuetudinem et religionem sui 
ordinis, abbatem et canonicos in eadeni ecclesia constituat," Ac. Dug., 
vi, 370. 

The abbey church of Bourne, consisting of a chancel, nave, with north 
and south aisles, transepts, south porch, and two western towers, is still 
standing nearly perfect, and in use as that of the parish. There seems 
never to have been a central tower. Letter of Rev. H. M. Mansfield, 

Bredon Priory Church, Leicestershire, — Founded in 1144, by 
Robert de Ferrars, earl of Nottingham, who gave the church of S. Mary 
and S. Hardulph, at Bredon, witli divers lands to the monastery of 
Nostell ; a prior and five canons were thereupon established on the spot 
f!f-a cell to that house. Dug., vi, 96-7. 

" Tlie priory church, of which the choir and its aisles, the central tower, 
and soutli transc})t (now used as a porch) alone remain, is still used as 
that of the parish. There are no remains of the conventual buildings." 

Note by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. 


Bridlington Priory Church, Yorks. — Founded by Walter dc (Junt, 
early in the reign of Henry I, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

" Ego Walterus de Gant notifieo omnibTis sancta' ccclesie fidelibus, 
quod in eeclesia sanctae Marise de Bredlintona canonicos regulares stabilivi, 
&c." The nave of this magnificent buikling— all that now remains of it — 
continues to be, as in the time of the canons, the parish clnirclr of 
Bridlington. "The seyd Churche ys ilevided the over part for the pryor and 
Covent and the nether part for the paryssho churche." Survey in P.K.O. 

Bruton Abbey Church, Somersetshire. — Founded originally about 
1005, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by Algar, earl of Corn- 
wall, for monks, who were afterwards changed for canons l)y William 
Mohun, earl of Somerset, temp. Stephen. Leland says: — "The abbaye 
there was afore the conquest a place of monks, founded by Algarus erle of 
Cornwall. Moion set chanons there sins the conquest, and divers of the 
Moions were buryid there." 

This fine church, which consists of a chancel, nave with north and south 
aisles, western tower, another to the north above the porch, and a crypt, 
continues to be used in its integrity as the church of the parish ; the 
chancel, or monastic portion, which had been destroyed after the suppres- 
sion, having been re-l)uilt by >Sir K. C. Hoare. The abl)ey buildings stood 
about a hundred yards to tlie south-west, and traces of the foundations may 
still, it is said, be plainly seen in a hot and dry summer. 

" The west tower and nave are very grand, nnd the oak roof is con- 
sidered one of the finest even in the west of England." Letter of the 
Rev. H. T. Ridley, vicar. 

Canon's Ashby Priory Church, Northamptonshire. — According to 
Bridges, Stephen de Leye, lord of the manor of Ashby, temp. Henry II, 
was most probably the founder of the priory there, as he stands first on the 
list of benefactors, and bestowed on them the parish church. Of that 
building, as reconstructed by the canons, there are now but slight, though 
singularly beautiful remains, consisting of the tower to the north-west, 
west front, north porch, attached to the tower eastwards, and two and a 
half western bays of the nave and north aisle. Originally, it appears to 
have consisted of a Ion;;- aisleless chancel, with, perhaps, a short transept, 
and nave of five bays with a north aisle only. 

The western fragment, which is roofed over, is still used as a place of 
worship, but : — " There is not and never was any village, so that there 
was not any parochial endowment, and hence the ecclesiastical state is, I 
suppose, unique. And there is no endowment for a minister or repairs, 
though it is a real parish." Letter of Sir H. Dryden, Bart., accompanied 
by plan, drawing, and photograph. 

Carham-upon-Tweed Priory Church, Northumberland. — The priory 
of Carhain was a cell to that of Kirkham, and was burnt by the Scotch in 
1296. (Dug. vi, 579.) There seems every reason to suppose that 
here again, the parish church served also as that of the priory, which stood 
close to it towards the west (not east as stated in the Monasticon) ; and 
of which the foundations, at some fifty yards distance, were exposed about 
thirty years ago, but have since been covered up. 


Carlisle (Cathedral and) Priory Church. — Commenced by Walter, 
a wealthy Xornian priest, and governor of the town and castle of Carlisle 
under William Kufus, in honour of the lilessed Virgin Mary, for secular 
canons ; but completed and endowed by Henry I, for canons regular of S. 
Austin ; Adolulph, the first prior, being consecrated first bishop of the 

The circumstances of this church — the only one, at the time, in the 
newly founded, or re founded city — were thiis altogether exceptional ; the 
nave, which was designeil for public use under the seculars, continuing to 
be used as a parish church, both under the regulars and the bishop, till 
only a few years since. 

Cartmel Priory Church, Lancashire. — Founded by William Maris- 
chall the eLler, in 1188, in honour of the Blessed Virgin ]\Iary. The 
priory would seem to have been established at the outset in the existing 
church of Cartmel, which, with its appurtenances, and the whole place or 
district of that name, were bestowed by the founder upon the liouse. The 
existing church, which must have been commenced immediately, "how- 
ever, still happily exists in its integrity, a stately, though not large 
building, and remarkable, among other noteworthy features, for its very 
striking and picturesque central tower. A good plate of the interior is 
given in the Monasticon ; and an excellent paper, profusely illustrated by 
its author, the late Rev. J. L. Petit, may be seen in the Archaeological 
Journal, xxvii, 80-91. 

Caversham Priory Church, Oxfordshire. — The parish church of 
Caversham was one of the earliest endowments of Butley, which afterwards 
established a cell upon a spot near the bridge there. Besides a chapel of 
S. Ann upon the bridge, it had also the offerings made in the chapel of 
our Lady, which occupied the eastern part of the north aisle of the parish 

Chirbury Priory Church, Shropshire. — The priory of Chirbury Avas 
founded in the first instance at Sende or Snet, by Robert de Boulers, in 
the beginning of the reign of king Henry III ; but before the eleventh of 
that reign translated to Chirbury, where, notwithstanding a royal licence — 
9 Edward I — to return to Sende, it continued till tlie ilissolution. Dug. 
vi, 580. 

The nave, with its aisles and western tower, which were all along 
parochial, now constitute the sole remains of this fine and interesting 
church. Letter, accompanied by a photograph, from the Rev. P. M. Burd, 

Dorchester Abbey Church, Oxfordshire. — Founded for Ai;stin 
canons by Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, circa 1140, to the honour of S. 
Peter, S. Paul, and S. Birinus. 

Here, again, as at Christchurch Twynham, the whole of this fine and 
singidarly interesting church is still standing and in use ; the eastern 
or mtjiiastic part having been purchased and preserved by one of the 
inhabitants, as thus narrated by Leland : — "The body of the ablxiy cliircli 
serviil a late for the paroche chirche. Synsthe suppression one Beaiiforest, 
a grete rich man dwelling in the towne of Dorchestre, bought the est part 


of the chirche for cxl. pounds, and gave it to augment tha paroche 

Little Dunmow Priory Church, Essex. Founded in 1104, by Juga, 
sister of Ralph Baynard. 

"1104: Juga Baynard domina de Parva Dunmowe, fecit Mauricium 
episcopuni Londoniensem dedicare ecclesiam de dicta villa in honore 
beatae Virginis Mariae, unde cura animarum commissa fuit per episcopum 
prsedictum cuidam presbitero, nomine Britrico :" &c. 

"1106 Igitur Galfridus Baynard filius et hseres Jugae Baynard, con- 
siderans devotionem, &c. posuit canonicos in ecclesia de Dunmow assensu 
Anselnii archiepiscopi Cantuariensis." — (Dug. vi, 145-7.) 

All that now remains of the church of this priory — which still, in 
part, continues to be used as that of the parish — is the south aisle of the 
choir, a very fine work with blocked arcade of late twelfth and — as to 
its outer Avails — advanced fourteenth century character. For plan and 
elevation of this singularly fine and most peculiar work, see Spring 
Gardens' Sketch-book, Vol. v, plates 69-70. 

Dunstable Priory Church, Bedfordshire. — Founded, together with the 
town of Dunstable itself, by King Henry I, who dedicated it in 
honour of S. Peter. 

" Dictus rex, in limite dicti burgi, in honorem S. Petri, ecclesiam 
fabricavit, monasterium construxit ; et sicut longe in animo concesserut 
priorem et canonicos ibidem posuit regulares. Dedit autem eis et eorum 
successoribus in liberam puram et perpetuam elemosinam, ecclesiam ante- 
dictam ; dictum burgum cum burgensibus, foris nundinis, libertatibus et 
approvameutis quibuscunque, et omnibus rebus et proventibus quos 
jiercipere consueverat quando in manu sua tenuit idem burgum," &c. 

The nave of Dunstable priory church was, therefore, parochial, as at 
present, from the time of its first foundation. Thus, we read in 
the Annals — " a.d. 1273. Sumptibus parochianorum renovatus fuit 
cumulus ecclesise nostrae de Dunstaple ; scilicet ab altari ad crucem, 
usque ad ostium occidentale versus le North. Henricus Chadde majores 
expensas apposuit circa illud." — Dug. vi, 239-42. 

Edington Priory Church, Wiltshire. — Tlie church of Edington, like 
that of Asliridge, was not, strictly speaking, one of Austin canons at all, 
but of r>oiihommes. Both, however, being included by Dugdale in the 
list of Austin churches, it may be well, having based this encjuiry on the 
evidence of the Monasticon, to follow his example, and treat of them as 
such ; the more so, as their enumeration does not affect the proj^ortion of 
parochial and non-parochial examples — Edgington belonging to one, and 
Ashridge to the other class. 

William de Edington, bishop of Winchester, having magnificently re- 
built the church of his native place, established therein in lieu of the parish 
priest, a dean and twelve secular chaplains, whom, at the earnest entreaty 
of Edward, the Black Prince, he shortly afterwards changed into a college 
of Bonliommes. The church still remains entire, one of the noblest as 
well as most interesting monuments of its age, its date being precisely 
ascertained from the following record preserved in the house. — 

" Ecclesia conventualis de Edyndon dodicata fuit a Roberto Weyvile 


episcopo Sarum, in honore S. Jacobi apostoli, S. Katherinoe et omnium 
Sanctorium, anno Dom. 1361." 

S. Germans Priory Church, Cornwall. — The history of this church, 
like that of Carlisle, is exceptional. At a very early period it was 
probably cathedral. In a.d. 1050, Leofric, bishop of Exeter, is said, 
erroneously, of course, to have turned out tlie seculars, who then occupied 
it, and introduced canons regular instead. The explanation of this may 
probably be that, he enforced necessary discipline upon the new canons, 
and compelled them to follow some sort of rule. According to Leland, 
tlie true canons regular of S. Austin, wlio possessed the priory at the time 
of the Dissolution, were introduced by bishop Bartholomew, temp. Henry 
II. The church, of which only the nave with its aisles, and two western 
towers remain, appears to have been always, as at present, parochiaL 

Gresley Priory Church, Derbyshire, — Founded temp. Henry I., by 
William de Gresley, son of Nigel de Stafford, near his castle of Gresley, 
and dedicated by him in honour of S. Mary and S. George. That it was 
parochial as well as conventual is shewn by a deed of 1281, which asks 
Sir Geofifrey de Gresley, the patron, to licence brothers Wm. de Seyle and 
J. de Bromley as prior and pastor. — Reliquary, vi, 140. " Of the priory 
church, the (much altered) nave wdth north aisle, and tower at the east 
end of the latter, still remain. A chancel has recently been added. Not 
a vestige is left of the conventual buildings." Note by Mr. W. H, St. 
John Hope, 

Hartland Abbey Church, Devonshire. — Githa, wife of earl Godwin, 

is said to have placed secular priests in the church of S. Nectan at Hart- 
land, who continued till the time of king Henry II., when Geoffrey de 
Dinham, with the sanction of that monarch, and of Bartholomew, bishop 
of Exeter, and the help of Richard, archdeacon of Poictiers, changed the 
seculars into a house of Austin canons. 

" Henricus rex Angliae, &c., Sciatis quod Gaufridus filius Oliveri de 
Dynam . . . donavit Ricardo Pictavensi arcliidiacono, ecclesiam S 
Nectani de Hertilanda . . . ut ibi ordo canonicorum regulariimi . . . 
instituatur," &c. Dug., vi, 435-6. 

Portions of the domestic buildings of the Abbey, especially the cloisters, 
are said to be still standing, incorporated into a modern dwelling-house. 
The church of S. Nectan too, a large and handsome structure, occupying 
a commanding site outside the town, continues as aforetime, and un- 
mutilated, to do duty as that of the parish. 

S. Julian and S. Botolph Priory Church, Colchester, Essex. — 
Founded, according to Tanner, before a.d. 1107, by a monk named 
Enudph. It would seem always to have been parochial ; the rectorial 
tithes of S. I>otolph, forming, at the suppression, part of the property of 
the house granted by king Henry VIII. to the lord chancellor Audley. 
The church is said to have continued perfect till the siege of Colchester, 
A.D. 1648, when it was in great measure destroyed, and has remained in 
ruins ever since. Dug., vi, 104-5. 

For an account of this church with plan and illustrations, see Britton's 
Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, i, 1-6 and plates. 


KiRKBY Beler Priory Church, Leicestershire. — Kogcr Beler, in the 
9th Edward II, began a small chantiy in the chapel of S. Peter, near his 
manor house here, which shortly afterwards he increased into a college for 
a warden and twelve secular priests. It was made conventual for a prior 
and canons regular of S. Austin in 1359. 

The conventual church still does duty as that of the parish. 

South Kyme Priory Church, Lixcolnshire. — Founded tnnp. Ilonry 
II. by Philip de Kyme, knt., in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Dug., vi., 377. 

This priory, which was endowed with the rectory of the parish church, 
would seem to have appropriated that building to conventual uses from 
the first. Up to a.d. 1805, the whole or greater portion of the nave, or 
parochial portion of the dual building, continued to exist and be in use 
as the parish church. Then, " it was subjected to one of the most 
l)rutal adaptations ever heard of. The south arcade having been pulled 
down, a wall was run from east to west, along the middle of the nave 
s[)ace, and the parallelogram thus formed was roofed over under one 
gable. The south and west windows are good curvilinear Decorated, the 
south porch doorway is Xorman, belonging to the original church, exist- 
ing before the foundation of the priory in 1170." — Letter of the Kev. 
Precentor Venables, Lincoln. 

Letheringham Priory Church, Suffolk. — William de Bovill, says 
Tanner, having given the Church of S. Mary of Crew, and all the 
tithes of Letheringham, to the monastery of St. Peter in Ipswich, temp. 

here was settled a small priory of three of four black canons (as 

a cell to that house) to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, whose yearly 
income was valued, 26th Hen. VIII, but at £26 18s. 5d. Dug., vi, 

It is possible that Crew, whose church was given to the priory of 
Ipswich, may have been, as the editors of the Monastkon suggest, the 
ancient name of the parish of which Letheringham was but a hamlet, 
though in the Xorwich Eegisters the house is invariably called Lethering- 
ham. " Local tradition says there Avas a parish church before the priory 
existed, and human skeletons have been found in different parts of the 
traditional site a mile away from the priory." Hence it might seem as 
though the original parish church had been abandoned on the foundation 
of the priory, and that the new conventual one was designed from tlie 
beginning for parochial, as well as monastic uses. " The priory buildings 
adjoined it on the north side, and some vestiges of the old foundations 
are still visible above ground. The chancel was long in proportion, about 
two-thirds the length of the church, but the nave and tower, are all that 
now remain, and they form the parish church." — Letter of the Rev. -T. E. 
Malins, vicar. 

]\roBBERLEY Priory Church, CHESHIRE. — Here, says Tannt;r, I'atrick 
de .M()dl)erley founded a piory of Black canons, in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin iVIary and S. Wilfrid, circa 1206, the moiety of the church 
lieing its first endowment. Between 1228 and 1240, it was annexed 
to the priory of Rocester ; but in the course of the next fifty yeai-s, 
every trace of the connection vanishes, and the advowson of the church 
is found to be vested in Williuni de jNlodberley. Dug., vi, 477-8. 



The ancient parish church of ^Mobberly — the seat of this very short 
lived priory — still exists, a fine and very interesting; building. 

OviKGHA>[ Priory Church, Xorthumberland. — The priory of 
Ovingham, which was a small cell to that of Hexham, stood, and in part 
indeed still stands, prettily situated to the south of the parish church on 
the gently sloping bank between it and the Tyne. The church, as its 
plan — very nearly approaching that of a Greek cross, with north and 
south aisles to the nave, and western aisles to the transept — sufficiently 
indicates, was evidently that of the cell as well as of the parish, and, 
with the exception of the early Xormau, if not Saxon, western tower, 
doubtless rebuilt in its entirety, and at a single effort, in the second 
quarter of the thirteenth century by the mother house of Hexham. It is 
still, generally speaking, in excellent preservation. 

OwsTON Abbey Church, Leicestershire. — The abbey of Owston was 
founded by Eobert Grimbald, one of the Justices of England, temp. Henry 
II, for Austin canons, in honour of Jesus Christ, S. Mary, and S. Andrew ; 
the parish church being given up for their use. 

" Do et concede .... ecclesiam de Osolvestone, et ipsam villam totam 
sine ullo retenemento, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, in campis, &c. et 
in omnibus rebus et libertatibus prtedictae ecclesise et villa3 adjacentibus, 
canonicis ibidem Deo et sancto Andrese servientibus, «&c. Dug. vi, 422-4. 
A fragment only of the abbey church of Owston continues in use as 
tliat of the parish. " There are now remaining only two very fine early 
English arches supported on three pillars which belonged to the church 
as an abbey church, for the architecture of the rest is very late and debased 
Perpendicular. I should fancy that at the dissolution a great portion of the 
church was pulled down, being much larger than the parish Avould ret^uire 
it ; the chancel, no doubt, was pulled down at or about that time (for we 
have no chancel now) and probably my house was built out of it and the 
cloisters, for the stone corresponds Avith that of the church. I say this 
because when I restored the glebe house I found that many of the stones 
when taken out were beautifully carved inside, shewing plainly that they 
had belonged to another building. There is a narrow aisle on the north 
side of the nave, but this (that is, the outer wall of it), has been built 

since the dissolution, or very shortly before it The nave is 

exceedingly high from the ground to the roof, consequently on the south 
side, a huge perpendicular wall of a most debased kind was run up with 
great high buttresses. The abbey buildings joined on to the west end of 
the church." Letter, accompanied with sketch ground plan, of the Rev. 
F. D. Hall, vicar. 

From Nichols' History of Leicestershire it appears that the freestone 
pavement of the destroyed portion of the church was sold for 20s. ; ten 
glazed windows for £2 13s. 4d. ; and that the painted glass in two 
Avindows of the south aisle was valued at 13s. 8d. 

Ratlixghope Priory Church. Shropshire. — According to Tanner, the 
manor of Ratliiighope being given, temp. John, to the Abbey of "Wigmore, 
a prior and one or two canons were tlu^uceforward established there as a 
cell. Xext to nothing, however, seems to be known respecting this small 
and ob.'^cure house. The present church is a modern structure, presumal)ly 


occupying the site of the iincieiii one ; of which, as of the monastic build- 
iugs there are, as I am told by the present incumbent, no remains wliat- 
ver. But the extreme poverty of the liouse, the net annual revenues of 
which at the ])issolution amounted to only £3 13s. 4d., render it in every 
way likely, though no direct evidence of the subject is forthcoming, that 
the parish, would also be made to do duty as the conventual, church. As 
such, therefore, I have classified it. 

Sheringham Priory Church, Xorfolk. — The church of this place, 
says Taimer, having been given U) the abbey of ]S^utley in I>ucks, by 
AValter Giftard, earl of Buckingham, temp. Henry II., here was some- 
time a cell to that abbey. Dug., vi, 575. 

The parish church of Sheringham was probably also that of tlie priory, 
tlie remains of whic!i, a few years ago, were visible at about two hundred 
yards distance from it. Letter of the Vicar of Sheringham. 


Church of Christ, or the Holy Trinity here, says Tanner, Avere a dean 
and twent3'-four secular canons in the time of Edward the Confessor ; but 
these, about a.d. 1150, by the procuration of Baldwin, earl of Devon, 
were changed for canons regular of S. Austin. 

The whole of this noble church is still, happily, standing and in use, 
having been granted in its entirety, Oct. 23, 1540, by Henry VIII. to 
the parishioners. 

Holy Trinity Priory Church, Ipswich. — In the church of the Holy 
Trinity here, a priory of Austin canons was instituted, according to Tanner, 
before a.d. 1177, and chiefly endowed by Xorman, son of Eadnoth, one of 
the first canons. 

It was suppressed at the instance of Cardinal Wolsey, and a spacious 
mansion called Christ Church now occupies its site. 

Trentham Priory Church, Staffordshire. — Here, says Tanner, Avas 
an ancient nunnery, whereof S. Werburgh was by her brother king 
Ethelred appointed abbess, and here she died in 783. IS^othing more is 
heard of it till the latter part of the reign of Henry I., Avhen Randal, 
second earl of Chester introduced canons regular of S. Austin into the 
church of S. Mary and All Saints, which in some form would seem to 
have survived the destruction of the monastery. 

" Eanulphus Comes Cestrise, &c., Sciatis me donasse . . . Deo, et 
sanctae Maritie, et omnibus Sanctis, ad restaurandam quandam abbathiam 
canonicorum in ecclesire de Trentham," &c. Dug., vi, 396-7. 

The priory church, which has lost its ancient tower, continues to bo 
used as that of the parish. 

Waltham Holy Cross Abbey Church, Essex. — Founded in the first 
instance by Tovi, standard bearer to King Cnut, for two priests, which 
number was increased to twelve by Harold, who rebuilt, and richly 
endowed the church. As a college of secular canons, it continued 
according to his foundation till a.d. 1177, when the dean, Guido Ruffus, 
having previously resigned, king Henry II. inducted into it sixteen 
canons regular of S. Augustine ; Walter de Gaunt, a canon of Oseney, 
being constituted the first abbot. Dupr., vi, 56-7. 


Of Harold's buildings at Waltham, there are now no visible remains. 
The choir, transept, and central tower of the abbey church, save only the 
western arch of the latter, which opened to the nave — the whole con- 
ventual parts of it, in short — have now perished. As to this remaining 
arch, it is of late Xorman work, a sufficient proof in one direction, at 
least, of the date of the superstnicture. The nave itself, somewhat later 
still, is beyond all question a partly contemporary, though — as its details, 
especially those of the clerestory, conclusively prove — slightly subsequent 
work of the same architect who erected that of the cathedral church of 
Durham for bishop Flanibard, 1099-1128. Its erection, which was 
evidently gradual, was duo most probably to the munificence of Maude 
and Adeliza, (jueens of king Henry I., both of whom were great friends 
and supporters of the house. As heretofore, it still continues to serve as 
the parisli church of Waltham. For views and plan of Waltham abbey 
church, with divers wild speculations of various -writers, and some very 
judicious observations of the author thereon, see Britton's Antiquities of 
Great Britain, iii, 17-26. 

Warter Priory Church, Yorks. — Warter priory was founded a.d 
1132 by Geoffry Fitz Pain, or Trusbut, in honour of S. James, the patron 
of the parish church, wherein he established a prior and canons. 

" Memoranduni quod domus Wartriae fundata fuit Galfrido Trusbut 
cui in fundatione tautummodo contulit ecclesiam de Wartria&c. 

" Hujus domus fuerunt rectores isti, Joseph, prior 1. Radulphus prior 2. 
Ricardus abbas 1. Yvo abbas 2, et ultimus. Nicholaus prior 3, 
Eichardus prior 4," &c. Dug. vi, 297-8. 

The present parish church of Warter is entirely modern, but occupies 
the site of the original one, Avhich formed part — the south aisle of the 
nave, as would seem most likely — of the conventual church. — Letter of 
Kev. R. D. French, vicar. 

Westacue Priory Church, Norfolk. — A priory of black canons, who 
afterwards became canons of S. Austin, was commenced in the parish 
church of Westacre, temp. William Rufus, by Oliver, the parish priest, and 
his son Walter ; Ralph de Toni, the then lord of the manor, confirming 
the grants made to the same. 

The ancient parochial and conventual church of All Saints continues in 
its integrity as that of the parish. 

WoMBRiDGE Priory Church, Shropshire. — Founded temp. Henry I, 
by William Fitz Alan, in honour of SS. Mary and Leonard. From the 
identity of the dedication and the position of the domestic buildings, 
which adjoin the })arish church, it would seem probable that that stnic- 
ture served originally as the priory church as well. The pi'esent church 
of Wombritlge, which has supplanted a miserable erection of brick, is 
entirely modern, but occupies the site of the original church which was 
blown down in a violent storm, a.u. 1756. Dug., vi, 387 ; and Letter of 
the Rev. M. jNI. Lakke, vicar. 

Worksop I'kiory Ciiuuch, Notts. — Founded in the 3rd Henry I, by 
William do Lovetot, in honour of S. Mary and S. Cuthbert. 


" Ini])rimis totaiii capcllariam totius domus suie, cum decimis et 
()l)lationilms ; dcinde ecclesiaiu de Wirksop, in qua canonici sunt, cum 
decimis et omnibus relnis ad ecclesiam eandem pertincntibus, Scr." Dug., 
vi, 116. 

Tlie nave of tliis masnilicont church, whicdi was always, as at present, 
parochial, remains, with its two western towers, in excellent preservation. 
The eastern, or monastic church, consisting of the structurtd choir and 
transe])ts, is destroyed; but the large and beautiful lady chapel, though 
ruined, has its walls yet standing to nearly their full height. 

A full account of Worksop priory, accompanied with a plan and 
general view, may be seen in the Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association, xxx, 217. 

Having now, in the two foregoing lists, given a summary account of 
both groups of the Augustinian clun-ches, viz, : — 1st, Those which were 
purely conventual, and 2nd, those which were parochial as well ; it 
remains only to classify in a third, such of them as, from the time of the 
sui)pression, were either destroyed by violence, or allowed to fall gently to 
decay ; and which clearly therefore, from these circumstances alone could 
never have been parish churches. For it is important to note, in this 
connection, that every one of these chu.rches without exception, which 
was IdstoricaUij parochial before that event {I take no accormt of the case 
of S. Botolph's, Colchester, which was destroyed during the siege of the 
town in the civil war, and never afterwards rebuilt), continues to he so 
dill Nor is this all, for the fact that even in these cases (with certain 
exceptions readily accounted for), it is only the parochial, and not the 
conventual part of them which has been preserved, aifords the strongest 
possible corroborative proof that in all those cases where no such part has 
been preserved, there was consequently no parish church, nor any 
possessed of legal rights besides the canons. That some few of these 
purely conventual churches should have escaped the general, and other- 
Avise inevitable destruction, either througli the munificent care of indi- 
viduals, or the public spirit of the people, who purchased, and subsequently 
devoted them to parochial uses, is natural enough. It is precisely what 
happened, under similar circumstances, in the case of the Benedictine 
churches of Malvern, Selby, and Milton Abbas. But such particular 
instances of rescue are all perfectly well known and authenticated, and in 
no way affect the case of the vast remaining bulk, which, one and all, Avere 
left to ruin. What the exact degree of that ruin in the several examples 
enumerated in the following table may be, 1 cannot, of course, pretend 
to say ; nor, for my present purpose, is the subject of the least importance. 
What is imiwrtant to observe is the fact that, from the day the canons 
ceased to serve them, the whole of these churches have been utterly 
abandoned ; a state of things impossible to account for, either by reason 
or analogy, except on the supposition, confirmed throughout by history, 
that they were conventual and conventual only. 



Division I. 

Churclu-'s of Bhirk Canons Jiereto/ore described. 

Acornbury Priory Churcli, Cainbridgesliirc. 

Alnesborne Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Anglesea Priory Church, Cambridgeshire. 

Ashridge Priory Churcli, Buckinghamshire. 

Badlcsmerc Priory Church, Kent. 

Barlyuch Priory Church, Somersetshire. 

Barnwell Priory Church, Cambridgeshire, 

Beeston Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Bentley Priory Churcli, i\Iiddlesex. 

Berden Priory Church, Essex. 

Bicester Priory Church, Oxfordshire. 

Bilsington Priory Church, Kent. 

Bisham Montague Priory Church, I^erkshire. 

Blythborough Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Bradenstoke Priory Church, Wiltshire. 

Bradley Priory Church, Lincolnshire. 

Brissett Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Brooke Priory Church, Rutlandshire. 

Breamore Priory Church, Hampshire. 

Broomhall Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Brykley Priory Church, Somersetshire. 

Burnham Abbey Church, Bucks. 

Burscough Priory Church, Lancashire. 

Bushmead Priory Church, Bedfordshire. 

Butley Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Caermarthen Priory Church. 

Caldwell Priory Church, Bedfordshire. 

Calke Priory Church, Derbyshire. 

Calwich Priory Church, Staffordshire. 

Campsey Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Castle-Hymel Priory Church, Northamptonshire. 

Chacomb Priory Church, Northamptonshire. 

Chiche S. Osyth Priory Church, Essex, 

Chipley Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Cirencester Abbey Church, Gloucestershire, 

Cold Norton Priory Church, Oxfordshire. 

Combwell Priory Church, Kent. 

Conishead Priory Church, Lancashire. 

Cornworthy Priory Church, Devonshire. 

Coxsford Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Crabhouse, or Wiggenhall Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Creake Abbey Church, Norfolk. 

Dartford Priory Church, Kent. 

Dodnash Priory Church, Suffolk. 


Drax Priory Church, Yorkshire, 

Elsham Priory Church, Lincohisliirc, 

lu'dlniry Priory Church, Warwickshire. 

Felley Priory Cliurcli, Nottin^hamsliirc. 

Flanesford Priory Cliurch, Ilcrofoi'dshire. 

Flitcliam Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Flixtoii Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Fritlielstock Priory Church, Devonshire. 

Gloucester, S. Oswald's Priory Church. 

Goring Priory Church, Oxfordshire. 

Grace Dieu Priory Church, Leicestershire. 

Guisborough Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Ilaltemprice Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Halywell Priory Church, Warwickshire. 

Hardhani Priory Cliurch, Sussex. 

Ilarwood Priory Church, fjedfordshire. 

Hastings Priory Church, Sussex. 

Haselberge Priory Church, Somersetshire. 

Haverfordwest Priory Church, Peralu'okeshire. 

Haughmond Abbey Church, Shropshire. 

Healaugh Park Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Hempton Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Herringfieet Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Ilickling Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Ilode Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Huntingdon Priory Church. 

Hyrst Priory Church, Lincolnshire. 

Hchester Priory Church, Somersetshire. 

Ivy Church Priory Church, Wiltshire. 

Ixworth Priory Cliurch, Suffolk. 

Ipswich Piiory Church, SS. Peter and Paul, 

Kenilworth Priory Church Warwickshire. 

Kersey Priory Church, Suffolk. 

Keyiisham Abljey Church, Somersetshire. 

Kirkham Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Lacock Abbey Church, Wiltshire. 

Latton Priory Church, Essex. 

Launceston Priory Church, Cornwall. 

Laund Priory Church, Leicestershire. 

Leeds Priory Church, Kent. 

Lees Priory Church, Staffordshire. 

Leicester, S. Mary de Pratis Priory Church, 

Leighs, or Little Leighs Priory C'hurch, E^sex. 

Leigh, or Canonsleigh Priory Cliurch, Devonshire. 

Lilleshull Abbey Church, Shropshire. 

Linchmere Priory Church, Sussex. 

Llanthony Abbey Church, Gloucestershire. 

Llanthony Priory Church, jNIonmouthshire. 

London, Christ, or Holy Trinity Priory Church. 

Longleat Priory Church, Wiltsliire. 

Markby Priory Church, Lincolnshire. 

Marton Priory Church, Yorkshire. 


Massingham Magna Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Maxstoke Priory Church, Warwicksliire. 

Merton Priory Churcli, Surrey. 

Michelham l*ri(uy Churcli, Sussex. 

Missenden Al)bey Church, Buekinghamshire. 

j\Iottisfout Priory Church, Hampsliire. 

Mouutjoy Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Newlnu'gh Abbey Church, Y<irks]iire. 

Newark Priory Churcli, Surrey. 

Newenham Priory Church, r>edfor(lshire. 

Ncwstead Abbey Church, Nottiughamshire. 

Newstead Priory Church, Lincolnshire. 

Nocton, or Nocton Park Priory Churcli, Leicest^rshire. 

Northanii)ton, S. James's Abbey Church. 

North Ferriby Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Norton Abbey Church, Cheshire. 

Nostell Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Nutley Priory Church, Buckinghamshire. 

Old Buckenham Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Oseney Abbey Church, Oxfordshire. 

Pentney Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Peterston Priory Church, Norfolk. 

Plympton Priory Church, Devonshire. 

Poughley Priory Church, Berkshire. 

Pynham, or De Calceto Priory Church, Sussex. 

Ravenston Priory Church, Buckinghamshire. 

Reigate Priory Church, Surrej^ 

Repton Priory Church, Derbyshire. 

Rocester Priorj^ Church, Stailbrdshire. 

Ronton Priory Cluu'ch, Staffordshire. 

Rotlnvell I'riory Church, Northaiu]itonshir(\ 

Sandlcford Priory Church, Berkshire. 

Scarthe Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Scokirk, or Skewkirk Priory Church, Yorkshire. 

Selborne Priory Churcli, Hampshire. 

Shelf ord Priory Church, Nottinghamshire. 

Spinney Priory Church, Cambridgeshire. 

Southampton, St. Denys's Priory Church. 

Southwick Priory Church, Hampshire. 

Stafford, S. Thomas's Priory Church. 

Staveidale Priory Church, Somersetshire. 

Stone Priory Church, Stalfordshire. 

Stoneley Priory Church, Huntingdon. 

Studley Priory Church, ^Yarwickshire. 

Syon Al)bey Church, Middlesex. 

Tandridge Priory Church, Surrey. 

Taunton Priory Church, Somersetshire. 

Thirling Priory Church, Cambridgeshire. 

Tlioby, or Ginges Priory Church, Essex. 

Thornholm Priory Church, Lincolnshire 

Thornton Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. 

Tliremhale Priory Church, Essex, 


Tiptree Priory Church, Essex. 
Tollbridge Priory Chiucli, Kent. 
Torkscy Priory Church, Liiicoliishin.'. 
Tortington Priory Cluirch, Sussex. 
Ulverscroft I'riory Cliurch, Leicestershire. 
Walsingham Priory Church, Norfolk. 
Warwick, S. Sepulclir(!'s Priory Church. 
Waybourni' Priory Church, Norfolk. 
Wellowe, or Grimsby Abbey ChTU-ch, Lineohisbire. 
Westwood ill Lesnes Abbey Chimdi, Kent. 
Weybridge Priory Cliurch, Norfolk. 
Wigmore Abbey Church, Herefordshire. 
Woodbridge Priory Church, Suffolk, 
Woodhani Ferrars Priory Church, Essex. 
Woodkirk Priory Church, Yorkshire. 
Wormgay Priory Church, Norfolk. 
Wormslcy Priory Church, Herefordshire. 
Worspring Priory Church, Somersetshire. 
Wroxton I'riory Church, Oxfordshire. 
Wymondsley Parva Priory Church, Hertfordshire. 

Division II. 

Churches of White Canons, not heretofore described. 

Alnwick Abbey Church, Northumberland. — Founded by Eustace 
Fitz John, A.D. 1147, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Nothing 
but the entrance gateway now remains standing above ground, b\it tlie 
foundations of the chnrcli and conventual buildings have recently been 
uncovered by the Duke of Northumberland. The ])arish church of 
Alnwick, situate at a considerable distance from the abbey, is under the 
invocation of S. Mary and S. Michael. 

Barlings Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. — Barlings abbey was founded 
by Kalph de Haya and Richard his lirother, a.d. 1154, in honour of the 
B.V.M., being endowed, inter alia, with the whole town and parish church 
of S. Edward there. The abbey church, Avhose central tower carried on 
four open arches, and curiously resembling that of the Grey friars at 
Richmond, Yorks., is figured in the Monasticon — but has since fallen 
down — is there said to have been cruciform, and three hundred feet in 
length ; the height of the tower being no less than one hundred and 
eighty feet. 

Bayham Abbey Church, Sussex. — The abbey of Bayham was founded 
circa a.d. 1200, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by Robert de 
Thuniham, for certain l^remonstratensian canons whom he removed there- 
to from Bromley in Deptford. The church, whose plan is very peculiar, 
and of which considerable remains exist in a more or less fragmentary 
state, forms an exceedingly picturesque group of ruins. There is a ])late 
of them in the Monasticon, vii, 910. 

Beauchief Abbey Church, Derbyshire. — Founded by Robert Fitz 
Ranulph, lord of Alfreton, December 21st, 1183, in honour of (tlic 



Blessed Virgin Mary and) S, Thomas the ^^lartyr. The aisleless nave of 
the church, with the remains of a fine westorn tower, was converted into 
a parocliial chapel circa 1632, by Edward Pegge, an ancestor of the 
anti([uary. Tlie church stands in the parish of Norton. For an account 
of lieauchief .Vbbey, with view, see Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association, xxx, 426 ; and Addy's Historical Memorials of Beauchief 

Beleigh, or Maldon Abbey Church, Essex. — Beleigh abbey was 
founded by Eobert Mantell, a.d. 1180, in honour of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and S. Nicholas. The chapter house, which is said to be a small, 
but beautiful early English structure, with graceful vaulting shafts, and 
the warming house with dormitory over, appear to be the best preserved 
portion of the ruins. 

Blanchland Abbey Church, Northumberland. — The abbey of 
Blanchland was founded by "Walter da Bolebek for twelve canons, to the 
honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a.d. 1165. The editors of. the 
Monasticon, in an only too characteristic way, add : — " There are some 
small remains of this abbey, beside an ancient gateway still existing." 
The fact is, however, that the church, having from the time of the disso- 
lution been left to the slow and quiet processes of natural decay only, 
remained, down to 1752, in so good a state of preservation that Lord 
Crewe's trustees then formed a considerable portion of it into a parochial 
chapel. "The aisleless choir, north transept with eastern aisle, and tower 
at the north end of the transept still remain." Note by Mr. W. H. St. 
Jolm Hope. 

BRODHOLAr Priory Church, Nottixohamshire. — 'Agnes de Camville, 
says Tanner, wife of Peter de Gousla (founder of Newhouse), erected the 
priory of Brodholm, in the latter part of the reign of Stephen, to the 
honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Its full annual value, according to 
Leland, was only £10 ; to Dugdale, £16 5s. 2d. 

CocKERSAND Abbey Church, LANCASHIRE. —Cockersand abbey was 
established on the suppression of a hospital endowed chiefl^f by William 
de Lancaster, temp. Henry II. and dependent on that of Leicester, circa 
A.D. 1 190, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. "The octagonal chapter 
house forms the chief remaining feature, but tlie whole of tlie plan of the 
aisleless cruciform church may be traced." Note by Mv. "\Y. H. St. John 

CovERHAM Abbey Church, Yorkshire. — llelewisia, daughter of 
Ranulf de Glanville, chief justice of England, in tlie latter part of the reign 
of Henry II, according to Tanner, fountled at Swainbj', in the parish of 
Pickhill, a house of Avhite canons, who were removed, 14 John, to Cover- 
ham, by his son Ralpli Fitz Robert, Lord of jSIiddleham. The beautifid 
ruins of Coverham abbey clnirch still exist as a sort of adjunct to a small 
mansion house, whicli lias Ijeen furmcd out of the domestic buildings. 
For an account of both, with the magnilicent e.irly monumental effigies of 
the Nevilles, Avhicli still, I believe, do duty as gate posts to the house, &c., 
see Whitaker's BirJnnoiuhlilre, i. The parish church is under the invo- 
cation of the Holy Trinity. 


Croxton Aubby CiiUHcn, Leickstersiiire. — Founded liy one William, 
whom Tanner surnaniod I'orcariu.s ; Peck, Portariu.s ; but the Charters, 
no doubt correctly, Parcarius de Linus, a.d. 1162, in honour of the lUe.s.sed 
Virgin Mary ancl S. Jolin. It sluod in the parish of Croxton Kcyrial, 
and — as the parish churrh was alsn under that invocation — was known, 
])robably for tlie sake of distinction, as " ecclcsia Sancti Johannis de 
Valle ;" in it were buried tho viscera of King John. 

Dale, or De Paroo Stanley Ai^bey Church, Derbyshire. — 
Founded by William Fitz Rauf, Senesclial of Normandy and ( leoffrey do 
Salicosa Mara his son-indaw, a.1). 1204, in honour of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary. The church, wdiich except the arch of the great east window, 
had entirely disappeared from the surface, was carefully explored beneath 
it, by ]Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, for the Derbyshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society, during the summers of 1879 and of 1880; 
Avhen its general plan, together with many interesting details, were 
brought to light. For an account of these, by Mr. Hope, see vol. ii of 
their Transactions. 

DoDFOuu Priory Church, Worcestershire. — King Henry 11. was 
the founder of this small priory of Augustinians, which, eventually con- 
taining but a single canon, was granted tenqj. Edward IV, to tlie abbot and 
convent of Hales-Owen, who forthwith established therein a cell of their 
own order. All that remains of the buildings is said to be found in the 
walls of a farm house. 

DuREFORD Abbey Church, Sussex. — Tanner says, " Henry Hoes 
the elder, before the year 1169, built asul endowed here an abbey of 
Premonstratensian canons, from Welbeck, to the honour of tho Blessed 
Virgin Mary and St. John Baptist." The abbey has completely dis- 
appeared. It stood in the parish of Rogate ; the church of which place 
is under the invocation of S. Bartholomew. 

Easby Abbey Church, Yorkshire. — The abbey of Easby was f (Rinded 
by Koald, Constable of Richmond Castle, under Alan, the third earl, 
circa A.-D. 1152, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. Agatha. 
The beautiful remains of Easby abbey, the church of Avhich, however, is 
almost totally destroyed, stand in a lovely situation about a mile bcdow 
Richmond on the brink of the river Swale. The little parish church of 
Easby — one of singular interest — nestles closely beneath their shelter to 
the east. 

Egleston Abbey Church, Yorkshire. — The abbey of Egliston was 
founded by Ralph de Multon in honour of the Blessed Virgin INIary and 
S. John Baptist. The ruins, which occupy a situation of the utmost 
loveliness on the southern brink of the river Tees, about a couple of 
miles below Barnard Castle, are situate in the parish of Startforth. 
The walls of the aisleless cruciform church are fairly perfect. 

Hagneby Abbey Church, Lincoi-nshire. — This church Avas built by 
Herbert Fitz Alard de Orreby, and Agnes his Avife, A.D. 1175, in honour 
t)f the Blessed Virgin Mary at Hagneby, a hamlet in the parish of 
Hannay ; the church of Avdiich place is under the invocation of S. 


Andrew. The abbey cliureh <>f Ha^ucby, with its dependent offices, 
lla^■e been so long utterly destroyed, that their very site is said to be now 
mere matter of conjecture. 

Hales Owen Abhey Church, xShropshire. — King John, who in the 
sixteenth year of his reign gave the manor and chun'h of Hales to Peter 
tie Kui)il)us, bishop of Winchester, for the puri)ose, antl at whose charges, 
acrording to Tanner, the buildings seem to have been both begun and 
hnished, was apparently the real founder of Hales Owen abbey, though the 
])atronage remained with tlie bishop. It was dedicated in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin iVIary and S. John the Evangelist, and was one of the 
richest houses of the order ; the clear annual income at the time of the 
dissolution amounting to <£280 13s. 2id. The church is now more com- 
pletely ruined apparently, than the domestic offices, of which there are 
still considerable, though very shattered remains. 

Home Lacy, or Hamm Abbey CnuRcn, Herefordshire. — Founded, ac- 
cording to Tanner, by William Fitzwain, in the beginning of the reign of 
Henry III, to the honour of the Blessed Virgin IMary and S. Thomas the 
Martyr. The site of it is, and has long been, utterly unknown. The 
parish church is mider the invocation of S. Cuthbert. 

Hornby PifioRY Church, Lancashire. — According to Tanner, Hornby 
was a cell of a prior and three canons to the abbey of Croxton, and of 
the foundation of the ancestors of the Lord jNIontcagle. It was under the 
invocation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and 8. Wilfrid ; and of the annual 
value of £'2Q. The Ijuildings, which stood in the parish of ^lelling, are 
now completely ruined. 

Irforu Priory Church, Lincolnshire. — Irford was a small priory of 
nuns, founded by Ralph de Alljini, teinp. Henry II, and dedicated in 
honour -of the Blessed Virgin Mary. At the dissolution, its gross annual 
income amounted to only £14 13s. 4d. 

Kaylenl) Priory Church, Xorthamptonshire. — On a place called 
Kaylend, in the parish of Cottesbrook, given by William Buttevillan to 
the abbot and convent of Sulby was established a cell of white canons, 
'ledicated in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. John. " Large 
foundation stones," says Bridges, " have within these few years been dug 
up in Kalendar meadow, and the cell when standing appears to have been 
moated round." 

Langdon, or West Langdon Abbey Church, Kent. — The abbey df 
Langdon, an ofF-shoot from that of Leiston, was founded a.d. 1192, by 
AVilliam de Auberville, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. 
Thomas of Canterbury. A brick dwelling-house now occujiies the site 
of the (-ellarium ; wliihi a small fragment of masonry is all that remains 
visible of the fabric of the church. The site was very carefully ex])lored,' 
however, in 1882 liy Mr. W. H. St John Hope, who has given full 
particulars respecting it, accompanied with a gnxind plan, in the 
Archa;o/(j(jia Co.7ifiaua, Vol. xviii. 

Langley Abbey Church, Norfolk. — According to Tanner, the abbey 
1 Langley was built and endowed, a.d. 11!)8, In' Robert Fitz Koger 


llelkc, or do Claverin^-, in hiinmir of tlu IJlcsscd Mr^iii ?ilavy. There 
Mv said to ])u considorabk! remains of tliis abl)oy still stauiliii.n. Tlio, 
parish church is under the invocati(JU of 8. Michael. 

LAVENDf).v .Vbhev Chukl'H, IJuckinghamshiue. — Founded by 8ir -Joliu 
de liidun in honour of the Blessed Vir2;in Mary and S. John IJaptist, 
al)out the riiigu of king Henry II. All remains, both of the church and 
conventual l)uildings, seem now to have entirely disai)pe;ux'd. The parish 
church of Lavendon is under tlie invocation of S. Mary only. 

Leiston Aubey Church, Suffolk. — The abbey of Leist<ni was toundcd 
liy Kanulf de Glanville, founder also of ISiitley priory, in 118:i, in 
honour of the IJh^ssed Virgin Mary. It was tirst built near the sea, Imt 
the site proving inconvenient, the brethren were removed by Robert de 
Ull'ord, carl of Suffolk, circa 136.3, to a fresh one about a mile 
distant. The new church being consumed by hre in 1389 was thereu])ou 
rebuilt, and, like that of the original foundation which was still occupied 
by a few canons, continued till the general suppression, when both were 
destroyed. Some remains still exist. The parish church of Leiston is 
under the invocation of S. Margaret. 

Newijo Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. — Richard de Malebi.sse was 
tlic founder of this abbey church, which he built to the honour of the 
Lhjssed Virgin Mary in a.d. 1198. 

Xewhouse Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. — This, the lirst Premon- 
strateiisian, or White Canons', church erected in England, was founded by 
Peter de (iousla, a.d. 114G, in honour of S. Mary and S. Martial. It 
stood in the parish of Brocklesby, the church of which place is under the 
invocation of All Saints. No remains of it exist above ground. 

Shau Abbey Church, Westmoreland. — Founded in the Hrst 
instance, at Preston in Kentdale, by Thomas Fitz Gospatric Fitz Orme, 
towards the end of the reign of king Henry II, in honour of S. Mary 
Magdalene. This abbey was afterwards removed by him to a lonely and 
deeply sequestered spot in the parish of Hepp (now Shap), where it con- 
tinued till the dissolution. The church — now greatly ruined and far 
remote from that of the jmrish and village — is a simple Early English 
structure with a late Perpendicular western tower : the latter, owing to 
its excellent masonry, and the care taken of the ruins of late years, being 
still in excellent preservation. The parish church of Shap is under the 
invocation of S. Michael. 

S. Radegund's or Bradsolb Abbey Church, near Dover, Kent. — 
Founded, according to Hasted, by Walter Hacket and Emma his wife, in 
honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. Radegund in a.d. 1191. 
Tanner says the founders were king Richard I, or Geoffrey earl (jf Perch, 
and Maud his wife ; while Leland asserts that it was founded by Hugh, a 
canon, and the first abbot there. The church — which is greatly ruined — 
was carefully exjJored as regards its buried portions in 1880 l)y .Air. W. H. 
St. Jolni Hope, when a ground plan of the highest interest and 
originality were brought to light. The ruins, which are fairly (ixtensive, 
stand in the parish of Polton. 


SuLHY Abbey Church, Xorthamptonshire. — Tlie ubliey of Sulby, 
foundcil l)y William dc "NVidville and Robert dc Chesney, l)i.sliop of 
Lincoln, in A. I). 1155, and aftenvards much increased by Sir Robert dc 
Pavcly, was dedicated in honour of tlie Blessed A^irgin Mary. It was 
one of the richest houses of the order, being valued in the gi-oss, tetiq). 
Heury VIII, at i 305 8s. 5d. yearly. 

Tichfield Abbey Church, Hampshire.— Peter dc Ru])ibus, bishop 
of Wincliester, having obtained of king Henry III, a grant of the manor 
of Tichfield, founded an abbey of white canons there, a.d. 1231, in 
lionour of the Blessed A^'irgin Mary. Sir Thomas AVriothesley, Henry 
Vlll's grantee, pulled down most of the church and offices, and therewitli 
constructed a " right stately house," now in its turn duly gone to ruin. 
' The shell of the aisleless nave, and the (doister square, with the chapter 
house and frater doors, still remain." Note by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. 
The parisli church of Titchtield is under the invocation of S. Peter. 

Tour Abbey Church, Devonshire. — Torr abbey, the richest of all the 
Premonstratensian houses, its annual revenue amounting at the Dissolu- 
tion to £39G Os. lid., was founded by William Briwere, a.d. 1196, in 
honijur of the Holy Saviour, the Holy Trinity, and the Blessed Virgin 
jNIary. Nothing, says Oliver, can exceed the beautiful situation of this 
great abliey ; and, if we may judge by the remains of the church, of the 
chapter-house, and other buildings, the magnificence of the fabric did 
honour to the situation. It is situate in the parisli of Tor-Mohun. 

" Of the church, the south wall of the presbytery, the south transept with 
eastern chapels, the west wall of the north transept, and part of the walls 
of the nave and its single north aisle remain. The east side of the cloister, 
too, with the chapter house and other doors, is standing to a considerable 
heiglit. Tlie wliole of the cellariwu and the fine cellarage 1)eneath the 
frater are incorporated into a modern house." Xote by Mr. W. H. St. 
John Hope. 

Tupholme Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. — Founded temp. Henry II. 
by Alan de Nevill and his brother Gilbert, in honour of tlu; Blessed Virgin 
Mary. Among the remains of this Abbey may be mentioned those of the. 
original Xornian cloister arcades — a very unusual feature. 

Welbeck Abbey Church, Nottinghamshire. — Welljeck, according to 
Tanner, was an offshoot from Newhouse, commenced 18th Stephen, 1153, 
and finished temp. Henry II. by Thomas Fitz Richard, Fitz Jocei le 
Flemang, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. James, but so 
much increased by John Hothani, bishop of Ely, a.d. 1329, that he and 
his successors became thereafter recognised as founders, or patrons thereof. 
In ad. 1512, when the Premonstratensians were exempted by Pope 
Julius II from the jurisdiction of the abbot of Premontre and the 
chapter-general, Welbeck abbey l)ecanie the chief house of the order in 
Fngland. The abbey church, together with its dependent buildings, has 
be(jn pulled down and converted into a mansion-house. It stood in the 
parish of Cuckney. 

Wenoi,i\(. Abbey Church, Nokkolk.. — Founded by William de 
Wcndling, clerk, teniij. Henry III, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 


Part of the church is said to have been staiuling till about 1840, when it 
was pulled down and the materials taken for building purposes. The 
jiarish churcli of Wendling is under the invocation of SS. Peter and Paul. 

AVest Dereham Ahbev Church, Norfolk. — The abbey of Dereham 
was founded by Hubert, dean of York, at that, his native place, a.d. 1188, 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin !Mary. All visible remains of the church 
and conventual buildings seem soon to liave entirely disappeared. The 
gatehouse alone is left. The parish church of West Dereham is under the 
invocation of S. Andrew. 

^Brorrrtimgs at J^erttugs of tjc l^oml ^rcfiaeologiral 


November 6, 1884. 

J. T. MicKLETHWAiTE, Esq., in the Chair. 

Tlie Rev. Prebendary Scarth read an account of the latest discoveries 
made in uncovering tlie Roman Baths at liatli, and those at ILerliord, 
near to Poitiers. Mr. Scarth's paper is printed at page 11. 

Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie gave a description of some Roman an- 
tiquities found by him at San, in Egypt, while excavating there for the 
Egypt Exploration Fund. Mr. Petrie's paper is printed in vol. xli, page 

Mr. Peacock communicated some additional notes on Swan Mrrrks 
Avhieh are printed at page 17. 

Antiquities mxh (Movkp of Jlrt €xhibitcli. 

By the Rev. Prebendary Scarth. — Plan of the Roman bath, at 
Bath, shewing all the latest discoveries. 

By Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie. — A number of Roman antiquities 
found at San in Egypt, consisting of various domestic and personal 
ornaments, etc. 

December 4, 1884. 

J. Bain, Esq., in the Chair 

The Rev. Joseph Hirst communicated the following account of the 
efforts now lieing made to clear the huge a(;cunndation of J^V^r/.s' from 
the summit (if the Acropolis : — About two months ago the new Inspector- 
(leneral of Antiquities and Excavations, K. Stamatakes, yiVLKo^ 'E(f)opo^, 
ably seconded antl assisted by the present Minister of Public Instruction, 
K. Vulpiotis, imdertook at length to carry out, and for the first time 
according to a pre-determined and comprehensive plan, the oft-projected 
and attenqjted work of clearing away from the summit of the Acropolis 
the heaps of rubbish that have so long disfigured it, and the remains (jf 
mediaeval masonry that still occupy its surface. Much discussion lias 
naturally taken place as to the advisability of destroying walls and 
buildings of Frank, Venetian, or Turkish occupants, but the preponderance 
of juilgment has been in favour of taking exact photographs of all later 
ruins of any historic or archaeological interest, and of thus laying bare 
the original old wall of Grecian times. Accurate descriptions have 
therefore been drawn up, and numerous vicAvs taken of every important 


objnct that is to bo removed, and tlic Atlieniaii Acropolis will in a short 
time be as wholly rei)resentative or suggestive of ancient days as is the 
historic Koman Forum since i)r. llacu'lli and Sig. Laiiciani l)egan to carry 
out their nobl(! scheme. Nevertheless, those who after an al)sence of a 
few years again visit Athens, and approach the sacred Hill from various 
sides, will, perhaps, be disappointed by the sudden disa]ipearance of many 
a time-honoured landmark, and regriit the ruthless destruction of that 
strange medley of Turkish dwellings, modern battlements, and mediaeval 
wall-skirting, so long familiar to the eye in views of the Athenian 
Acropolis. Too much praise, however, cannot be given to the energetic 
members of the Greek Archaeological Society, who have taken all 
necessary precautions, and who watch with unabated interest the progres.s 
of the works. Few visitors to the Acropolis can fail to remark that its 
summit is in many places covered to the depth of from six to eight feet 
with the debris of ages, so that important and expensive lal)Our must be 
employed to exhibit the various temples on the proper level, and to 
unearth the foundations and pavement trodden by the children of the 
Imperial Commonwealth. Let us hope that this new venture will tend 
to the substantial enrichment of the well-deserving public museums 
established here (begun, alas ! after the whole world had been adorncMl 
with the spoils and trophies of Grecian art), where every attention and 
facility is so lavishly bestowed upon the stranger. The workmen are 
now engaged in breaking up and in clearing away an' enormous brick 
cistern of Roman days, commonly attributed to Justinian. It is supposed 
to have been built to supply water for the garrison of soldiers when the 
Acropolis began to have a considerable population. The gutters can 
still be seen which conducted the water from the roofs of the temples 
and from the rocky surface of tlie hill into this recess. It occupies 
the rectangular space between the Pinacotheca and the back part 
of the northern wdng of the Propylaea. It is now laid open 
to view, but will soon disappear altogether to leave revealed the 
original foundations of those ancient buildings. By the aid 
of a pole and of a steel tape I had an accurate measurement of this 
cistern made under my own eye, and found it to be fifteen and a half 
metres long by ten and a half wide, while the depth from where the 
double-vaulted roof infringed on the wall of the Pinacotheca to the 
flooring of the cistern und.erneatli is about five metres. This roof was 
supported by a row of three Inick columns running down the middle 
flanked at each end by an abutment from the side wall, making in all 
five l;)rick supports for the double-vaulted ceiling. It may be remarked 
that in all the ancient cisterns remaining in Byzantium the supporting 
columns are invariably of marble or stone. There are a number of small 
cisterns scattered over the Acropolis, three or four feet wide l)y, perhaps, 
six or eight feet deep, now half filled with rubbish, presenting the 
appearance of huge circular amphorae made narrow at the top, which 
were built to supply private houses of Turkish or other times with rain 
water. From a gap already made in the side of the great cistern built up 
against the Pinacotheca (viz., on the long side of the cistern) I was aljle 
to observe some six feet of the original foundations of the time of Pericles. 
As far as at present laid bare, viz., down to the bottom of the cist(;rn, 
these consist of two layers of well-squared stones, surmounted l)y a 
projecting ledge. All these stones are of the kind usual in the f(jundations 



of ancient Greek buildings, a porous-looking tufa from tlie Piraeus, not 
tuilike the cavernous stone used in walls of modern Paris, which crumble 
but do not break up into pieces when struck by a cannon ball. Perhaps 
this ledge, which stands out from the main wall about half a foot, maj'' 
have been to protect the basement from tlie action of rain water, just as 
si ones were so chiselled in rough escarpments by Roman as by modern 
masons, to keep water away from the cemented joinings. In the ex- 
cavations connected with this cistern nothing of importance has been 
found save some fragments of inscriptions and a small marble head, all 
of which are deposited in the temporary museum erected on the Acropolis. 
The members of the German School, however, in clearing up the debris 
round the temple of the Wingless Victory have discovered another 
delicately-carved fragment of the long-missing balustrade that guarded it 
as with a barrier on the northern side which looked sheer down upon the 
main ascent into the Propylaea. 

Admiral Tremlet communicated a memoir on the Menhir Autel at 
Kernuz, Pont I'Abbo, Brittany. This is a granite monolith, ten feet long, 
discovered through being struck with the ploughshare. It was unearthed 
by M. du Cliatelier, and found to be carved with four panels bearing 
representations of, apparently, Mercury, Hercules or Jupiter, Mars, and 
other deities. The stone seems to be of Roman date. 

The paper will appear in a future Journal. 

Mr. W, H. St. John Hope read a paper on the Augustinian Priory of 
the Holy Trinity at Repton, Derbyshire, describing the results of the 
excavations on the site of the priory church, which have been recently 
completed by the Rev. W. Furneaux. Mr. Hope's paper is printed in 
vol. xli, page 349. 

Votes of thanks were passed to Mr. Hirst, Admiral Tremlet and ]\Ir. 

^ntiqtxitics n\xb (iMorks of Jlrt (Bxhibitcb. 
By Admiral Tremlet. — Drawings of the Menhir Autel at Kernuz. 

By Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. — Ground plan of Repton Priory, with 
plans and sections of bases and moldings. 

£ioikt& oi J^rchvcrr logical IJublicittions, 

Rev. W. F. CREENY, M.A, Printed for the Author, Norwich, 1884. 

Then" is, perhap.s, no branch of archaeology that has been more 
tliorouglily Avorked at, we had ahnost written, worked out, in England 
than monumental brasses. Before the discovery of the uses and merits 
of heel-ball the work of brass-ru])l)ing was in the hands of a small but 
zealous band of antiquaries, such as, in the early days, Cole, Kerrich, 
Stothard, Cotman, and Craven Ord, who, for the sake of the valuable 
information which they perceived was to be obtained, went to the trouble 
of taking impressions from l^rasses in printers' ink, working off portions at a 
time. Later men laboriously made rubbings proper with new blacked leather, 
or leather and black-lead, adding to the probability of imperfect or feeble 
impressions, the chances of entire disappointment and the certainty of dirty 
lingers. Others used black-lead mixed with linseed oil, working on silver 
})aper, and succeeded well. All these impressions were far superior to 
any other representations of such memorials that had appeared in printed 
works up to the early })art of this centur}--, though there was still the 
serious drawback that they could not be multiplied and made available 
for general reference with the absolute accuracy so essential. Engravers 
without knowledge of costume and armour turned both into hopeless con- 
fusion, and we gather something of the difficulties that Cotman had to 
contend with, in bringing out his fine collc^ction, from the perusal of some 
of his letters now before us to an eminent Cambridge antiquary 

Thus the work languished, while greedy clerks and sextons continued 
their wicked habit of appropriating and consigning to the melting-pot the 
evidences of the history of many a village and district, until about the 
year 1 838, when Mr. Ullathorne's invention for (^uite a diff"erent purpose 
was suddenly found to provide exactly what was required. Then arose 
ail army of rubbers ; the work was easy, naturally a great inducement to 
it ; no knowledge or training was wanted, a still greater advantage ; the 
equipment was simple, and it was not vmamusing to produce " white lines 
with black heel-ball." Almost coaeval with this new-born enthusiasm was 
the formation of the Archieological Association, now the Institute, and of 
the numerous archaeological and architectural societies throughout the king- 
dom, and if every brass in England was not rubbed many times over 
within a very few years it was from no want of inclination on the part of 
the rubbers. AVlu^ther the greater number of these enthusiastic m(!n and 
women — for both si'xes were occupied — knew, or cared to learn much, if 
anything, of the individuals represented, their armour, or costiaiie, is quite 
a different matter. Eor the most part the rubbing of brasses was the mere 


aiiniseincnt of tlie hour ; the luiiy rolls were soon found to be cumbersome 
and no liij^^her use could be found for hundreds of brass rubbings in the 
early heel-ball days than that of iiajiering for walls. Another evil was 
that people cut up their rubbings and newly and symmetrically arranged 
the shields and other accessories round about the principal figure, thus 
dislocating the whole story, and it is these mutilated lying rubbings which 
reappear from time to time in our own day for exhibition at archaeological 
meetings, usually apro-poi^ of notliing at all. 

But the study was soon to be lifted to its proper position. In 1840 
the brothers Waller issued the first part of their great work on English 
brasses, in which the skill of the etcher and engraver is no less conspicuous 
than the knowledge displayed in the letter-press. In the same year the 
late Eev. C. H. Hartshorne, who had already accumulated a large collection 
of rubbings, published his useful book on "Sepulchral Monuments;" 
while soon after the Kev. H. Addingtou began his great collection, 
sumptuously bound in vast volumes, and which was just completed at 
the time of his lamented death in 1883. This series, though somewhat 
marred Ijy the elaborate painting of the heraldry, now hnds a fitting 
resting in the British ^luseum. Tlie publication in 1846 by the Rev. 
C. R. Manning of his valuable list, which has bitten man}^ a man with 
the rubber's fever, jNIr Greeny among the number, was followed two years 
after by tlie Rev. H. Haines's more complete catalogue, amplified from all 

Antiqiiaries have long been aware that a considerable number of brasses 
still existed on the Continent. Attention has been called to some of 
them from time to time by the late Mr. Way and by Mr. A. Nesbitt, but 
no general collection has hitherto been brought together— such a collection 
as ^Ir. Franks is amassing for England and, with his usual generosity, 
depositing in th(^ library of the Society of Antiquaries. Thus, when Mr. 
Greeny exhibited a first instalment (jf his rubbings from the continent 
before tlu^ Society of Antiquaries in ^May 1882, the surprise was great; 
and when a second series was laid before the Fellows in May 1883, the 
opinion was general that their reproduction in a permanent and con- 
venient form was highly desirable. With this encouragement Mr. Greeny, 
who is not a man to let the grass grow under his feet, issued a prospectus 
a few week's later, and, starting for another holiday of hard work, com- 
pleted his collection. Eighteen months after, the subscribers have in their 
hands a copy of the folio volume now before us, which will assuredly 
find a worthy place in public libraries, beside the goodly works of 
Stothard, Hefner, Waller, and Hollis, and take a princii)al position in 
the smaller collections of students of costume. 

This is in every respect a remarkable book, and one which would have 
been inqiossiVjle fifteen years ago ; but so rapid has been the development 
of photolithography since its first general practical use in 1868, in its 
a))plication to the illustration of art, and so successful the introduction of 
artificial light in the l)eginning of 1880, that a work which might have 
formed the labours of a lifetime has now been brought within the compass 
of eighteen months. The author in liis introduction does not profess to 
go very deeply into the general subjects, but he gives a useful synopsis of 
the contents of the book, Avhich is followed by a lively account of the 
jrjurneys he took in searcli of his subjects. From this we get an insight 
of tlic robustness and energy of his character, and we catch not a litth; of 


tin-, enthusiasm whicli en.abled liiiu to go so cheerily tlirough his lahours- 
For iiistunce, in August, 1883, he begins with a rubbing at Nynnvcgen : 
live (lays later he has done the brass of King Eric jMenved and his ([ucen 
at Kingstead, in the island of Zealand, and is in Copenhagen on his way 
to Upsala and Vester A^ker. In another five days he has crossed the 
Ualtic, and is calndy at work in the "Tom" of Posen, with IJrcslau and 
Cracow, his furthest point, in prospect. Not the least of the difficvdties 
that had to be conquered was the mural position of so many of the 
brasses ; this must have niadii the rubbing of such great plates a task of 
considerable severity. The author, of course, was occasioiially balHod by 
the total disappearance of subjects for which long journeys had been 
made ; this is the common fate of anticptaries, and we have a fellow 
feeling with him in his account of how he found himself locked uj) in 
Paderl)orn Ciithedral, for we were ourselves in the same dilemma many 
years ago in the Romanesque crypt of the very same church. In addition 
to the chronological list of the contents of the book, Mr. Creeny gives 
us another table of continental brasses, which may, ]jerliaps be am[)li(ied, 
now that the list has been started, to possibly form the material of 
another volume on a future day. 

It will be immediately understood that an exhaustive review of a book 
like this would be impossible in the limited space at our command. 
The subjects and details which it illustrates are so numerous and so varied 
that it might rather require a series of hand-books. Mr. Creeny's own 
descriptive letter-press is excellent and suggestive, and we believe wo 
cannot do better now than run lightly through the book with his aid, 
dwelling from time to time upon certain special examples (premising, 
however, that we are disposed to linger with the early rather than with 
later brasses), and not disdaining the help of the magnifying glass. 

AVe can easily realize Mr. Creeny's feelings when he was first brought 
fiice to face with the figure of Bishop Ysowilpe, at Verden in Hanover, 
which, being clearly dated 12.31, is the earliest brass known. In its 
simplicity one cannot help comparing the Ysowilpe Avith the early 
abbatical effigies at AYestminster, with the effigy of abbot Benedict, at 
Peterborough, and Avith the early bishop at Salisbury with his pall 
inscribed " affer opem devenies in idem." Ysowilpe's Aveighted jjall, the 
simple indications of the rich stuff of the dalmatic, the light chasuble Avith 
an apparently Avoollen lining, the Ioav mitre, and the plain and slender 
l)asto"al staff arj interesting features. As Mr. Creeny says, " the draAving 
might have been better, the lines l^older and firmer, and the whole Avork 
more artistic — but not by this artist — not in this year, 1231." In his 
naked upraised hands the bishop bears respectively a castle and a church — 
another (lundulph — the evidences nrore eloquent than Avrittcn history 
that, he rebuilt part of his church, estcd)lished the convent of St. AndrcAv, 
and fortified the marshes. 

From the picturesque city of Hildesheim Ave have the brass of Otto de 
BrunsAvick, dated 1297. A considerable advance has been made in fifty 
years, and we may justly admire the gracefulness of the treatment of the 
f(jlds of tlio bishop's different vc;stments. Another castle builder, he 
supports a capital model of a fortress in his left hand, inscribed on the 
curtain Avail Woloenbergii. This castle is entered through a lofty gate- 
way ; in the niiildle of the Avard appears the lodgings of the lord in tAVo 
sLories, covered with a gabled roof and showing the Avindows of the chapel 


on one side. A tall watch tower at one corner dominates tlie whole wliich 
is encircled by embattled curtains from tower to tower. The entire 
memorial is of considerable interest, and students of ecclesiastical costume 
will appreciate the delineation of the different vestments of these two 
thirteenth century bishops by local Germans. Others may contrast them 
with the oidy three brasses of this period in England, namely, the 
knights at Stoke d'Abernoun, Trumpington, and Buslingthorpe, and the 
difference in the general treatment will be at once seen, the English 
figures being cut out and extracted from a sheet of brass, while the 
German ones have the figures and background on the same plate. It will 
be observed that in these two early German brasses the jilates narrow 
slightly to the feet. It is possible that they may have been originally 
fixed on the flat lids of stone coffins in accordance M'ith the principle 
carried out in our own country, where the early stone effigies were 
sculptured upon the lids of the actual coffins Avhich were placed level 
with the pavement. A notable instance of this arrangement, was the 
effigy of King John, originally ])lace<l in Worcester cathedral, between 
the figures of St. Oswald and St. Wulstan, all three being coffin lid 
effigies. Monumental figures on such iiarrowing slabs were put later in 
low recessed arches and upon altar tombs, and so it was till towards the 
middle of the fourteenth century, when the narrowing slab, the survival 
of an ancient practice, gradually died away. 

We pass on to the series of brasses of the fourteenth century, which 
appropriately opens in 1319 with the noble monument of King Eric 
Menved of Denmark and his Queen Ingeborg, at Eingstead in the island 
of Zealand. In describing this, the earliest example of elaborate works of 
tile kind, Mr. Creeny takes the opportunity of showing us that the artist 
proceeded in setting out his work by first considering that the Avhole plate 
was diapered with flowers and birds contained in a geometric ])attern. 
Over this ground he laid the rest of his work, viz., double panelled shafts 
containing figures of saints and prophets in niches and supporting the two 
great canopies, beneath which are the two principal figures. The king, 
who probably spent more of his life in armour than in any other costume, 
is habited in the royal robe, the dalmatic, in this case without sleeves, 
embroidered with the arms of Denmark ; he holds upright in his gloved 
right hand the two-edged sword of Justice and in his left the kingly 
sceptre. A sword is held in this way by Henry the Lion in his effigy at 
Brunswick, and the costume, the under tunic, dalmatic, and mantle, is the 
same as may be seen in slightly varying forms on the effigies of Coeur 
de Lion at Rouen, King John, Henry III, Edward II, and Edward III. 

The Queen, who also holds a sceptre, is crowned and wears a kirtle, 
cote-hardi, and mantle. The cote-hardi is an early example and unusually 
high in the side openings. She Avears a wimple, not, we think, as 
marking her short widowhood because mourning was hardly indicated by 
special habits at this period, but as one of the numerous varieties of the 
head-dresses of the ladies of the time. This example consists of a single 
cloth or veil laid flat on the throat, and then pinned up in a not unusual 
way to a band round the temples. The Queen's face is in marble, and 
we notice the straight under-line of the eyes, the peculiar fashion with 
artists of this ])eriod, and a satisfactory feature that may occasionally be 
seen in real life; in conjunction with grey eyes. Some of the effigies of 
the Artois family in the dark cryj)t of the great church at La Ville 


d'Eu have head and hands of marble; it is a practice far from uncommon 
on the continent. 

Of tlie figures in tlic niches the saints have iiiinhl and naked feet, the 
prophets wear caps and are shod. In tlie canopies of the great ardies th.e 
souls of the (h'parted are received in sheets by kneeling figures of saintly 
or angelic persons, though they have no wings ; others swing censers witli 
graceful easi' ; while higher up the souls are welcomed by angels witJi the; 
music of long curved horns, and so they pass out of sight into the arms of 
the Father. The whole com|)osition is njfined and elaborate ; the details 
of the canopies are worked with the utmost niinutciuess and precision, and 
nothing is admitted that does not tend to enhance in one way or another 
the beauty and harmony of the coni{)osition. Certainly it is a great 
work. Beneath the feet of the royal pair, in long compartments, less 
than two inches wide, men with spear, horn, and bow hunt the 
deer and the boar ; thus the amusements of life are finely con- 
trasted with the striking and final scenes in the upper part of the 
canopy. The entire brass, which measures 9ft. 4ins. by 5ft. Gins. 
is circumscribed by the inscriptions in Lombardic letters, written in the 
first person : Ego Ericvs q'dam rex de Dacia, &c. No other work of the 
kind appears to have been laid down in Denmark, and this is one of the 
finest examples in the century of the great Flemish school, from whence 
emanated the brasses at Lynn, Newark, and St. Alban's, all being " toned 
by the same mental influence." 

From Vester A°ker, in Sweden, we have the brass of Frau Ramborg 
de Wik, 1327, in which the symbols of the evangelists occur in the 
later or fourteenth century arrangement, namely, top, dexter side, 
ewjle, sinister, man ; bottom, dexter, lion, sinister, ox. In the thir- 
teenth century and earlier, according to Professor Reussens, the eagle 
and tlie man change places. This memorial, which consists of a single 
plate of brass measuring 6ft. lin. by 3ft. lin., is remarkable for the 
grandure of the inscription in Lombardic letters four inches high. It 
is written in the first person, and a separate inscription invokes 
vengeance on any despoiler, leaving no blessing for the protectors, 
which has in fact, happily, been well earned. 

Glancing at the brass of Bishop Bernhard de Lippe, 1340, at Pader- 
born, cut out in the English manner, and in which this high ecclesiastic 
is shown in a chasuble embroidered with lions and eagles, we come to 
the great brasses of the four brothers Bulowe at Schwerin. 

Bishops Ludulph and Henry died respectively in 1339 and 1347, and 
their memorial is evidently the creation of the artist who produced the 
brass of King Eric. The diapered background is the same, but the 
whole is not so fine a composition, and though it is much marred by the 
position of four heraldic achievements, we thankfully recognize the advan- 
tage of being able to study in a convenient form the intricate details of 
so large a work, such as the apparel of the alb of Ludulph and the grace- 
ful figure of St. Margaret in the middle shaft. The released souls are 
seen above the great arches of the canopy in the hands of the Creator. 

The two other brothers. Bishops Godfrey and Frederic, dietl 1314 and 
1375, are shown in a brass, measuring 13ft Gin. by Gft. 5in., the largest 
known. This has many evidences of work of the latter end of the 
century, and what a work it is ! Of extraordinary clearness and bril- 
liancy we have conventional figures of the bishops under triple-arched 


canopies, and vested so gorgeously that we can do no more tlian mention 
the fact. The plate must be carefully studied : we would, however, call 
attention — 1, to the variety and interest of the musical instruments 
played upon by the angels on the maniples, in the crook of Bishop 
i'l'ederic's pastoral staff, and by the twenty-six kings seated among 
the vine leaves and grapes that spring from the wavy stem of Jesse, 
which contains the two inscriptions, and forms the border of the brass ; 
2, to the details of the canopies, in which the Deity holds in his arms 
the souls which have laid aside earthly garments and, now redeemed, 
worship amidst a heavenly choir ; 3, to the figures in the niches of the 
shafts, and specially, to the choice row of civil figures at the base; and 
4, to the delightful sceniis in the lives of the wodewoses, those hairy 
men, who, from their manners, we may fairly consider as the lineal 
descendants of the satyrs of classic times. In one scene a table is spread 
i;nder the trees, and the hairy king dines ; in the other a l)old moimted 
wodewose has stolen a fair lady, and, while making his way with her to 
the king, who sits expectant in a tent, — which, by the way, he entirely fills, 
is stopped in his career by a mounted knight in full armour who suddenly 
gallops out from under the portcullis of a castle. The episodes are capital, 
and every figure, from the thin and hirsute turnspit to the stout knight, 
will well repay examination. It is not easy to reconcile the solemn 
scenes in the canopies with the hilarious goiugs on at the liase, but we 
feel the thorough mediaevalisni of the whole thing, while remembering a 
curious instance of unexpected humour on an effigy at Peterborough, 
where the two angels who support the pillow steady themselves by grasp- 
ing the abbot by the ears ! 

The tine lirass of William Wenemaer, 1325, at Ghent, is known to most 
students of armour, but we welcome a representation of his curious costume 
that is not marred by the blundering of engravers. We only, at this 
moment, remember one other example of a heart-shaped shield, namely 
that borne by St. Michael in the great wooden statue in the church at 
Hameln. The attitude of Wenemaer with the body bent to the side is, 
as Mr. Greeny says, not graceful, but it was so arranged of set purpose, 
and this example is valuable, as showing that a position, fashionable in 
this country during the first half of the fourteenth century, had extended 
to the Low Countries. Here it was common to both sexes, and may be 
observed in effigies, brasses, and glass. We mention as examples, the 
figure of John de Greke, in his brass at Westley- Waterless, two 
statues of ladies in the hall of the Vicars Ghoral at Wells, and the figures 
of the l)e Glares in the painted glass at Tewkesbury. 

Another great double episcopal brass is that of Bishop Burchard de 
Serken, 1317, and Bishop John de Mul, 1350, at Liibeck. It would be 
difficult to carry the art which this book illustrates much further than it 
has been brought in the example before us. We have the same conven- 
tional episcopal figures, but engraved with a boldness and vigour that 
shows, not only the perfect mastery the artist had over what must 
always seem, to an amateur a most intractable mateiial, but also 
what a consummate draughtsman he was. There is no over-loading 
and confusion of details and one can distinguish and read ofi' the 
different vestments in a moment, and only in the cases of the 
crosses of tin; pastoral staves can it be said that one beauty has 
been overpowered by another. As Mr. Greeny well says: — "One 


mijfht dwell upon the wondrous details of this L,'re;it work U>y 
hours. What observer would not like to have known tlie inau wliosc 
weird fancy croattHl the awsouK^ and varied monsters that fill tlie trefoils 
of the background, and in a ' iiiouient of sweetness and liglit,' made 
butterflies attend upon them ? From the delicate finish of tlie minuter 
work, let the eye rest upon the eillgies themselves, and then; the. trium))li 
of the artist's refinement is complete." The shafts wliich sup]iort the 
canopy of this grand work contain niches full of lovely detail which 
shelter saints and prophets, and in the upper part the escaped souls arc 
twice represented, first as small figures in napkins held by angels, then in 
a higher compartment in the arms of the Almighty. To the architectural 
details generally special attention should ])e called ; they are rich and 
accurate beyond conception, and the elegance of the tabernacle work, and 
fullness and symmetry of the upper portions of the four great shafts fill 
the beholder with satisfaction. The long compartments below the feet 
are, with much propriety, filled with representations of incidents in the 
lives of the Saints Nicholas and Eloy. In spaces less than four inches 
deep, we have numerous scenes including the bringing to life by St. 
Nicholas of the three little children in the pickle-tub, and St. Eloy 
seizing the prince of darkness by the nose. 

The memorial of Albert Ilovener, 1357, at Stralsund, is another of the 
monster brasses, and a fine example of civil costume which recjuires study 
to be clearly understood. It consists of a close embroidered jupon, such 
as is worn by William of Hatfield, at York, and of which the sleeves 
only are seen. Then comes a long tunic, lined with vair Avith side waist 
openings, and having sleeves to the bend of the arm from vv'^hich 
long tippetts faced with vair depend. Over this is worn a mantle, 
shorter than the tunic, and ornamented and stiffened with embroidered 
" barring " on the shoulders. This mantle is divided below the ell)Ows 
into Ixack and front portions, and has a hood attached, the whole being 
lined with vair. It is possible that, as Mr. Greeny suggests, this repre- 
sents the scarf of a proconsul. Tire dress must have been exceedingly 
comfortable and picturesque, and we cannot recall any similar to it. The 
canopy and other parts of the work are generally the same as in the pre- 
ceding examples of this school, but we notice a tendency to a decline in 
the ([uality of the art. We may not overlook the unusual shape of the 
horn from which a wild man seems perfectly well able to blow " bloody 
sounds," though he is trampled luiderfoot by the proconsul, and harassed 
in his rear by the furious attack of a lion. A spirited hunting scene is 
going forward below, in which there is more blowing of horns, under freer 
conditions, and a boar rushes blindly to his fate on the point of a 
spear. What illustrations for the treatises of Master William Twici and 
Dame Juliana ! 

The brass of Johan von Zoest, 1361, and his wife, is the last in this 
^century of the great Flemish school, and give capital examples of civil 
costume. The embroidered sleeves of the man's jupon, — 

"As it were a mede 
Alle full of fresshe flowres white a rede," 

and th<3 lady's rich kirtle, are familiar to us from our own moikiments. 

With a sudden drop in size, and a manifest decline in art, we come to 
the l)rass of Bishop Rupert, 1394, at Paderborn. This, in its costume, 
is the most curious and interesting figure in the book, and, as we take it, 



the dress worn, or shown, is pnrtl}' civil and partly ecclesiastical. We 
have first the tight jupon, indicated by its sleeves reaching to the 
knuckles ; then the tunic with close sleeves, edged with fur ; anil over nil 
a long gown buttoned across the chest and having a standing collar. Tliis 
is a gown much of a kind which was worn in England in the early part of 
the fifteenth century ; the long loose sleeves are like the sleeves of a 
surplice. On the shoulders the almuce is simply folded and laid, not 
worn, indicating a canon, and over the head two angels hold a mitre. In 
the inscription it is stated : — " Rapuit nex Rupert electii hul ecce " ; an 
expression which further bears out the opinion, which a high authority 
has given us, that he was only a commendatory bishop. The military 
figures at Rupert's feet are good examples of armour. The one wears a 
visored bascinet and camail, and breeches of mail to the knees ; the other 
wears a wide rimmed helmet, of which illustrations are frequent enough 
in j\ISS. but of the highest rarity in sculpture. Both are clad in the 
German jupon with loose sleeves of a light material, such as are worn by 
Conrad von Bickenbach, 1393, in his effigy at Roellfeld ; Hefner gives 
another example, 1394, the date of Rupert's death. 

Bishop Bertram Cremen, who died in 1377, is represented at Liibeck 
by a great brass full of bad drawing and bad workmanship. That the 
artist was not well acquainted with the ordinary proportions of the 
human frame is shown by the figure of St. John, and nothing can be more 
feeble than the architecture ; the man does not even seem to have 
observed, in a city like Liibeck, how brickwork was laid. There is no 
doubt about the date of the border brass, for it is quite clear in the in- 
scription upon it, though the part which contained the name of the 
bishop is gone. We can hardly believe that the whole of this memorial 
belongs to the same period. The person who drew and engraved the 
figure of the mitred saint in the border cannot have drawn the mitre of 
the principal figure, for such a mitre did not exist in his day ; moreover, 
the details of the vestments of the bishop are in no way in accordance with 
any detail in the border. It would therefore appear that the border alone 
(we shall notice a similar example later on), forms Bishop Cremen's 
memorial, the work indeed of a sad bungler, and that the "cut out" 
figure of a bishop, clearly a work of the sixteenth century, has been intro- 
duced from elsewhere. The imperfect finish of the edges of the whole, 
the upraised hand comprised in a squared plate, the character of the lower 
end of the pastoral staff, and the chipped feet, are evidences that the figure 
has been extracted from another brass by rude hands in later times. This 
also accounts for the destruction of the name of the bishop originally 

Tlie large brass of John and Gerard de Heere 1332 and 1398, the 
brass being of the latter date, presents two men in the well-known 
armour of the time of Richard II, with certain Flemish peculiarities, 
such as the embroidered jupon. We notice the absence of musical 
instruments in the canopies and a decided failing in the art. Among the 
several smaller brasses that follow we should call attention to the costume 
of "Miserere mei, 1400," from Nordhausen, Avearing a German ceinture 
of bells, and a most curious baudric of tree-branches strung with coronets 
and having clapper bells attached. 

The impressive monument of Joris de Munter and his wife, 1439, at 
Bruges sliows tliem draj)ed in winding sheets, of which the folds are most 


skilfully and artistically arraiij^^^d, and roposinj^- upon a hack-gi'ouiid copied 
from " Lucca Cloth." Martin do A'iscli, 1452, also from liruges, is a vast 
and martial figure. Within a border of bits and in front of a richly 
diapered wall he stands on a lion ; he is clad in armour and wears a 
sleeved tabard on wliich, as well as on the shield and tilting helm, the 
//,vA'>- are represent(;d with a Ijoklnoss and vigoui' that woidd have 
startled Izaac Walton. 

We may not, though we would fain, linger over the jilate of 
Isabella Duchess of Burgundy at Basle, 1450, full as it is of heraldic 
and other details of the highest interest ; nor can we do more than glance 
at the charming monument, by William Leomansz of Cologne, of 
Katherine de Bourbon, 1469, at Xymwegen, who so well becomes 
the heraldic dignity which surrounds her, a descendant of the illustrious 
houses of Bourbon and Bourgogne. The architectural details mark the 
advent of classic, and the curtain as a background is an early example. 

John Luneborch, 1474, at Liilteek, is represented in a large but harsh 
and rigid work, in which the engraver would never decide upon his back- 
ground ; still, as an accurate representation of the chief man in Liib(,'ck 
four centuries ago, it cannot but demand notice. 

" Magnihcus Dominus Lucus de Gorta," 1475, at Posen, in a complete 
suit of plate, is an example of the peculiar German work in low relief — 
the features hammered up from the back. To painters and amateurs of 
armour the fluted gauntlets with double gadlings and strapped cuffs, and 
the vizored salade and mentonniere will be very welcome. The thoroughly 
German figure of Gerart, Duke of Julich, 1475, at Altenburg, also in full 
armour, shows an armet or close helmet and bavier, and the unusual 
addition of a horn — not the horn of the hunter, as Mr. Creeny says, 
nobody hunts in armour, but the horn of battle, such as is worn by the 
knight at Pershore of an earlier period. Gerart also wears a curious 
family collar, consisting of the repetition of two adossed horns between 
knots formed of tlu; interlacing of the letter G. This would be an addition 
to a complete work on collars, Imdges, knots, &c., which is so much 

Without any comment we may safely leave to students of ecclesiastical 
costume the study of the representations of Bishop Andreas, 1479, from 
Posen; Archbishop Jacobus de Senno, 1580, a queer figure, froniGnezen ; 
Bishop Kudolph, 1482, from Breslau, and the vera effigies of Bishop 
Vriel de Gorka, 1498, and Cardinal Federicus, 1510, at Cracow. 

The memorial of Pieter Lausanne and his wife, 1487, from Ypres, is 
very singular, consisting as it does of a border with a wavy inscription, 
within the curves of which we have a series of scenes in the life of a man. 
" First the infant," who is being warmed before the lire by his mother ; — 
we will not forestall the intermediate pictures of the eventful history, but 
pass to the last scene but one, in which the ultimate rites of the church 
are administered ; finally the iron-work of a " herse," surrounded by tall 
tajiers, shows that "man goeth to his long home." 

Of high interest and value are the memorials of the House of Saxony 
at Meissen. Beginning with Duke Frederic, with the Arch-j\Iarshars 
.sword, in 1464, and ending with Duke Frederic in 1539, a brilliant 
pageant of noble men and women passes before us. Rich costume vies 
with magnificent armour, and both are at once heightened and sobered by 
the heraldry of an ancient house. We should direct attention to the brass 


of the ])ious Sidonia, 1510, >:iiKc the engraving is ascribed to Albert Durer. 
We doubt the attribution, but we should like to know for certain who was 
the artist of so retined and graceful a figure. It is well contrasted by the 
effigy of licr courageous husband — immortalized in " Der Prinzenraub " — 
in liis granil ^Maximilian suit. Tlie dress of Anialie, Duchess of Bavaria, 
l.")02, is a work of the same school, if not l)y the same hand as that of 
Sidonia. She is dressed in widow's weeds, which include a band tied over 
the mouth, a curious fashion never seen in England. She tells her beads 
standing under a canopy of tree-tracery — grotesque gardeners' gothic, 
which surel}' must be allied to the flowing tracery we remember at Goslar, 
all tied together with cords in solid stone. 

There are yet many plates to arrest the attention, but these remarks 
have run to such a length that our pleasant task must cease, and on the 
confines of the German renaissance, we take our leave of this delightful 
book. We are glad to see a fair list of original subscribers, who will, 
doubtless, have received their copies with mingled feelings of satisfaction 
and gratitude. The jirospectus informs us that the modest cost is now 
raised : this is quite right, and we trust the author may soon be fully re- 
couped for his intelligent labours. We repeat our thanks to Mr. Greeny 
for thus bringing from afar and placing within our reach such wide sources 
of information. We are now, at last, enabled to extend and ratify our 
knowledge by comparing our own brazen records Avith a new and varied 
series, while we have the higher satisfaction of contemplating faithful 
cojiies of works engraved in enduring brass with the mind and by the 
tinkers (jf "enius. 


2 vols. 8vo. London : Wymans and Sons. 1884. 

Those who have read Mr. Glark's papers contributed to the Archteological 
Journal at intervals for above forty years past, and have heard his 
explanations at the annual gatherings of the Institute, will have welcomed 
Avith more than ordinary pleasure the publication of two volumes con- 
taining the substance of his lectures, with much valuable matter added. 

The work, which has ai)peared in the past year, does honour to British 
Arclueology, and places this country on a par with France and other 
countries whose writers have treated on a similar subject. 

What renders the work still more vahiable is, that the plans and draw- 
ings of luediseval castles which it contains must prove of the greatest 
value to the student, since they enable him to compare the dijfferent 
systems of construction, and the engineering skill displayed in the work 
of each. We can give but a brief idea of the value of this work by 
mentioning the plan of its arrangement, and this appears particularly good. 

The author begins by treating of the earth-works of the Post-Roman 
and English periods, and gives instances of the artittcial mounds that 
have been formed long before the coming of the Norman. He carefully 
distinguishes between tlie Roman, the British and the English, and sup- 
ports his statements l)y reference to authorities. The examples given of 
two of the ancients Burhs, and the enumeration of others, help us not a 
little to ni-^derstand the character of an early liritish, or of a purely 
English, fortress. 

The thiid cha])ter contains a very instructive account (jf tlio castles in 
England at the pcri(jd of the Norman Gompiest, and under the Gon- 


qucror, and this leads on naturally to the consideration of th<; political 
value of the castles under the Con([ueror. 

It seems very clear that our earliest castles were not of stone, or if of 
stone, such examples were very rare, and their construction very slight. 
Wood seems to have heen the material almost universally employed. But 
after the Norman Conquest arose tliose stone square keeps of which the 
tower of London, the keep at Mailing, and the keep at Rochester, are such 
noble examples. " That William ordered many castles to be constructed is 
certain ; and among the orders left with Bisho]) Odo and William Fitz 
Osborn, when acting as joint regents of the kingdom, was one specially 
charging them to see to the Ijuilding of castles ; and no doubt these orders 
were obeyed, but it has been hastily assumed that the castles were con- 
structed of masonry. The keeps of Dover and Rochester for example (if such 
were erected under the Conqueror) were certainly not those now standing, 
which belong to the reign of Henry II., and yet the masonry of William's 
reign was of a very durable character, as may be seen in the tower of 
London, and in not a few still standing churches." 

Mr. Clark conjectures that existing works were strengthened until it 
was conveniemt to replace them by others more in accordance with the 
new idea of strength and security. 

"William and his barons evidently employed two classes of castles — one 
always in masonry, and one very often in timber. Where a castle was 
built in a new position, as in London, or where there was no mound, 
natural or artificial, they employed masonry, and chose as a rule for the 
keep, the rectangular form — ^a type said to have been introduced from 
Maine, and seen at Arques, at Caen, and at Falaise ; but where the site 
was old, and there was a mound, as at Lincoln, Huntingdon, Rockingham, 
Wallingford, or York, they seem to have been content to repair the exist- 
ing works, usually of timber only, and to have postponed the replacing 
them with a regular shell, till a more convenient season, which in many 
cases did not occur for a century," 

" The building of a Norman castle required both time and money. The 
architects, over-lookers, and probably the masons had to be brought from 
Normandy, and in many cases the stone for the exterior ; and as most of 
the existing square keeps, and very nearly all the shell keeps, are of the 
twelfth centiu-y, it seems probable that the Conqueror was, to some extent, 
content with such defences as he found in England, strengthened, no 
d(jubt, very malcrially by the superior skill and resources of his engineers." 

Henry II. was a great builder of castles, but this does not refer to new 
castles, of which he built but few, but rather to the completion or addi- 
tion of new keeps to old castles, as for instance at Dover. 

Mr. Clark devotes three chapters of his work to the castles of England 
and Wales at the latter part of the 12th century, and then gives an ap- 
proxinuite list of rectangular keeps in England. These in number amount 
to above .50. 

Chapter X treats of the shell keep, once the most common, but wliich 
has rarely been preserved, and as he tells us, is seldom if ever found in a 
perfect or unaltered condition. 

The sliell keep is always placed on a mound, either natural or artificial. 
Belvoir, Durham, and Lewes, and some others are placed on natiu-al hills. 
The plan and dimensions of these keeps are roughly governed by the 
iigure of the mound. Most are polygons of ten or twelve sides, not 


always equal. Some are circular, others are polygonal outside and cir- 
cular Avithin, others are slightly oval. Their diameter is rarely less than 
30 feet and seldom exceeds 100. The wall was usually from eight to ten feet 
thick, and as a security against settlement, generally placed two or three 
feet Avithin the edge of the mound. An approximate list of shell keeps 
is also given by Mr. Clark, and these amount to alwut 119, though the 
evidence of them is not always perfect. 

Instances are also given of the castles of the Early English period. Mr. 
Clark tells us that the rectangular, and circular or polygonal keeps, 
with their Norman features, retained their hold upon English castle 
builders through the reigns of Stephen and Henry II (113.5-1189), or 
for a century and a quarter from the Conquest. He also mentions the 
" castra adulterina " of which so many were built during the reign of 
Stephen, but destroyed by his successor. These are supposed to have 
been constructed of timber or mere walled enclosures. Few of them 
represented the chief seat of large estates, as the aforementioned castles 

By degrees the Norman and shell keeps fell out of fashion, and were 
succeeded by towers of a cylindrical form, known as donjons or juliets, 
and this change corresponds to the middle period of the Early English 
ecclesiastical architecture. Pembroke is an example of these castles, also 
Coningsborough. The donjons weie entered at the first floor level, 
either i)y an exterior stone stair or by one of timber ; the basement or 
ground floor was occupied as a magazine. 

"In those days," says Mr. Clark, "when the keep was the citadel, and 
not unfrequently used as such, prisoners were not kept -within its 
walls. Dungeons there were none, save in a very few exceptional cases. 
There were connnonly three floors, — the basement for stores ; the central 
floor contained the principal apartments, usually with a flre-jjlace ; the 
upi)er floor was either for the soldiery or a bedroom for the lord ; the 
walls are ordinarily from ten to twelve feet thick. Mural towers 
formed a feature of the castles of this date, these served t(j flank or 
strengthen the enceinte waU. They were used to cap an angle or to 
flank a gateway. 

In addition to flanking towers there was also at this period a contrivance 
in general use called a " liretasche." This was a gallery of timber running 
round the walls outside the battlements, supported by struts resting on 
corbels, and covered with a sloping roof. Sometimes, in large towers, 
there were two tiers of such galleries, the upper projecting beyond the 
lower. These galleries concealed the top of the wall. The bretasche 
was only put up when a siege was expected. 

Mr. Clark throws great light upon the structure of English castles, by 
bringing instances of more perfect work in castles of the same date 
which remain on the continent. He has enriched his work by plans and 
descriptions of some of these, as of the castle at Arques near Dieppe, and 
constant allusion is made to other typical fortresses such as Chateau 
Gal Hard on the Seine, to Plafonds, restored to its original state by 
Napoleon the Third under the supervision of the celebrated writer on 
mediaival castles and architecture, ]\lons. Violet le Due. He tells us that 
in the latter part of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth centuries 
iiMich was done to introduce domestic comfort into castles. 

" Eire-[)laces which in the Nonuan keeps were but recesses in the 


wall, often with a mere lateral orifice for a smoke vent, as at Colcliester 
and Rochester, were in the Early English period adorned with hoods, 
often of stone, sometimes of wood and plaster, and the flues made 
capacious and calculated to carry oil' tlie Hiuoke.'' Tlie vent or flue was 
often cajiped hy a chimney-shaft and smoke lantliorn, an examph^ of 
which may he seen at Orosmont and at St. Briavels. The hall, chapel, 
aiul other buildings placed usually in the inner ward, were more ornate 
than in the Norman period. 

In royal castles and others, the "capita" of estates and the seats of 
the greater barons, great attention was paid to domestic comfort and 
splendour. The sheriffs' accounts of this date for repairs mention the 
filling of windows with stained glass and the painting of the walls in 
distemper. Castles for purely military defence were, however, neglected 
in times of tranquillity, and only refitted and strengthened when necessity 

The twelfth chapter treats of the Edwardian or concentric casthis. 
" The first characteristic of a concentric castle is the arrangement of the 
lines of defence one within the other, two or even three deep, with towers 
at the angles and along the walls, so planned that no part is left entircdy 
to its own defences." 

The employment of mural towers not only added to the passive strength 
of the wall, l3ut when placed within bow shot, enabled the defenders to 
enfilade the intermediate curtain ; by this means the curtain could not be 
so easily breached with the ram. The parts of the lines of defence were 
so arranged that the garrison could sally from one part and so harrass the 
attack upon another part. Many Norman keeps became eventually the 
inner wards of these concentric castles, as may be seen in the tower of 
London. Caerphilly is the earliest and most complete example of a con- 
centric castle — of this both a plan and drawing are given. "In a 
military point of view," says Mr. Clark, " Caerphilly is a work of con- 
summate skill." Harlech is a concentric castle, probably designed by the 
same architect. 

The twelve chapters which describe the rise, and lay dovm the prin- 
ciples of mediaeval military architecture, are followed by descriptions of 
the most prominent and interesting castles in Great Britain. These are 
taken alphabetically, commencing with the most perfect and the most 
complete perhaps in this island, — Alnwick. While Mr. Clark does not 
weary us with detail, he brings into small compass the most prominent 
points which bear upon the history of each castle. As we examine its 
structure, we learn also the events which led to its successive changes ; 
documentary records are brought to bear upon architectural details. This 
can only have resulted from great labour and much zeal in the pursuit of 
knowledge. While reading in succession the accounts of the castles 
which he has brought under notice, we feel as if we were reading the 
history of England under a new aspect, and reading it in a manner 
hitherto unknown. Every castle tells its own historical tale, and we 
people it with occupants, and clotlie those occupants in their peculiar 
dresses, arras, and accoutrements. 

History has lately been almost re-written from inscriptions, and 
churches have been made to give up their progressive developments by 
means of a careful examination of their architectural details. This has 
now been done for media^.val castles, and the value of their ruins, which 


in past ages have met with such wanton destruction, is now brought to 
light, and we trust that the publication of these volumes may lead in 
future to their careful preservation. Their owners ou,L;ht, indeed, to value 
these possessions as they deserve. 

]\lr. Clark's book does not profess to ])e a comi)Ietf dL'Scriptioii of all the 
mediaeval castles that remain in Great Britain. Some have not been des- 
cribed or even mentioned, as Nunney in Somerset, and Raby Castle in 
the county of Durham, though Barnard Castle in the same county has had 
ample justice done to it. We, therefore, look forward to a supplement to 
these volumes which may perfect the work, and we can only hope 
that Mr. Clark's life may be prolonged to accomplish it. 

The style of j\Ir. Clark's writing is nervous and clear, and well suits 
the subject of which he treats. There is no difficulty in following his 
descriptions, and his historical information is drawn from the best sources. 
We may remark, however, a few trifling errors into which he has fallen, 
as, for instance, when he speaks of the Roman Emperor Claudius as 
Clnndian (vol. ii, p. 537-8). 

We do not know if this is a newly devised form of nomenclature, as so 
many new forms of spelling classical names have lately been adopted ; 
but if so, it is calculated to lead to much confusion. We know the poet 
CJauch'an, but have never heard of an Emperor of that name before ! 

Again, in vol. ii, p. 451, we find the words Sarxden, printed for Sarsm, 
describing the Sarsen stones, so plentiful in Wiltshire, but on looking 
into ^Ir. Smith's description of the Britisli and Roman antiquities of 
Wiltshire, we find it invariably written Sarsen. 

These are but trifling errors to detect in two volumes containing so 
much accurate research and learning. We only point them out as 
needing correction in any future edition, which we hope may be soon 
called for. Indeed we cannot but think that an abridged edition in one 
volume, would furnisli an invaluable help to students of their country's 
history, and would enable them to obtain a truer idea of our national 
growth than any simple historical account. Simple history often needs 
life, and when put into the form of a novel, creates suspicion and distrust. 
In jNIr. Clark's Ijook you have entertainment with the full persuasion that 
you are treading on very sure ground, and that what you receive is Truth 
unwarped by any political or party bias. H.M.S. 

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE LIBRARY: Being a Classified Collection of the 
Chief Contents of the Gentleman's Magazine from 1731 to 1868. Edited by 
GEORGE LAURENCE GOMME, F.S.A.: Dialect, Proverbs and Word-Lore. 
Loudon : Elliot Stcjck, 62, Paternoster Row, E.G., 1883. 

In issuing Dialect, Proverbs and Word-Lore— like its predecessor, 
" Manners and Customs," complete in itself — the editor alludes in his 
preface to the value of the local knowledge which is so abundantly 
shown throughout its pages, a kind of information which is now " so 
rapidly becoming impossible for the modern student to attain," and to the 
good work which the eighteenth century scholars have done in recognising 
the value of the materials at their hand, while, as he says, it is not a 
little remarkable that so popiUar a magazine as the Gentleman's should 


have found room for those examples of dialect wjiich wo of the present 
day so gladly reprint and re-edit. 

The contributors to the volumes now before us are, with two e.x:i;eptions, 
all different from those whose writing.s formed the book on Manners and 
Customs, and we shall proba})ly, almost naturally, find, as the series 
advances, that we shall be successively dealing with the contributions of 
different sets of men, though, doubtless there will be some persons of 
such active minds that we shall track tlie.m through the library until we 
take a pleasant leave of them with Anecdote and Hunrour. 

The philologist who lingers over the Lists of Local Words and 
Specimens of Dialect will have the advantage of communing with the 
late Mr. Kemble and with the Kev. W. Barnes, the venerable anti(|uary, 
happily still living, who has done so much for the preservation of the 
dialect of Dorset. He will soon discover that Mr. Gomme gives some 
useful Notes at the end of the book from which, apropos of Wageby's 
" Skyll-Kay of Knawinge," — which Ehoracensis points out is a mere 
rechauffee of Hampole's " Pricke of Conscience," — we gather tliat the 
Dialect Society have not published a vokime for Northumberland. The 
student will not overlook the letters in the dialect of the Shetland 
Islands, a valuable contribution that does not seem to have been known to 
Mr. Edmonston. This is a good example of the wisdom of collecting 
these hidden sources of information from the Gentleman^s Maf/azi7if\ 

With regard to Provincial Glossaries we notice, almost on opening the 
book, the curious way in which nearly obsolete words crop up in the 
mouths of country witnesses in legal cases. For example the verb to 
insenee used by a shoemaker at the Staffordshire Translation Sessions in 
1827. Akin to this appears to be the expression, common among the 
upper classes fifty years earlier, namely, in asking for knowledge or infor- 
mation, " give me some sense on it." We do not remember that this 
expression is used in our own day, but anyone who has been in the halnt 
of reading familiar letters of a hundred years ago and upwards can hardly 
fail to have noticed how much of the ordinary language and expressions 
of the better classes in those days now finds a refuge in the months of the 
lower classes, e.g., polite, genteel, service, duty. That grotesque word 
" Unked," which is included in the list of expressions from the West of 
England, contributed in 1793, is common at the present day in 
the heart of Northamptonshire, as is also that more euplaonious ex- 
pression, *' sarve the 'uggs," a variety of the Devonshire version, " sar the 
pigs." We are glad to see again the famous E.anoor Goiirtslup and 
Exmoor Scolding, the authorship of which has been attributed by so high 
an authority as the late Sir Frederic Madden to Archdeacon llnlc, but 
Mr. Gomme does not think this conclusive. The proper vocal)ulary of 
these pieces shows how curious and barbarous the dialect is. We observe 
the word "Upzetting" explained as "a gossiping or christening." The word 
was also used in the same sense in Norfolk, as is shown by the following 
expression in an original letter from that county, dated May 21, 1742, 
now before us : "I am invited to so many up sittings that I go to none, 
they being costly compliments," this sentence being preceded b}' a notice 
of numerous births in the neighbourhood. 

With the section dealing with Proverbs, we have no space to stay, but 
we are struck in passing with the casual remark of a northern correspon- 
dent in 1754, concerning some cumuli of stones which he takes to be the 

VOL. xm T 


burying places of " the antient Druides," or of heroes killed in battle, 
reminding us that " Antient Druides " enjoyed a position in tlie world of 
archaeology a hundred years ago, from which they have in the meantime 
been somewhat rudely dislodged. Proverbial phrases supply us, in 1754, 
with an amusing triangular squabble between Paul Gemsage (Dr. Samuel 
Pegge), James Dowland, and one " W.lNf.," about the not particularly 
interesting phrase, "Cat in the pan." They all talk a certain amount of 
nonsense, and Paul Gemsage wisely retires early from the fray ; Mr. 
Dowland loses his temper, and is finally routed by " W.M." 

Probably many matters worthy of note would never have been explained 
at all if some one had not first still further darkened them by his silly 
solutions. For instance, "L.E." propounds a childish explanation of the 
phrase, " eyes draws straws," which elicits from W. a reasonable note on 
an expression which seems now to have quite passed out of remembrance. 

" Nine of Diamonds, the curse of Scotland," receives several explana- 
tions, but that which commends itself most to us relates to the Duke of 
Cumberland having sent the message to a certain general the night before 
Culloden to give no quarter, written on the back of the nine of diamonds. 
It was a fashion in the eighteenth century to write small notes on the 
back of playing cards, and this custom continued till quite the end of the 
century. Cards are certain to have been plentiful enough in the English 
camp, and nothing is more likely than that the Duke made use of one of 
them in the manner suggested. The allusions to the game of " comet," 
in which the nine of diamonds figures conspicuously, seem rather wide of 
the mark as furnishing the particular reason for the expression, though 
possibly an aide-de-camp may have singled out such a special card at that 
period for the Duke to make use of in sending his order. 

Of Special Words the list contributed in 1770, of names and phrases 
expressive of the various stages of drunkenness, or, as the contributor puts 
it, in words redolent of the character of the period : — " To veil the turpi- 
tude of what is pleasing in itself and generally connected with reciprocra- 
tions," and " to express the condition of an honest fellow and no flincher, 
under the effects of good fellowship," is very full, and some of the 
expressions really very happy. The *' beerometer," that strange table of 
" degrees," occasionally to be seen in old fashioned country houses, is but 
a fragment of this lengthy list, which, probably, no amount of temperance 
in the nation will ever consign to oblivion. 

The fifteenth century " nunchion " (noontion) of workmen is now, 
OAving to change of habits, represented by the " eleven o'clock " of 
country labourers ; and many persons besides Knights of the Garter 
and blessed with fair digestions, will perhaps be grateful for the receipt 
for " Stump Pye " ; in any case, they will lind cause for gratitude in the 
explanations of certain antiquated words and other subdivisions of this 

In the part treating of Names of Persons and Places, the papers by T. 
Row (another non de j)lume of Samuel Pegge) show how much material 
for reference on this subject has been set free and made available by Mr. 
Gomme's useful collection ; it Avill be noticed how the science of heraldry 
may give collateral help in the elucidation of surnames, such as Forster 
and Hayles. The volume ends with a section on Signs of Inns, a subject 
upon which a good deal has been written from time to time. We wish 
Bome one would give a series of illustrations of the ironwork that upholds 


inn signs both old and modern. There is much elegance in the work 
of both periods, and it so happens that their general character has not 
been influenced to any great extent ])y varying fashions. It should be 
borne in mind that the greater part of sucli ornamental ironwork comes 
direct from the mind of the villw/c hlacksmith, unti'ammelled by the 
exigencies of "high art," and is to l>e valued as an original production 
accordingly whether recent or old. 

For tlie ordinary antiquary, or even for one who has no pretension to 
the title, the perusal of this book recalls a great deal, and it certainly sets 
one thinking upon a variety of out of the way sul)jects, a knowledge of 
which goes far towards the making, not oidy of an agreeable companion, 
but also of a well-informed man. 

9[rfl)aeologtral Jntelltgeuce, 

Mr. Henry Ecroyd Smith, author of Reliqnue Insiiriance (the Roman 
Isurium, now Aklbro', by Borobrid<^e). 1852 ; Reliqiies of Anglo-Saxnn 
Churches of West Kirhy, Cheshire, 1870 ; Archceology in the Mersey 
District, Sfc, proposes to publish, by subscription, Conisborough Castle : 
legendary, historic, and romantic. This monograph is intended to 
constitute a complete and exhaustive Jasciculus of all that is known to 
have been written upon the subject, in any way worthy of preservation. 
The work Avill be issued in Quarto, and illustrated with numerous 
Plafinoti/pe reproductions of old engravings, and recent photographs of the 
ruins ; whilst the technically-descriptive essay upon the remains, by Mr. 
G. T. Clark— reprinted by permission of the Council of the Yorkshire 
Arehfeological and Topographical Association, from the current volume of 
its Journal — will be accompanied by tlie superior wood-cut plans and illus- 
trations, made from actual survey l^y Mr. A. S. Ellis, of London. 

The subscription price is I5s. ; after issue, one Guinea. Names may 
be sent to ^h: H. Ecroyd Smith, Holgate Head, Bell Busk, Leeds. 

CI)e Qfrrftaealagiral SaurnnU 

JUNE, 1885. 


Again a fair average year of discoveries has to ])e 
reported. Though not of special importance, many of the 
inscriptions are of considerable interest as affecting the 
history of the localities where they were found. 

Commencing with the Eoman Wall, there was found in 
November last at Byker, closely adjoining Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, a small altar 1ft. lOin. high and 11 inches broad. 
A portion of the right hand side of the inscribed face has 
l)een worn off, as if by the sharpening of knives or other 
instruments. What is left of the inscription is : 




C V 

Little can be made of this with the exception of the name 
of the dedicator Jul{ius) Maximus. He appears to have 
1)een a priest of some deity from the abbreviation sac. 
for Sacerdos. Dr. Bruce would read the next line D{ei) 
I{nvicti) (Mitlirae) which is very probable. The dedi- 
cator would therefore be a priest of " the invincible god 
Mithras." A peculiarity which occasionally occurs in 
Roman inscriptions is here exemplified ; the name of the 
dedicator appearing before the name of the deity to whom 
the altar is erected. 

At the station of Cilurymm (Chesters) Mr. Clayton has 
been occupied during a great portion of the year in lay- 
ing bare a large arched subterranean building situated 
VOL. xui (No. 166.) u 


between the castrum and the river Tyne, afid during the 
progress of the excavations several discoveries of inscrip- 
tions occnrred. The first was in March, when the frag- 
ment of (apparently) an altar was tnrned np, inscribed — 


The commencement of all the lines is lost, and of the third 
line only the npper part of the letters remain. The first 
stroke in this line is part of the letter v. I was originally 
inchned to read the first and commencement of the second 
lines as [Mat)ribus Com['magenorum), although aware that 
Teutonic and Celtic races were generally recognised as 
the only worshippers of Mat res ; but we know from, the 
dedication (Borghesi, (Euvres, vol. iii, p. 127) to the 
Pannonian and Dalmatian mothers, that their worship 
extended as far east as Hungary and Turkey. The pre- 
sence of a cohort of Syrians on the Wall, and the fact of 
dedications to the Dea Syria occurring, led me to think 
that the worship of the Matres might have extended to 
the Semitic tribe of the Commageni. Fortunateh^ M. 
Eobert Mowat, the well known French archaeologist, 
drew my attention to the fact that at Aix in Savoy, and 
at other places in Gaul, we have instances of the worship 
of the Matres Comedovae. I consider M. Mowat to have 
pointed out the correct reading Matribus Comedovis, and 
other French archaeologists have, I believe, since agreed 
with him. The remainder of the inscription I take to be 
[Pyo salute De{cimi) {A)ur[eUi) Severi. I think it to have 
been erected for the welfare of a private individual (as in 
many instances) rather than for that of an Emperor, 
though it has been suggested that de(voti) may have 
been the word, of which de only remains. This seems 
improbable ; we should hardly find Devoti in this position. 
A second fragmentary inscription was found in April of 
which the remaining letters were — 


The commencement of tlie lines only is left to us. In 
the first E and i{ are ligulate, and in the second p and \\. 
There is little difiiculty in reading this fragment. From 


aiKjther iiiS('ri|)tion loiiiul ;il the same station we know that 
Septiniius Nilus was rraelect of the 2nd Ala of the Astiires 
in A.T). 221, lliis regiment at that time formino; the 
gai-risoii of the station. From another inscription ibnnd 
on the Wall, we know lluit there was in Britain in a.d. 
22o, an Imperial Legate named Claudius Xenephon. Tiiis 
inseription seems to embrace the two names, and should 
be read : " Per Cl{audmm) {Xenephontem) Le<j{atum) Pr(o) 
{jrraetore) {Curante) Sep{timio) Nil(o) (Praefecto Alae 11. 
Asinruiii. The connnencement of the inscription, which is 
lost, has prol^ably referred to the restoration of some 
buildings, and the name of the emperor, in whose reign the 
work was done. He would be no doubt Alexander 
Severus, and Claudius Xenephon was probably the suc- 
cessor of Marius Valerianus, for the latter was Legate in 
A.D, 221-2, as we learn from inscriptions at Cilurnum and 
Netherby. The inscription has l^een in tablet form. 

In May, two curiously carved stones were found built 
side by side into the walls of one the rooms of the buildhig 
excavated. They were below the floor level. One had 
upon it what appears to be a phallic design, the other bore 
the fiQ-ure of a bird, and above it what seem to be the 


What these letters mean it is difficult to say. It has 
been suggested that they are a variation of nilo, and refer 
to the Praefect named in the last inscription. 

Another fragment found at Cilurnuin is inscribed 


but little can be made of it. The nn may perhaps be part 
of the abbreviation ann (for Annas). The last letter is 
imperfect, and may be c, G, or o. 

In March also, a salmon fisher found in the river Tyne, 
near to the station, an inscribed fragment of rock, which 
had evidently fallen from a cliff above, some time pre- 
viously. The lettering is in the main very rude, but it 
appears to be 


In the first line t and k seem to be ligulate, in the third the 


s — very rudely formed — is reversed, and more resembles 
z, whilst the n at the end of the same line is so dis- 
connected that it may be ai. The commencement of all 
the lines is lost, and probably the commencement of 
the inscription. The third line may have contained 
(oFFi)ciNA or some such word, followed certainly by 
voTO, but no sense can be g'athered from it. The stone 
is 3 feet high by 2 feet broad, and the inscription is con- 
fined to the upper half of its face. In October there was 
also discovered in the excavations before named, an altar 
2ft. Gin. high, bearing upon its face a figure of Fortune, 
and the inscription 

S . GER . L . M 

The first line is an abbreviation of deae which occurs in 
several other Ih'itamio-Eoman altars, but singularl}' 
enough, they are all dedicated to the same deity — Fortune. 
This line is upon the head of the altar. The second line 
is at the summit of the shaft, the first o being ligulate 
with the R and the second placed within the c. Then 
comes the figure of the goddess, and the remainder of the 
inscription is Ijelow. In the third line the v and a are 
ligulate, and in the fourth ene are likewise tied. The 
whole inscription reads, T){e)ae Fort(imae) Conservatrici 
Venenus Gej'(manus) L(ibenter) M(erito). " To the goddess 
Fortune, the preserver, Venenus a German (dedicates 
this) wiUingly to a deserving object." 

This is the third dedication to Fortuna Conservatrix 
found in Britain. One was found at Netherby, where it is 
still preserved, the other found in 1612 at Manchester was 
long supposed to have been lost, but in May last I had 
the pleasure of re-discovering it amongst the Arundel 
marbles in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

The whole of these newly discovered inscriptions are 
preserved l)y Mi*. Clayton in his large museum at Ghesters. 

Near Gilsland on the line of the Wall, three centurial 
stones have recently l)een found, for copies of which 
I am indebted to the Eev. Dr. Bruce. They are 

(1) (2) (3) 




Dr. liriice inrorms me that No. 1 was diilicull to read, 
being much worn, but as far as he and the Kev. A. 
Wright coukl made it out, it was as above. The d and o 
in the second hne are Ugulate, as are the vnd in the third. 
As it stands it wouhl read Coli{ortis) Sextae Ceniuria 
(.'(iledoni{i) Secumlp). " The century of Oaledonius Secun- 
dus of the sixth cohort." The only doubt is as to there 
being such a name as Caledonius. The second inscription 
is plainl}^ Centuria Coccei Reijuli. " The century of 
Cocceius Eeguhis." The third is from Mr. Wright's 
reading. Neitiier of the letters which appear to be 
A in the second line have a horizontal stroke ; the first 
is A, the second may be and probably is part of n. I 
would read it as Coh{ortis) Secundae Centuria Laetin(iani.) 
In the wall of the north aisle of the church at Dear- 
ham, near Maryport, and at its west end, Dr. Hooppell 
informs me that he found during the last summer, the 
upper part of a Eoman altar, used as a building stone, 
upon which could be traced the words 


evidently the commencement of a dedication to the Deae 
Matres. It has probably been brought from the station 
at Maryport [Axelodunum.) 

In October, 1879, during the restoration of the church 
at Brough-under Stanemore, two inscriptions were found 
built into the foundations of the south porch. One dedi- 
cated to Septimius Severus, I have already described.' 
The other seemed to be in such puzzling characters, that 
soon after its discovery, a cast of it was sent to Professor 
Stephens of Copenhagen, under the impression that it was 
Eunic. This he doubted, but referred it to the Professor 
of Greek (in the same university), who after a lengthened 
examination, stated that it was in no known classical 
language or alphabet. Professors Mommsen and Hlibner 
at Berlin, and Professor Kaibel were unable also to decipher 
it. Professor Stephens then attempted to read it as a 
Eunic inscription, and a paper in vol. v. of the Gumherlaiul 
and JVestmoreland Archaeological Society's Transactions 
(pp. 291-310), was the result, which was reproduced 
in vol. iii of his " Eunic Monuments." In this, the 

^ Archaeoloijical Journal, vol. xxxviii, pp. 282-5. 


Professor thought it to be the tombstone of a Lady 
named Cimokom, who had been martyred for her Christi- 
anit}'.' But from tlie engravings which appeared of it, 
several Enghsh chassical schokirs came to the opinion that 
it was in Greek, though tlie letters were rude, and of what 
may be called a " rustic " t3'pe. Accordingly in the 
Ac(idemy for June 14, 1884, Professor Sayce brought for- 
ward a reading of the inscription in Greek, and after several 
months discussion in the pages of the same paper, in which 
Professors Sayce and liidgeway, Messrs. Isaac Taylor, H. 
Bradley, E. L. Hicks and E. B. Nicholson, took part, a 
tolerably fair reading was hnally established by Mr. 
Arthur J. Evans.^ 

The stone was subsequently purchased for the Fitz- 
william Museum, Cambridge, to which place it has recently 
been removed, and has been submitted to a critical exami- 
nation by the most eminent authorities there. On the 
28rd February last, Professor E. C. Clark read a paper 
upon it to the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, bringing 
forward the foUowinir as the correct reading', as far as 
could be made out with certainty. 




The inscription evidently consisted of five hexameters 
which Professor Clark considers in their orioinal form to 
have been 

E/j^iJ/v Ku/.iinay)]vov tTTog ^pacraTO) riq o^HTijc 
yaifii (TO TToi Trap tjtiou Ki^virtfj ()vi]tov f3<oi' ifiinjtj 
(jJKvrar e7rTr](; yap fxipoTnov tvi Kifi/jiipKjJV yr]v 
Kov \p'cVCfH iwTio y(tfj o TTfiic E^/u; uKoXovOet. 

- In the Anli/iuafi/ fur Scpteiuljor. IbSi, the iiiscriptiuu lioiug lluuic. 
rnjfc.--i5ur tStepheud iiWuduus his idea of ^ Acadon-y, August '60, 1SS4. 


though the last line is l)y no means agreed upon, even at 
Cambridge. Mr. Evans restores it differently. It is, liow- 
ever, probably premature as yet to venture on the exact 
wordino-, which may eventuallv be discovered. Professor 
Clark gives as a translation this " free metrical paraphrase.' 

Hermes of Commagene hern — 
Young Hermes, in his sixteenth year — 
Entomb»>d liy fate before his day 
Beholding, let the traveller say : — 
Fair youth, my greeting to thy slirine 
Though but a mortal course be thine, 
Since all too soon thou wing'dst thy flight 
From realms of speech to realm of night ; 
Yet no misnomer art thou shewn, 
Who with thy namesake God art flown. 

The only false quantity in the original is a syllable too 
much (koi) in the first word, but this has probably been 
omitted in speaking. The seventh and first part of the 
eighth lines are the most difficult part of the translation. 
Mr. Evans thinks they refer to the youth having been 
taken prisoner in an engagement, and dragging on a life of 
captivity, an idea repudiated by Professor Clark. At pre- 
sent I prefer the translation of the latter, whose long and 
able paper should be perused l)y an}' antiquary interested 
in the matter. It is too long to reproduce here, and unless 
given in extenso would lose much of its value. 

We have no other inscription in Britain referring to a 
native of Commagene. It is possible that Hermes, and the 
friend or relative who erected the monument, were 
members of the Coliors I. Ilamiorum, a cohort of Syrian 
archers, of which several traces have been found in the 
north. This is Ijy far the longest Greek inscription found 
in our island, and the first of a sepulchral character. The 
others have been upon altars, votive tablets, rings, &c. 
The stone, which is about two feet high and one foot 
l)road, is flanked on the inscribed face l)y palm branches, 
and a1)0ve the inscription is carved with a geometric 
pattern of squares, divided into triangles. 

At Chester there was found, on the 31st October, in the 
course of an excavation lietween tlie Grosvenor Hotel and 
city wall (close to the Eastgate), the half of an altar, 
which had been split perpendicularly down the middle, 


apparently to be used as a building stone. On the left 
side within a panel, there is a figure of a bird which has 
all the cliaracteristics of a goose, and on the remaining 
half of the back is a portion of what seems to have been a 
serpent, but this is dou1)tful. On the remaining portion of 
the face the altar is thus inscribed 



The first line is in very large letters, the others are smaller. 
The base (on the front) is broken off, but judging by the 
size of the panel on the side, there would be room for 
at least another line of an inscription, and after the v in 
the fourth line, there appears to be a stop. The reading 
has certainly been Jo{vi) Opt{imo) j\lax{imo), but whether 
V has been part of the formula v.s. for V{oto) Siolutum) or 
part of the name of the dedicator must remain unknown. 
The height of this altar is 3 feet 10 inches, and at the 
angles are pilasters, returned on each face ; they bear two 
flutes each, and terminate in a foliated capital resembling 
Corinthian. The altar is of sandstone. 

There was also found in the same city in November, in 
excavations made by Mr. Bullin in White Friars, a portion 
of an ordinary red tile, bearing upon it in very fine letters 


wliich has proliably, when entire, been ivlivs. f., the f 
standing of course for Feed. The v and l are ligulate. 

On the right side of the altar discovered in Chester in 
1653 (Hiibner, No. 167) I have found that there has 
been an inscription beneath the figure of the Genius. All 
that is now traceable is 

G . . . . 

C I 

which I apprehend has l)een part of the words G{eiiio 
Sani'to Lo)ci, ike. 

During the repewing of the nave of St. Mary's church at 
Lancaster, in the j'ear 1863, a number of loose stones were 
taken up from the old floor, preparatory to a new one 
Ijeing put doA\Ti. Amongst them was one which had 



formed part of a Eoman inscribed tablet, of the annexed 
shape and dimensions — 

14 inches. 


Imp X 1^ 

R / 




T R A I AN^ 

The stone came into the possession of the late Rev. Canon 
Turner, Vicar of Lancaster, and was preserved by him, but 
so carefully, that it was totally unknown to even local 
antiquaries. It is still at the Vicarage in possession of the 
Eev. Canon Allen. The letters on the stone are beautifully 
cut and are two inches in height, with the exception ol the 
three larger ones. The only ligature is in the case of the 
u ni the second line, which letter is formed upon the 
upright stroke of the t. 

The inscription is important, as confirming the existence 
of Lancaster as a Eoman station, in the reign of Trajan. 
Previously, from a milestone dedicated to Hadrian having 
been found in the neighbourhood, I had expressed the 
opinion that he was the emperor by whose orders the 
rastrum was erected. This discovery proves that in the 
reign of his predecessor (Trajan) important structures were 
built. The stone, when entire, has been a tablet comme- 
morating their erection. The inscription apparently reads : 
Imp[eratori) Ner{vae) Trajan{o) Au,<j[usto), &c. The 
omission of caes for Caesari after imp. is peculiar, but 
there are examples of it. With the exception of two 
inscriptions found at Chichester, this is the earliest on 
stone naming an emperor, found in Britain. A few tomb- 
stones of soldiers maj^ however, be earlier, and an 
inscription found at York (also dedicated to Trajan) may 
be coeval. No Eoman inscription of so early a date, either 
on stone, bronze, or lead, has been recorded as found so 
far to the north previously. 



In the recently published correspondence of Dr. 
Stukeley^ there are two letters addressed to him by Mr, 
Samuel Peele, an excise officer at Lancaster, dated in 
1754, containing an account of a Eoman inscribed altar, 
which is said to have "tumbled out of the earth " at that 
town about December, 1753 and the only letters visiljle 
were said to be 




I i i E 



Nothing can he made out of this. Possiljly the two small 
z's are meant for II. The altar when found was said to 
have had " three elliptical cavities " " on the • top," 
but they were soon afterwards struck off. On one side 
was a representation of an axe [secuns) on the other of a 
patera. This altar has not been heard of since. 

On the 12th March during the excavations necessary 
for laying the foundations of the new tower of St. 
Swithin's church at Lincoln, the workmen at a depth of 
13ft. from the surface came upon a Roman altar ^y'mg face 
downwards in a bed of gravel. It is formed of a block of 
oolite 3ft. high, and at the base 1ft. Sin. broad. On the 
right hand side is engraved a j^raefericu/um, on the left a 
2?atera. The head of the altar with the focus is much 
mutilated. On its face is the following inscription — 

PVS . ET . NV 
AR . D . S . D . 

The letters are well cut, and well preserved ; the stops 
are of triangular shape. The only difliculty in the read- 
ing is in TEK. in the third line. The Eev. Precentor 
Venables favoured me with a co])y of the inscription on 
the day of its discovery, and I at once asked him to make 
certain if there was a stop after ter, as I had an idea, 
though there is no epigraphic or historical authority for 
such a Curato)\i\\Vit we might have tei{ar., for teriiar(vim) 
in the last two lines. The stop however is plain and au 

' Surtc-c.s Societj^'s PuLlications, vol. l.\xvi, pp. 242-3. 


is doubtless the aljbreviatiou foi" ahaini. We luiist there- 
fore either take tek. as a word in itseli", or look ibr some 
other abbreviation. 

Professor Mommsen wrote to me suggesting teu(tivm) 
as the reading. Dr. Hiibner informed Precentor Veiiables 
that lie considered ter. (thi-ee times) was simply the 
meaning, but if either of these be accepted it leaves us 
still in the dark as to the question, " Of what was 
Frontinus the Curator ? " As the altar was found close to 
the north bank of the river Witliam, on the verge of the 
Koman area, I am inclined to suggest Curator ter{m{no- 
ram). It is true that we have no precedent for this read- 
ing, but inscriptions are constantly giving us examples of 
titles otherwise unknown^ Hence I would expand the 
inscription Parcis Deabus et Numinibus Augiiisti) C\ams) 
Antistvas Frontinus Curator Ter(mi7iorum.) Ar(am) d(e) 
,sfuo) (/(edit). " To the goddesses, the Parcae, and to the 
" divinities of the Augustus " (the reigning emperor) 
" Caius Antistius Frontinus, Overseer of the boundaries, 
" of his own " (or " at his own expense ") " has given " 
("this altar)." 

Only three other inscriptions dedicated to the Parcae 
(or " Fates ") have been found in Britain, at least so far as 
recorded. Two were found in 18G1 in English Street, 
Carlisle, and the third in 1866 at Skinburness, near the 
mouth of the Solway. In the latter and in one of those 
found at Carlisle they are st}'led Jlatres, but in none of 
them is the title Deae given to them, as in the Lincoln 
example. This altar is at present preserved in the 
cloister at Lincoln. 

The discoveries at York consist in the first place of a 
fragment of a dedicatory tablet inscribed — 

CAES . M . AV,. 

The letters m.av. are ligulate with each other. From 
this circumstance I am inclined to think that the Emperor 
referred to is either Caracalla or Elagabulus, each of 
whom took the names of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
rather than the earlier emperor Marcus Aurelius. Though 
ligatures as a rule, however, show a late date, the test is 
not an infallible one, as other inscriptions jjionc. The 

' If Curator had been used here to cU- liad the name ol' the cor^j.-s to wliich he 
sigiintc a military ottiuer, we isliould have belonged following. 


inscription was found in excavating for tlie foundationvS of 
the new Mechanic's Institute in Clifford Street in 1883, 
but came to hand too late for my Hst for that year. The 
stone has the appearance of havinu- l3een used for sharpen- 
ing some kind of implement at a later period. 

At " The Mount," outside Micklegate Bar, two broken 
altars have been found. Of one the base only remained, 
and on it were the letters 

s . p . R . 

rudely cut. I should surmise that d. has preceded these 

letters, and the reading would then be D{e) S{'ua) P{e('niiia) 

R{estitu{t), "At his own cost has restored " (the altar). 

The other altar was more interesting. Though broken 

into numerous fragments, some of which had been ' lost, 

the remainder yielded the following inscription — 



LEG . Villi . HIS . 
V . S . L . M. 


The lirst portion of this inscription is easily restored 
and read. It is, without doubt, I){eo Sanctii) Silv{<ino) 
L{iicius) Celernius Vitalis Corni(cularms) Leg{ionis) Villi. 
Ilis(panae) V[otum) S{olvit) L{aetus) L{ihens) M(erito). 

" To the holy god Silvanus, Lucius Celernius Vitalis a 
cornicularius of the Ninth Legion (surnamed) the Spanish, 
performs his vow willingly (and) joyfully to a deserving- 

The second part oi the inscription is more peculiar. It 
is in very small letters, and through the last line there is a 
fracture. The reading here given is that of Dr. Hlibner, as 
puljlished in the Academy, July 12th, 1884. The expan- 
sion would be — Fido num{ini) hoc donuni adpertineai (vel 
a/ipertineat) caiitiun atthjam. Canon Eaine speaking of this 
reading says : " The young officer, grateful to the deity who 
had often shown himself trustworthy by bringing the deer 
or wild boar to the hunter, makes a special reservation of 
the altar. It is to be specially sacred, and safe from profane 
hands. In ' cautuni attigam ' we are reminded of the ' cave 
vestem attigas ' of Accius. The prohibition may refer to 


the oileriiii;", or to the aUar, or to Ijoth." This translation 
depends upon the first letter being correctly read. It seems 
doubtful, from what Canon Eaine tells me in answer to 
enquiries, whether it is k or e. M. Robert Mowat is in- 
clined to read ki. donvm as tlie commencement of the line. 
This, of course, would alter the readini>- considerably. The 
two I's in the second lin(^, are ecjuivalent to k. This 
variation frequently occurs. The two g's in Attujain are 
an error, either of the dedicator, or stone cutter. 

At the end of Octoljer, in makini>- some ornamental 
grounds at the rear of the Eose and Crown Inn, Ilkley 
[Olicana), the workmen (mme upon (amongst other dis- 
coveries) an old rubl)le wall, two feet beneath which (as if 
used for the foundation of it) was a large slab of stone, six 
feet long, thirty inches wide, and rough at the back. The 
upper portion of the face of the slab, bears the re])resenta- 
tion of a female sitting in a chair, within a recess. This 
figure is three feet in height, and underneath there is an 
inscription in four lines, of which the following portion 
remains : — 


VE * IC * * * * * " * * NCONIS . FILIA 

H . S . E. 

The :\i of Manihus in the first line is obliterated, and of the 
name of the deceased we have only ve*ic** but of her 
father's name we have the termination — nconis in the 
genitive, followed by filia. The whole reads Dis MaiiUms 
Ve*ic ********-nconis Filia, Annorum xxx C(ivis) Cornovid. 
U(ic) S(itaJ E(st). " To the divine shades of . . . daughter 
of . . . thirty years of age a Cornovian citizen. Here she 
is laid." This is the first allusion to a Cornovian citizen 
which has occurred in a Britanno-Eoman inscription. 
Who the Cornovii were is still a matter of uncertainty. 
The Notitia names a cohort of Cornovii as stationed at 
Pons Aelii (Newcastle on Tyne), but no traces of it have 
yet been found. As the Eomans would hardly employ a 
British cohort against fellow countrymen, the Conwcil 
were probably a Continental people, and quite distinct 
from the Cornavii, mentioned by Ptolemy as inhabiting 
parts of Cheshire and Shropshire. 

On an altar found at Procolitid, on the Eoman Wall, the 
name of Venico occurs. Is it ])ossible we should read the 


iiciine. of the subject of this inscription as Vemc((,Vemconui 

jifid ■ 

Another inscription found in Yorkshire, as far l)ack as 
1880. lias remained inedited. In that year there was 
found at CastU^ford, near Pontefract, close to the Pioman 
road Avhicli jjasses through the town, at a depth of three 
feet, a lionian milestone 4J i'eet liiuh, and 1 foot in 
diameter, which was removed to Half Acres (the residence 
of Mr. Joseph Brewerton), a short distance from the place 
of its discovery, and where it still is. 

After much correspondence with Mr. Brewerton (for I 
have not yet seen the stone) I have evolved a portion of 
the tenor of its inscription. It was first erected in the 
reign of the emperor Decius, a.]). 249-251, and after his 
death appears to have been inverted and an inscription to 
his successors, the joint emperors Gallus and Yolusianus, 
cut on the other end. This last inscription is much more 
perfect than the other, and what I have so far made out of 
it is 

. . . C . VIBIU 
GALLO . ET . C. V 
NO . P . F . 


I should expand this fsupplying doubtful portions) as 
Irn]>{eratnribaH Cdesdribus) C. Vibio Galh> et C. V. 
Voliisiano P{ils) F{elicibus) A'itg('iistis) Eb{uraco) {Millia 
jiasmum) XXI. The stone is soon to be photographed, 
when I hope to put the reading of the obscure portions of 
the inscription beyond dispute. Castleford is generally 
thought to have been the site of the station called in the 
Fifth Iter of Antoninus Ler/eollum, and in the Eighth Iter 
Lagecium, in each being named as twenty-one Eoman 
miles from York, the distance thus agreeing with the 
numerals upon the stone. 

The inscription upon the other end of the stone appears 
more worn and consequently more obscure. All that I 
can make out irlth cerfdiiiti/ from the written copies sent 
me is 

IMP . (' 
c . M . Q 


i.e., Iiiip[eratori) C[al(>) Jliessio) Q(tt'uito) Declo. In the 
Academy (Feb. 28, 1885) I have <^iven my conjectures as 
to the remainder of the inscription, bnt T forbear from 
pnttin^' them on record in the Journdl, as probably I shall 
soon be able to give the correct reading. 

Dr. Hooppell informs me that in addition to the graphitic 
inscription fonnd at Binchester' the following also occurred 

(1) (2) 

PIE . . . VSDOM . 

besides seven others which seem to be, clearly, numerals. 

During the months of July and August, in the course of 
excavations at the corner of Castle- street, Bevis Marks, in 
the city of London, amongst a large number of Roman 
sculptures built up into a more recent wall, were found 
fragments of two inscriptions which, as sent to me by Mr. 
J. E. Price, seem 

(1) (2) 


U'TIO . . 

\k . LXX S. 

Of the first, I gave the opinion to Mr. Price that it was 
part of a sepulchral stone, which, when entire had read : 

(D . M .) 


The K in the last line is on a much smaller scale than the 
other letters. Its reading, of course, would he D{iis) 
M{anibus) Aviiditi,s) {A)ntio{chus) {{um) LXX, i.e. 
" To the divine shades, Avidius Antiochus of seventy years 
of age." The stone is 1 foot high by 8J in. broad. The 
second inscription, when originally sent to me, had merely 
the commencement of the first and last lines visible — ivl. 
and DO — with (lutings to the left of the lines, but there was 
space for fully two lines between the extant letters. On 
mentioning this to Messrs. Price and A. White, they re- 
examined the stone and found the letter s commencing 
another line but there is still a gap, and I have no doul)t 
whatever that we have the commencement of four lines, 
one of which has yet to l)e found. Unfortunately the 
stone is much covered with cement, &c., which cannot 
well be got off without damaging the inscription. This 

1 Given in ray li,st for 1880. 


stone is about eighteen inches square, including the side 

Some two months later further excavations were made 
adjoining the site ol" these discoveries, when a quantity of 
Roman sculpture was found, some of it evidently from 
tombs of considerable size. The following inscriptions 
also occurred : 

(1) (2) 





No. 1 is on the edge of a large flag-stone, and the last 
letter comes close to where it has broken off. There is 
room for one or two letters at the commencement, and I 
suGfo-ested that under the mortar with which the stone is 
covered the centurial mark \> might be hidden, but the 
London antiquaries say it is not there. 

The second is a fragment of a large inscription broken 
at each end. On the right the breakage is perpendicular 
or nearly so, l^ut on the left it is diagonal. There have 
been letters before et but they are so filled up with 
cement and worn as not to Ije distinguishable. There 
can, however, be little doubt they were d.m., and 1 would 
read the first two lines D{iis) M^anihus) et memoria[e) 
(A)eliae Xumidi[(ie). In tlie third line we seem to have 
Pientissima instead of Pientissiinae, or I should have con- 
tinued it as Pientissimae Feminae. As it is, the name of 
another female must have preceded these words. In the 
last line Beliqua causa seem to be indicated, l^ut the 
sentence cannot be construed as it stands. All of these 
stones are now in the Guildhall Museum. 

At Bath there has lately been found a portion of a 
frieze, during the excavations at the Roman baths there, 
Ijearinii' the followinii" letters, which are 6x niches hii>'h : 

S S I L 

Though unimportant of themselves, they require to be 
put on record as it is very proljal^le the remainder of the 
inscription may be found. 

At Manton (near Marll)orough) on the Wiltshire Downs, 
there was discovered in January, near the racing establish- 
ment of Mr. A. Taylor, " in levelling the inequalities in 
the surface of the ground near the house," a number of 


silver and brass Roman coins ranging from Julian to 
Honorius, a quantity of Roman pottery, two skeletons, 
twelve large pewter dishes, and a vase and amphora of the 
same metal. The largest of the dishes was two feet in 
diameter, and the remainder graduated in sizes down to 
one foot. On the broad rims of many of them were 
elaborate ornamentations ; and on one, seventeen inches 
in diameter, a name was scratched, but the lettering was 
very indistinct. Mr. F. M. Russell, of Marlborough, 
informs me that it seemed to be either 


Some fresh information with regard to previously dis- 
covered inscriptions remains to be noticed. On the leaden 
stamp found at Chester and given by Dr. Hubner (C. I. L., 
vii, No. 1268), as 

> CL . AVG 

it appears that the last line should be viG. Hence I con- 
sider it as referring to the Roman fire-brigade at Chester. 
As there would be no necessity for a cohort of Vigiles, 
but probably only two or three centuriae, I would read the 
inscription as Centuria Cl[audii) Aug{ustalis) Vig[ilum.) 

Dr. Hubner's No. 1168, which when I wrote my paper 
upon the station Navio, named in it,^ was supposed to be 
lost, has recently been rediscovered in the possession of 
Mr. F. Beresford Wright, of Wootton Court, Warwick, 
and by him has been presented to the Derbyshire Archae- 
ological and Natural History Society.^ 

The inscription found at Ilkley which I published in 
Archaeological Journal, vol. xxxi, p. 345, and then sup- 
posed to be lost, is now preserved at the Vicarage at 
ArnclifFe. It had been given by Mr. Carr to the Rev. 
Canon Boyd. 

In vol. xxxvii of the Journal, p. 149, I have read the 
commencement of the inscription on the stone found at 
the Roman station at Beckfort as lia. It should probably 
be LiNA, as in the photographs which I have of it, and in 

^ Archaeological Journal, vol. xxxiii, pp. garcling the ownership of this stone, 

49-55. nothing could be ascertained until Mr. 

-Although the writer made enquiries W. H. St. John Hope in 1884, for- 

through the medium of a letter in the warded a letter to the same journal, and 

Derby Mercury as far back as 1877, re- with the satisfactory result named above. 



a copy of the inscription sent to me by the Eev. Dr. 
Hooppell the a appears thus, ,a. The diagonal stroke is 
evidently meant to join the i. 

The inscription taliof. which I have given in the 
Journal, vol. xli, p. 18.5, should probably read talio . f . 
Two paiellce bearing this stamp have been found on the 
continent ; one, discovered in Pomerania, is now preserved 
in the Berlin Museum, and the other, from Transylvania, 
is now in the Musenm at Vienna. 

The two inscriptions which I have given in vol. xli of 
the Journal, p. 185, from the Eawlinson MSS. at Oxford, 
are, I find, also given in the fly sheets of Ward's copy of 
Horsley's Britajinia Romana, in the British Museum. 

P.S. — From a correct transcript, recently obtained by 
Dr. Bruce, I find that the inscription built up into the 
walls of Jedburgh Abbey, which I published in Archaeo- 
logical Journal, vol. xxxiii, p. 365, should be 

1 . . M . VEX 
Q . C . A . IVL 

Dr. Bruce expands it as T[ovl) 0{ptimo) M[aximo) Vexillatio 
Raetoruni Gaesa [toriun) q[uoriun c[uram) a[git) Jul[ius) 
Sever{us) Trib{unus)} I am not aware whether Dr. Bruce 
has noted its bearing on two other inscriptions found at 
Eisingham, in each of which the abbreviation vexil . g . r. 
occurs, which should be read Vexil(latio) G[aesatoruni) 
R[aetorum). Dr. Hiibner^ expands the contraction as 
Vexil{larii) G(ermani) E(aeti), though at the same station 
he was the original discoverer of the Raeti Gaesati in 
another inscription (C. I. L. vii, No. 1002). We also 
probably have the same force mentioned in C. I. L. vii, 
No. 731, though Dr. Hul)ner seems to have overlooked 
the fact. 

A vexillation of Eaeti and Norici is mentioned on an 
altar found at Manchester.^ 

The Jedburgh inscription I find was first (though 
incorrectly) given in Jeffrey's History of Roxhuryhshire 
(18G4), pp. 255-7. 

1 Athenaeum, May 2n(l, 188.''). = C. /. L. vii, No.s. 987-988. 
^ Roman, Lancashire, p. 109. 


By C. DRURY E. FORTNUM, F.S.A., etc.' 

On some former occasions I have had much pleasure in 
directing tlie attention of members of the Koyal ArcliLeo- 
lo<>ical Institute to various rinirs and engraved <2;ems in 
my own and other collections, the workmanship of the 
earlier centuries of our era, whereon are represented in 
intaglio upon the metal, or upon the stones encased 
therein, emblems or subjects having indirect or symbolic 
reference to Christianity. The descriptive remarks read 
to the Institute on those occasions were honoured by 
publication in the Archceological Journal^ and may be 
found ]jy reference to vols, xxvi, p. 137 ; xxviii, p. 266 ; 
xxix, 305 ; xxxiii, p. Ill, and lastly in vol. xxxvii at 
page 351. 

Since the last publication I have been fortunate enough 
to acquire some other early christian gems of not less 
interest than those considered in my former papers, some 
description and remarks on which, together with an illus- 
trative engraved plate, I would now offer to the Society. 

For the convenience of those who take interest in this 
special branch of antiquarian enquiry I would propose to 
number the objects now to be described in sequence of 
those which were the subjects of my former papers, the 
last gem in which was numbered 13. 

Of those now under consideration No. 1 on the illus- 
trative engraved plate, on which they are figured of the 
actual size, will be No. 14 of the collective and descriptive 
list, and so forward. 

These gems are from various sources, some kindly ceded 
to me 1)y my friend the Rev. Greville Chester, others from 
the collection of Dr. Dressel, some from my own gather- 

^ Read at the Monthly Meeting of the therein refeired to were exhibited- 
lustitute, May 7, 1885, when the objects 


ing; and independently of my own belief in their 
integrity, aU have been submitted to the careful scrutiny 
of no less than five or six of the best judges of my 
acquaintance, who were agreed in considering them 
genuine and antique. 

No. 14. A nicolo of oval form, which from certain fine 
cracklinof on the surface would seem to have been sub- 
jected to the action of fire, but insufficient to do more 
than shghtly impair the purity of the white stratum. (See 
plate fig. 1.) Its surface is covered with subject in 
intaglio. Above is the ship, emblematic of the voyage of 
life and, perhaps subsequently, of the church, and in the 
field over it are the letters I H C De Eossi, Garrucci, and 
the late much reo'retted Padre Broussa consider that the 
ship with these initials of Christ above it, is typical of Him 
and of His church. To the right (in the impression and as 
seen in the engraving) is the chrisma, beneath which an 
anchor with a fish on either side, the head of the upper 
one being towards the top, that of the lower fish towards 
the flukes of the anchor, viz., counter-naiant as in the sign 

On the other side, the left, Jonas, with a star above him, 
is being ejected \yy the marine monster- whose serpentine 
body and fish-like tail extend across the field, here spotted 
over with oblong cuts from the scalptor's wheel to indicate 
the water of the great deep, in which and below a dolphin 

I have before suggested and, then unknown to me, a 
similar idea has been advanced by the late Canon Martigny, 
that the two fish with the anchor may have connubial 
reference, and supposing this to be the fact, may we not 
venture to interpret this complex representation of Christ- 
ian emblems as follows : viz., that the stone was originally 
set in a marriage ring — that the fish, the wedded pair, 
united in hope (the anchor) under Christ (the chrisma) 
that the voyage of life (the ship) or the church of Christ 
of which they are disciples, may lead them to the resur- 
rection (Jonah) to Eternal life? (the star). This may be 
a too poetical surmize, but it would at least give some 

' As on a gem of the Borgiii coll. iind is the " jyristis " (Pliuy His. Nat. xxiv, 19, 
elsewhere. 8), ^»"iA'f(?s or pristes, i.e., Sea uaonsters. 

■■' The " whale " ropreaeuted with Jouah 


reason for the occurrence of so many emblems together, 
and in the relative positions in which they are seen 
on this curious gem. 

Or, on the other hand, it may be suggested that the two 
fish are hopefully united under the sacred monogram as 
members of the Church of Christ (the ship) and so on. 

It may also be argued that although those gems on 
which two fish are represented, one on each side of the 
stem of cross or anchor, the heads of which are in the 
same direction^ may have matrimonial reference,' the fact 
that the fishes on this gem ai-e placed head to tail, as in 
the Zodaical sign, would be against such an inference. 

It came from Beirut in Syria and is of fairly good work- 
manship. In the opinion of some of the more learned 
Eoman antiquaries it is of classic time, probably of the 
later years of the third century, and may be even anterioi' 
to Constantine, the chrisma having been known previous 
to its adoption by him for the Labarum. 

No. 15 (fig. 2). The gem engraved under this number 
is also one of considerable interest. On the face of an 
oval piece of red jasper we have the following repre- 
sentation in intaglio. A figure, undoubtedly representing 
the Good Shepherd, stands erect, his weight borne upon 
the right leg and foot, the left being slightly bent back- 
wards, the toe touching the ground. He is clad in the 
usual short tunic, &c., a pallium or shawl falling from 
the left shoulder is held by that hand. On and over his 
right shoulder and back he holds the sheep or lamlj, 
its fore legs being held by his raised and extended right 
hand. He looks upwards to his right and the usual 
domed shepherd's hat is on the head.'^ On either side a 
sheep is standing on the ground from which a tree of 
serpentine growth, doubtless intended for a vine, rises 
spreading above his head ; below his feet and the incised 
line indicating the ground on which he stands, a fish is 
swimming, while on the field of the gsm immediately 
before him is an anchor. Here then again we have several 
well known emblems combined on the same gem. In 
section, this jasper is an oval thin truncated cone, the base 

' The lajing together the extended in- '-' These descrijitions of attitmle arc as 

dex fingers of each hand is .i well known seen in the inijircssious from the intaghu 
sign referring to marriage in the East. on which they are reversed. 


of which is the face of the gem, the reverse being an oval 
of smaller surface, and on this we find incised the letters, 
as shown in the engraving, lAa. My first impression on 
examining this intaglio (which was kindly secured for me 
by my friend Dr. Dressel, whose practised eye is authorita- 
tive as to the genuineness of an antique) was that tliese 
letters were to be read as the well known lACt) (^) the third 
letter being accidentally and wrongly written on its side. 
On showing the gem to my friend the learned Padre 
Garrucci he doubted that such a form of the letter could 
have been unintentional. Further consideration of the 
subject and reference to notes, &c., led to the conclusion 
that the letter in question was a B (beta) not a 60 wrongly 
inscribed, and that the word was to be read the other way, 
as on the stone, BAI, being an abbreviation of Baioy. On 
referring to Sueceri {J.C.) Tliesaurus Ecclesiasticus^\o\. i., 
sub. voc. Baiy it is explained as of Egyptian origin and 
signifying " ramus palmce" a palm branch. Sueceri reiQi^ to 
the Evaut/eliuin Egypticum^ Ino. xii, v. 13, va /3ata <^oiviyav. 
See also Peyron Lexicon Copticum, p. 19, jSat-y, raiiias 
jjalmce, the emblem of Martyrdom and of Victory. BAI 
would also signify the soul (King) and also a prize = the 
palm branch. The workmanship of this gem is good and 
its preservation perfect ; it is probably of the first half of 
the tliird century, according to the opinion of the Com : De 
Eossi, who thought the inscription, reading it as lAO) 
indicated a Gnostic tendency on the part of the original 

No. 16 (see plate 3) is a gem, a carnelian or sard much 
broken, which was referred to in my former paper 
(page 359) as then belonging to Dr. Dressel, but since 
acquired by me ; on which we have the Good Shepherd 
standing between, probably, two sheep but one only 
remains, beyond on either side is a cypress tree on each of 
which a bird is perched. Here we have the sheep, the 
disciples or church on earth, and the birds their spiritual 
state in heaven, perhaps also typifying the Jewish and 
Christian churches mundane and celestial — a curious and 
interesting figurative representation, well executed. It 
also is a work pioljably of a somewhat later period of the 
third century. 

No. 17. At the dispersion of the Castellani collection in 


Rome last year, I acquired another gem of similar char- 
acter to that figured on page 350 of my last paper (No. 2). 
It is a nicolo of fairly good workmanship, probably of 
the advanced third century ; the Good Shepherd carrying 
the lamb or sheep seems to be advancing towards his 
right, beneath the spreading branch of what is probably 
intended for a vine, a sheep is on either side, the whole 
group reversed in arrangement, but much resemliling that 
on the red jasper (No. 2 on the plate), but beyond the sheep 
on the ground before him is what appears to represent 
a bird, above which is an object like the letter J, as seen 
on the intaglio, but longer in proportion to its width, and 
which may be intended for a shepherd's crook or pedum ^ 
if not a letter, in which case it would probably be the 
initial of the original owner of the gem. I believe, how- 
ever, that it represents the shepherd's crook, as, on sealing, 
the letter would be reversed. 

A similar subject on a nicolo, but varied from that just 
described, was also sold at the Castellani sale ; it was in 
bad condition, chipped and of coarse inferior workman- 

In the Ravenna Library are two gems, a crystal and a 
carnelian, on each of which is a pastor bonus in intaglio of 
very rude execution. 

By way of illustration I have laid on the table a terra- 
cotta lamp, on which the subject of the Good Shepherd is 
seen in relief surrounded by bunches of grapes. 

I would also direct attention to the interesting and 
perfectly preserved archaic Greek bronze statuette repre- 
senting the Hermes Criophoros, a nude figure, his head 
only covered by a close fitting cap or hood and carrying a 
ram sheep on his shoulders. This little group, found in 
the neighbourhood of Santa Maria Capua, is referred to 
by the late M. Veyries^ in his interesting monograph on 
Criophoric figures of Greek, Roman and early Christian 
times, and is probably of a date considerably anterior to 
the third century B.C. 

In it we have the type adopted in later time by the 
early Christians in representing the Good Shepherd as we 

^ Veyries, M.A., Les Figures Crioplio- Ecoles Fr. d'Athen5s et de Rome, 
es. Paris, 1884., p. 7, No. 11. Bib. des 


see it upon the lamp, and upon the engraved gems I have 
just described. 

This " Hermes " carrying the young male sheep or goat 
may merely represent a peasant bringing an offering to 
the shrine of his favourite deity, and in this respect such 
group may have been considered as doubly typical by the 
Christian mind, the young male sheep, of the first of the 
flock, representing that Lamb, without spot, who was 
offered for us all ; while, on the other hand, as a shepherd 
carefully bearing the young or weakly ram, would signify 
the disciple gently borne on the loving neck of Him who 
is the Shepherd of our souls. The group would thus have 
two-fold significance, although there can be little doubt 
that it was in the latter sense as the pastor bonus that it 
was generally accepted and represented. 

The gem described under No. 10 in my last paper (No. 
4 in our plate) is a nicolo, the intaglio on which is of 
similar character to a stone referred to by Martigny and 
to one by Gorli ; on the gem figured by the latter, the fish 
hang from the arms of a cross, which in no way resembles 
an anchor. On that now under notice the anchor is 
reversed in position, the fish hanging by their heads one 
on each side of the stem. The work is coarsely executed 
but somewhat deeply cut, and proljably of the later years 
of the third or early fourth century ; found in Egypt. 

The two fish — if such representation has no connubial 
reference — are believed by some to typif}^ the multipli- 
cation of the food — Christ's body ; the anchor — the cross ; 
or, the faithful attracted or attached to an eucharistic or 
other emblem of the faith (vide De Rossi, Bui. 1879, p. 
109) two fish, with emblem, the two conjugi united, yoked, 
or mated together under the faith — '■'' pisciculi secundum 
Jesum Christum " to quote Tertullian. 

In the library at Eavenna are two Christian gems, on 
one, a green jasper, is an anchor between two fish ; on the 
other, a carnelian, a cross between two fish. 

No. 18 (No. 5 on the plate) is a gem of similar material 
and character to that described in my former paper under 
No. 12. It is an intaglio on pyrites, and represents a 
winged draped figure, an angel or victory holding an orb 
surmounted by a cross potent, (the crux ansata reversed,) 
and an inscription below, which Mr. King rather agreed 


with me in reading j)a,v from an impression, but which 
may be of badly formed Greek letters XAT, and the 
initials of the owner. It came from Egypt and is 
rudely executed, but somewhat in the early Byzantine 
manner of the fifth and earl}^ sixth century ; its oriental 
origin would be strong reason for the inscription being in 
Greek, rather than in Roman letters. On the gem (No. 
12) described in my last paper, the victory holds a double 
cross, g,n emblem which, it would seem, does not appear 
till the period of Justinian II. The victory with orl) and 
cross on that now under consideration, occurs on coins of 
Arcadius after 383 a.d. The double cross, i.e.^ the cross 
having above the lateral arms a smaller cross-bar, may 
probably have taken its origin from the title affixed over 
the head and bearing the well known superscription 
which Pilate would not alter. 

The intaglio now under notice is larger than that No. 
12, and better in execution, though very coarse, as might 
be expected on so harsh and ungrateful a material. 

No. 7 on the engraving {numbered 1 9 in my list) figures 
an intaglio upon sard found at Rome, the Christian signifi- 
cance of the subject on which, a spreading tree between 
two branches of palm, was open to some doubt ; my own 
opinion was that it was intended to represent the 
tree of life. That opinion is in a measure confirmed by 
the representation of a similar tree upon the side of one 
of those Egyptian earthern flasks which are (when hollow) 
supposed to have contained oil from the shrine of St. 
Menas, or were tokens of that Saint, and which generally 
bear his figure with arms extended between two camels, 
with an inscription surrounding or on the other side.' 
That bottle, the Christianity of which is manifest, was 
brought over by the Revd. Greville Chester and is now in 
the British Museum ; it has not the figure of the saint, but 
tlie usual inscription 

(Tov aytov Mvva) TOTA 



is on one side : and the tree on the other. 

Another instance of the tree occurs in intaglio on a 
small plasma gem, which I subsequently procured in 

^ An example was exhibited. 


Eome ; on it is a wide spreading tree having on either 
side an ear of corn. 

It seems to me that, however we may differ on the 
precise significance of these representations, there can be 
little doubt that they are of Christian symbolism and that 
the principal figure is intended for the tree of life. In the 
one case the palm may refer to victory over sin and death 
unto eternal life— the tree — which can hardly be intended 
for a vine, or the explanation would be manifest. The 
ears of corn on the smaller stone must have reference 
to the bread, the typical of body of the Lord. 

The tree occurs on gems together with the Good Shep- 
herd, as on some we have described, but it is of different 
form and character of growth, (see also Bull. Arch. Ch. 
1879, T. vii) and painted in the catacombs (Bull. 1876, T. 
ix). The persea tree or Sebestene plum {Cordia Myxa)^ 
wreathes of whose branches were ordered by Alexander 
to be used as prizes in the games he instituted at Alexan- 
dria, and the leaves of which frequently adorn the head of 
Horus, could hardly be that figured upon the S. Menas 
bottle, nor upon the two gems under consideration. If 
not the tree of life, as I believe, it might rather be intended 
for that tree at Matareyeh by Heliopolis under which the 
Holy Family are said to have reposed on their flight into 
Egypt, but if so the reference is Christian. 

No. 8 on the engraving (No. 20 of our list) is a stone 
which would seem to be a mottled brown jasper, on one 
face of which an anchor is incised of the form usually 
found on Christian gems, and probably intended as a 
Christian emblem ; on the reverse however is the inscription 
honouring Serapis MET AC CAPAlllC, a curious record of 
the intermingling of the two Cults, Serapis being honoured 
as a t5^pe of Christ. Merivale (History of Eome) states 
that Serapis and Christ were, in the time of Hadrian, 
equally worshipped as being nearly identical. Mr. King 
(Gnostics, p. 68) refers to " the curious letter of Hadrian to 
Servianus " from which he quotes " Those who worsliip 
" Serapis are also Christians ; even those who style them- 
" selves the Ijishops of Christ are devoted to Serapis. The 
" very patriarch himself when he comes to Egypt is forced 
" by some to adore Serapis, by others to adore Christ. 


" There is but one God for tliem all, him do the Christians, 
" hini do the Jews, him do all the Gentiles also worship." 

Noble sentiments worthy of tliat enlightened Em})eror. 

The execution of this inscription is sharp and clean, and 
the work may be of the later second or earlier third 
century. The gem was found in Egypt. 

Figure No. 6 ('21 of our list) is a very pale oval 
amethyst, on the slightly convex face of whicli is incised 
what is doubtless intended to represent a lamb holding a 
cross — an Agnus Dei. It is interesting as an early repre- 
sentation of the subject on a gem, being probably of the 
fifth or sixth century, and for the very rude manner in 
which the intaglio is executed, probably by some local 
artist. As seen in the impression the lamb is walking to 
the right ; the head surmounted by the nimbus being 
turned over the back ; the cross is of the form known as 
potent, an elongated stem being attached to the lower 

No. 9 on the engraved plate, No. 22 of my list, repre- 
sents a orem of the genuineness of which I could hardlv 
feel quite assured, but on submitting it to the careful 
examination of three of the best judges of antique gems at 
Eome, all were satisfied of its antiquity. It is an ameth3^st 
of oval form, on the slightly convex face of which is incised 
the figure of a fish, swimming, and holding in its mouth 
what seems to be intended for a spray of olive rather than 
an ear of corn or a palm, as it will be noticed that the 
leaves alternate and are not one opposite the other. A 
curious representation which I do not recollect to have 
seen recorded, but can hardly have other than Christian 
significance. Could it be intended to convey that the 
fish — the Christ — brings peace and happiness to the be- 
liever — " peace be unto you," " my peace I give to you " ? 
Or is it the disciple who has received and holds that 
emblem of his peace in Christ ? 

The work of the intaglio is fairly good, and may be of 
the third or early fourth century. It was procured at 

In my last paper (Arch. Journal, vol. xxxvii, ]). 362) 
on Christian rings and gems I figured and described under 
No. 11a circular intaglio on garnet, on which is incised 
an erect draped figure with laterally outstretched arms, 


beneath each of which is an animal, I beUeve to be in- 
tended for a hon, with head down as crouching beneath 
the central figure. This I concluded was no other than 
a representation of Daniel in the lion's den ; but some 
learned antiquaries have thought that S. Menas and his 
camels, rather than Daniel and the lions, was the subject 
of the intaglio. On showing the gem to the Padre 
Garrucci he quite agreed with my view, and considers the 
representation of importance as typical of Christ ; the 
attitude denoting the crucifixion and the scared lions His 
persecutors the Jews. See also De Eossi, Bull. Inst., 1872, 
tav. II., who agrees in my opinion, as to the subject being 
Daniel and not S. Menas. 

For other representations of Daniel on gems see 
Garrucci, (Storia, plates 478 and 492), one of these is in a 
reliquary at the Duomo in Cividale ; the other at Vienna. 

Mr. King (Gnostics, p. 142) refers to a sard gem formerly 
in the Hertz collection having the Good Shepherd between 
two tigers (or lions ?) looking up at him with the legend 
ESIVKEV which he writes " evidently cloaked the, at the 
time no doubt, dangerous confession KE (for Kvpie) lESV 
' Lord Jesu help.' " 

This representation bears a curious analogy to that 
upon our garnet, and would seem to confirm the opinion 
that the Daniel on my gem was typical of Christ, who is 
figured as the Good Shepherd on the Hertz sard. 

No. 10 on the engraved plate represents an interesting 
Gnostic gem, a green jasper with some red spots (blood- 
stone) the intaglio, of fair workmanship, and the inscription 
on which, I have Mr. King's authority for stating, are 
important ; being " an unpublished legend of much interest 
identifying Isis with the Moon, as Osiris was with the Sun, 
according to Plutarch. In this case, therefore, the adjunct 
lACt) is very appropriate that being, properly in the Greek 
form IA02, merely a title of the autumnal " Sun." 

On the face of the gem is incised an erect figure of Isis 
wrapped in the j/ejdum, in the act of advancing to the right 
(in the impression) and holding the " cup of libation," in 
Mr. King's opinion, but which looks equally, from the 
indefinite workmanship of the intaglio, like a globular 
fruit, while along and up the arm is a straight line in- 
dicating portion of some instrument, but which two objects 


taken together may, not improbably, represent the 
simpuluni or, more correctly, the cyathus by which liba- 
tions M'ere offered to the Gods, l^efore and at her feet is 
a gryphon, apparently holding some object beneath its 
riglit fore foot, (this I regret to see is not correctly 
rendered on the copper-plate). Beneath and around is the 
inscription already referred to, and which Mr. King, the 
first authority on Gnostic lore, reads — 

and translates ' Isis the mighty Lady of the moon.' 
In section the gem is a much truncated oval cone, on the 
reverse and smaller face is incised the IA60. I })urchased 
this stone at Naples, but have reason to think that it may 
have been brought from Sicily. 

1 have ventured to publish this intaglw. with the others, 
although it is not to be numbered among the Christian 
gems which are the special subject of the present paper, 
but I have done so firstly by reason of the interesting 
nature .of its inscription, as pointed out by Mr. King, and 
secondl}' because there was an unoccupied space at the 
bottom of the engraved plate which I thought it would 
not too unworthily occupy. 

I may here refer to some interesting notices of" Christian 
Gem-Types " b}^ Mr. King and l3y Mr. S. S. Lewis, 
published in the " Communications " of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, accompanied as they are by much 
learned comment and valuable reference. There also are 
described some Gnostic stones of curious interest. 

I may also here record the following, which are pre- 
served in the Museum at Parma, where I noticed nine 
coarsely executed early Christian gems, the subjects of 
which are : — 

1. Carnelian — anchor, fish and ixbye. 

2. Yellow jasper — palm and wreath. 

3. Carnelian — ^dove and palm incised on the reverse of 

an older pagan gem, the subject of which is nearly 
ground down. 

4. Red jasper — Pastor bonus and two sheep below. 

5. Plasma — dove and palm. 

6. Fish and some letters. 

7. Wreath and palm. 

8. Anchor. 


9. Dove and palm. 

They are, for the most part, uumiportant. 

In the collection of objects which belonged to Carlo 
Morbio. and whicli were dispersed l)y auction at Munich 
in Sept. 1883, were some gems and finger rings of whicli, 
judging from the description in the catalogue, some were 
of early Christian character, others probably mediaeval. 

While occupied in revising proof of the foregoing, I 
have received from my friend the Eev. Greville J. 
Cliester, the oval bezel of a bronze ring from which the 
apparently simple hoop has been broken away. On it, 
figured in intaglio, is a boat extending across the field, 
in which three figures are seated ; the centre one, in full 
face, draped and nimbed is, doubtless, intended for Christ ; 
one sits at the prow, the other at the stern, Simon, pro- 
bably, and another disciple ; while from the depth below 
three fishes are rising toward the boat. This may be 
intended to represent the miraculous draught of fishes ; 
or, with equal probability — Christ being in the boat and 
not on the shore — His preaching from the ship to the 
assembled multitude (Mark iv, 1) here typified by the 
fishes. The workmanship is rude, probably of late fourth 
or early fifth century. It was found at Smj'rna. 


Many persons, well-informed in other respects, think 
that there are no Eoman antiquities in Switzerland. This 
mistake results from various causes. Most people travel 
there to enjoy the scenery, and recruit their health. The 
Eomans have not left behind them in that country vast 
monuments of their power, like the temples, theatres and 
aqueducts, which in regions farther south are still to be 
seen ; but, speaking generally, we must be content with 
smaller objects stored in museums, sometimes unprovided 
with catalogues.^ Moreover, no English writer, as far as 
I know, has discussed this subject at any length; attention 
has been directed almost exclusively to pre-historic remains 
made known by Dr. Keller's book on Pfahlbauten (lake- 
dwellings), of which an excellent translation has been 
published.^ However, I hope to show that the classical 
antiquities of Switzerland, though inferior to those of 
some other countries, ought not to be passed over with 
contemptuous neglect, and that they deserve study quite 
as much as similar relics of the olden time in Britain, 

^ A very good account of the Collections '^ Dr. Keller gives only three references 

at Bale has been written by Professor J. to Roman remains — key, tiles and 

J. Bernoulli, author of Romische Ikono- amphora — pp. 121, 133, 183, P]ngli8h 

graphic ; it is entitled, " Museum in Basel. translation by J. E. Lee. Victor Gross's 

Catalog fiir die Antiquarische Abthei- book may be regarded as supplementary 

lung," 1880. Compare Kurzer Bericht to Keller's : on account of its importance 

iiber die fiir das Museum in Basel erwor- I add the title in extenso, " Los Proto- 

bene Schmid'sche Sammlung von Alter- helvctes ou les premiers colons sur lea 

thiimern aus Augst. Von Prof. Wilhelm bords des lacs de Bienne et Neuchatel. 

Vischer. 1858, 4to, with one Plate con- Berlin, 1883, 4to, avec 33 Planches en 

taining eight figures. phototype figurant 950 objets trouves 

The Catalogue Descriptif of the Musee pendant les fouilles." 
Fol at Geneva is an elaborate work in See also Sir John Lubbock's Pre-his- 

four volumes, of which the first and second toric Times, chap, v. The Lake- H abita- 

are devoted to Antiquities. Among the tions of Switzerland, pp. 119-170, ed. 

illustrations, some coloured plates of 1865. 
Verves Antiques deserve special notice. 


which our own local antiquaries have so carefully in- 

I. The Eoman inscriptions are replete with interest, but 
they have been scarcely noticed by our countrymen, with 
the exception of the forgery relating to Julia Alpinula, 
which Lord Byron has immortalised.^ A few specimens 
will suffice to show the importance of these historical 
monuments. A hlock of marble, nine feet high and thirty 
inches wide, found in the baths at Avenches and now 
preserved in the museum there, exhibits the following 


Juliae Dowinne Aiigustae Mdtri Castrorum Tlelvetii puUice. 
The Helvetians have officially erected this monument in 
honour of Julia Domna Augusta, mother of the camp.^ 

I have selected this inscription on account of the title 
Mater Castrorum, wliicli was first conferred on Faustina 
Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Accordingly, the 
empress is represented on her coins with this legend 
and three military standards in front. ^ Her example was 
followed by Julia Domna, Mamaea and other princesses.'* 

^ iulia . alpinula . hie . iaceo | infelicis . Memoir are Mommsen's, unless otherwise 

patris . infelix . proles | deae auent . specified. I have used the edition of 

sacerd | exorare . patris . necem . non . Orelli, which appeared in 1828. 

potui I male . mori . in . fatis . illi . erat | ' No. 169. Baron de Bonstetten, Carte 

uixi . annos . xxiii. Archoologique du Canton de Vaud accom- 

These words are derived partly from pagnee d'un texte explicatif, 1874, p. 6. 

Tacitus, Histories, I, 68, In Julium '* Cohen, Medailles Imperiales, vol. ii, 

Alpinum e principibus ut concitorem p. 577. M. Aurele . . . lui (Faustine 

belli Caecina animadvertit : partly from Jeune) avait donne le titre de mere dea 

inscriptions, Nos. lo4, 15.5, containing camps qu'on voit sur les medailles 24, 

Dea Aventia, found at Munchweiler ; and 60, 145 et 194, parce qu 'elle I'avait suivi 

No. 241, where Alpinula occurs, found at a la guerre. Cf. PI. XIX, Grand Bronze, 

Wettingen, near Baden in the Canton 194 ; and p. 599. Eckhel, Doct. Num. 

Aargau. See Orelli, note on Tacitus, loc. Vet., vol. vii, p. 79. Capitolinus in the 

citat.. inse: . . . conficta a Paulo Guli- Augustan History, M. Antoninus Philo- 

elmo, and Collectio Inscriptionum Latin- sophus, chap. 26, quam secum et in 

arum, vol. i, p. 123, No. 400 ; Mommsen, aestivis habuerat, ut matrem castrorum 

in Mittheiluugen der Antiquarischen appellaret : see the note of Casaubon. 

■Gcsellschaft in Ziirich. Zehnter Band, Dion Cassius, Hist. Rom., LXXI, 10 fin. 

1854, Inscriptiones Coiifoederaticjnis Hel- v ij-(vtoi ^avariva iJLr\T-r\p ruv arparoirfhu'v 

veticae Latinae ; Falsae, No. 15. Byron, iTriK\i]dr}. 

Childe Harold, III, 66, * Julia Domna, wife of Septimius 

And there —oh! sweet and sacred be the Severus : Cohen III, 3.39, Nos. 67-70; 

name ! — Kckhel, Vll, 196. Mamaea, mother of 

Julia— tlio daughter, the devoted— gave Alexander Severus : Cohen IV, 83, Nos. 

Her youth to heaven, &c. 54-56 ; Eckhel VII, 288. 

The numbers of inscriptions in this 


The monuments corroborate the statement of Tacitus, 
who, in liis account of the appearance of Caractacus ])efore 
Claudius and Agrippina, mentions it as a novelty, at 
variance with ancient usage, that a woman should j)reside 
over Eoman standards.' As might be expected, the wives 
of provincial governors imitated the empresses ; Plancina, 
daughter of Munatius Plancus, in Syria, and Cornelia in 
Pannoniaare censured l)ecause they assisted at the military 
exercises of the legions."^ This interference of Eoman 
ladies in politics and war, which is indicated l)y our 
inscription, forms the subject of a debate in the Roman 
senate recorded ])y Tacitus, and has a special interest now, 
as history is repeating itself, and a tendency to exceed the 
limits of nature is spreading amongst ourselves.-'' 









Genio pagi Tigorini P. Graccius Paternus testamento 
[aram) jioni jussit, Scribonia Lucana haeres faciendam 
curavit. P. Graccius Paternus has ordered by his will 
that this altar should be erected to the Genius of the 
Tigurine Canton, Scribonia Lucana his heir has carried 
his wish into effect.'* This inscription was found at 

^ Tacitus, Ann. XII, 37, Novum sane, Ipsa loqui recta facie, strictisque mamillis. 

et moribus veterum insolitum, foeminam Chat with great generals, though her lord 

signis Romanis praesidei'e. be there, 

- Plancina, wife of Cn. Piso: Tacitus, With lawless eye, bold front, and bosom 

Ann. II, 55,Exercitioequitum, decursibns bare. Gilford's Translation, 

cohortiuni iuteresse. Cornelia, wife of See Ruperti's Commentary. 

Calvisius Sabinus : Dio LIX, 18, Kai yap Friedlaender (to whom I am indebted 

iKfivri, us (()v\aKa.s re icpo5evcra.cra Koi robs for scmie of the preceding references), Sit- 

cTTpuTiuiTas acrKovfTas ISovaa, aiTiav tax^v. tengeschichte Roms, 2"'' edit., 18(55, vol. 

•^ Tacitus, Ann. Ill, 33, 34, Caecina I, chap. V, Die Frauen, p. 338 sq. 

j)r(ip(jsed that provincial governors should Ehre;eiz der Frauen and Theilnahme an 

not be accompanied by their wives, Mes- der Politik. It would be well to com- 

saliiuis and iJrusus took the opposite pare the 4^11 edit., 1873, vol. I, j). 478. 

side. The discussion affords a curious ' No. 159 ; Bonstetten, Op. citat. p. 5 

parallel with the case of English officials Orelli, No. 366, gives the inscii])tion less 

going to India. In the latter chapter the correctly ; after Paterans he reads CVU. 

exj)ressive phrase modum excedere occurs. COL. ET. for T.P.I., and after Lucana 

Juvenal, Sat. VI, 399, V. KEG. for H.F.C, which he e.Kjilainsas 

Et coitus possit quam ferre virorum, equivalent to vivi fecerunt ; but V might 

Cuinque paludatis ducibus, praesente stand for uxor. The form Tigorinus for 

marito, Tif/urinus should be observed. For the 

VOL. XLII. '/. 


Miinchweiler near Morat, and about five miles from 
Avenches. The word altar for wliicli there is no equiva- 
lent in the Latin text may be supplied from a similar 
monument at Hasparren, near Bayonne, where we find 
the phrase, <jenio pagi hanc dedicat aram} Combined with 
evidence from other sources, our inscription leads to the 
conclusion that Aventicum was the capital of the Canton, 
and therefore agrees with the description of Tacitus, gentis 
caput.- But it more directly illustrates Caesar, who in 
his Gallic War, Book I, chap. 12, relates the victory he 
gained over this Canton near the river Arar (Saone), and 
probably in the neighbourhood of Macon. In the same 
passage he bears witness to the valour of the Tigurini, for 
he speaks of the signal disaster which a former generation 
of them had inflicted on the Eoman people, when they 
killed a consul and sent his army under the yoke. 

Letters, almost identical with those quoted above, were 
said to have been found on a marble column at Kloten in 
the Canton Zurich ; for a long time a forgery was suspected, 
but the recent discovery of a fragment has caused them to 
be received as genuine.^ 

The importance of Aventicum can be traced back to a 
period preceding the Eoman domination, and consequently 
much earlier than that to which this monument belongs. 
From a very curious die (Munzstempel) found there it 
may be reasonably inferred that gold coins were issued 
from the mint at this city about two hundred years before 
the Christian era. The device is a laureated head of 
Apollo, imitated from the Macedonian stater. It deserves 
our attention, because the type passed from Greek to Gaul 
and thence to our own country, where it shows itself, in a 

extent of this canton see Smith's Die- M. E. Desjiirdins, with a more accurate 

tionary of Classical Geography, vol. i, p. copy, PI. XII. The forms of the letters 

1041, s.v. Helvetii, article by Mr. George are i>ai-ticularly noticed, p. 24. 

Long. Pagus Tigurinus is not to be con- ^ Hi.stories I, 68, Cumque dinitis omni- 

fonnded with Turicum (Zurich). bus Aventicum gentis caput justo agmine 

' My Paper on Antiquities in the peteretur, missi qui dederent civitatem, 

South-west of France, Arcliwol. Journal, et deditio accepta. 

vol. xxxvi, p. 11 : Pagi Mucjister occurs ■' The pulling down of .-i wall in 

in the line ib. Monsieur Henry Poy- August 1862 led to this discovery, and 

denot published subsequently Note sur to the correction of the mi-stake made by 

La Date ProVjable de L'lnscriptinn Ho- Moniinsen and others : Ziirich Mittheil- 

maine de Hasjjarren (Lue au Congres ungen, Erster Nachtrag zu den Inscrip- 

Scientifique de Dax en Mai, 1882) with tioiies Confoederationis Helveticae Latinae 

fac-.simile. See esp. Revue Archdolo- von Theodor Mommsen, 1865, p. 210, sec. 

gique, Nouvelle Serie, vol. xliv, pp. 23-27, xiv, No. 28. 
July 1882, Inscription d' Hasparren, par 


degraded foi'iii, on the earliest national coins. However 
this suljjert has been so ably treated by Dr. Ferdinand 
Keller and Mr. John Evans that I forbear to enlarge upon 

C. VALER. C. F. FAB. C^ 



CIVITAS . ]-:T . HELVhri' . DECHE 






In honour of Cauis Valerius Camillus, son of Cains of 
the Fal)ian tril^e, to whom the Aeduans and Helvetians 
decreed a public funeral, and the Helvetians decreed 
statues at the expense of the Cantons and of the state : 
Julia Festilia, daughter of Caius Julius Camillus, by her 
will ordered tlie erection of this monument.^ 

The preceding inscription was found at Conches-Dessus 
in 1809, but since that time has disappeared. It should 
be compared wdth Nos. 143 and 179 in Mommsen's 
collection.^ We may remark here the juxta-position of 
the Helvetii and ^Edui, i.e. the Swiss and Burgundians. 
These two nations were neighbours ; hence their history, 
both ancient and modern, is closely intertwined.^ The 
Helvetians who invaded Gaul penetrated the ^Eduan 
territor}^, and were defeated by Csesar near Bibracte 
(Mont Beuvray) ; on the other hand, Charles the Bold was 

^ See cin excellent memoir by Dr. he also refers to Spanheim Tom. i, p. 29. 

Keller in the Archwol. Journal, vol. xix, Lelewel, Etudes numismaticiues et arcli- 

]ip. 253-258, " Notice of a die for striking eologiques, type Gaulois on Celtique, 

Helvetian or Gaulish gold coins found at Atlas, Tableaux VI, Elements du ty|)e 

Avenches," and remarks by Dr. Birch Gaulois, ou explication de la Blanche X, 

appended thereto. Evans, Ancient Bri- Nos. 19-26, 28, 29, Famille lauree ; 19, 

tish Coins, p. 24 sq., PI. A. Nos. 1, 2; imitation de la tete d'Apollon. 

and p. 312, PI. X, No. 10, Apollo cith- « No. 192 ; Bonstetten, Op. citat. p. 

aroedus on a coin of Cunobeline. Cha- 9; Orelli, No. 360. 

bouillet, Catalogue general et raisonne ^ Conches Dessus and Conches Dessou 

des Camees et Pierres gravees de la are marked in the large map of Aventi- 

Bibliothcque Imperiale, p. 541, Coins de cum, which accompanies Professor Conrad 

monnaies imperiales romaines, Nos. 3173- Bursian's Menioirs on that city in the 

3180. M. Chabouillet explains the legend Zurich Mittheilungeu, Band XVI, Ab- 

S M AN as meaning, Saau moneta Anti- theilung I, Heft I, Taf : II. 

ochcna, but I am inclined to think that No. 143, in honour of Julia Festilia, 

S stands for sir/nata : comp. my Remarks was found at Yverdun in extending tlie 

on Coins found at Sutton, near Wood- cemetery ; No. 179 at Avenches. 

bridge, Sufiolk, A rrhwol. .lour., xxviii, 37, ■* The coiniection between the .I'^dui and 

" SMANTB, struck at Antioch (Signata Helvetii is shown by a remarkal)le coin 

moneta Antiochiae ; B, second issue)." engraved in Hucher's Art (iaulois, PI. 

Eckhel, however, gives examples of Sacra LXXII, and described, Part I, p. 27. On 

Moneta, Doct. Num. Vet. VIII, 10, 107 ; the obverse is the bust of Diana wearing 


vanqTiisliecl at Morat almost within sight of Avenches, and 
at Granson on the lake of Xeuchatel.' 

The most important monument relating to the history 
of Helvetia is not to be found in the country itself, but 
far away in Italy. On the mausoleum of Munatius Plancus 
at Gaeta the following words are still legible : — 

L . MVNATIVS . L . F . L . N . L . PRON 

Lucius Munatius Plancus, son of Lucius, grandson of 
Lucius, great-grandson of Lucius, Consul, Censor, Imper- 
ator twice, one of the Septemviri Epulones, triumphed 
over the Khtetians, erected a temple to Saturn with the 
spoils, allotted lands at Beneventum in Italy, founded 
Lugdunum and Eaurica, colonies in Gaul.- 

Plancus is the person to whom Horace addressed the 
seventh Ode of the first Book. Milman truly describes 
him as a restless and adventurous politician, throughout 
the turbulent period of the civil wars engaged in almost 
every contest and on every side ; but he gives the text of 
the inscription incorrectly, and misunderstands the word 
Septemvir.^ Eaurica was called Augusta, and hence the 
modern name of Angst is derived, as Augsburg represents 
Augusta Vindelicorum.* Even now it ranks next to 
Avenches, as exhibitmg vestiges of Eoman occupation. 

a collar, and carrj-iug a quiver on her Fortis Fortimae de manubiis faciendam 

shoulder, \s-ith the legend EDVIS ; on locavit (Carvilius Consul), 

tlie reverse is an Alijiue bear walking, •' Illustrated edition of Horace, Per- 

with the name of the Helvetian chief sonae Horatianae, pp. 140-143, s.v. 

ORGETIRIX {sic) in the exergue. Munatius, " To his titles it adds Imperator 

' Not only did the Swiss gain these twice, Septemvir and Epulo," as if the last 

famous victories, fighting in defence of two words indicated separate offices. The 

their own country, but they also contri- meaning is that Plancus was one of the 

bated powerfully i-o the success of Rene, seven members of a college of prie.sts who 

Duke of Lorraine, in the battle of Nancy, superintended the sacrificial banquets to 

where Cliarles le Tcmcraire was defeated the gods: Smith's Latin Dictionary, 

and slain. Kirk, History of Charles the Epulo ; and the Dictionary of Antiquities, 

Bold, Duke of Burgundy, vol. iii, chap. Epulones. Cf. Inscription, Archa-ologia, 

V, pp. 446-472 ; see chap, vi, pp. vol. xlviii, p. 12, note a, and C.I.L, iii, 

484-491: Memoirs of Philip de Com- 1741. 

mines. The scandalous Chronicle, vol. ii. ^ Jwyustotakesvarious forms in modern 

p. 385 »(/., Bohn's edition. languages — Aoust in the Department 

- Mommsen, Op. citat, p. 105, Tituli of Drome (France) ; Affosta between 

externi male rclati inter Helveticos, No. Catania and Syracuse ; Aosta in Fied- 

22. Observe DE MANIBIS for dc rnont ; Zaragoza (Caesaraugu.sta) in Spain: 

manuhm, which is more connnon. Cf. see Graesse, Orbls Latinus. 
Livy X, 46, s./"., Dc rcliquo acre aedcm 


The tomb of Plancus is amon_Li' tlie most remarkable that 
remain from anti(|uity on account of its _LiTeat size, its _<i;oo(l 
preservation, and its connnanding position, which has 
caused it to be used as a telegraph-station.' 

Tlie inscription appears in the collection of Gruter with 
introductory remarks, vol. i, p. 439, no. 8; in Montfau- 
con's Antiquite Expliquee, Tome v, PI. cxiii ;^ and in 
Bruckner's Versuch einer Besclu'eibung historischcr uiid 
natilrlicher MerkwUrdigkeiten der Landschaft Basel, xxiii 
Stuck, p. 2669 (1763); but I have followed the edition of 
Mommsen, Inscc. Kegni Neapolitani Lat : , presuming it to 
be the most accurate. This sepulchre, which is com- 
parativeh' little knowai, closely resembles that of Caecilia 
Metella, " the wealthiest Roman's wife," upon the Api)ian 
w^ay ; both are circular in form, and decorated with a 
frieze of ox-heads.^ 

II. It is unnecessary to dwell upon the importance of 
the roads as a part of the organization of a Eoman 
province, but we may observe that they are connected with 
the preceding subject. Ijecause they may in some cases be 
traced by inscribed milestones. (1) For example, w^e do 

' Swinburne's Travels in the Two antiche." The inscription is placed over 

SiciKes, vol. ii, p. 499, " That city (Gaeta) the door, half way between it and the 

appears full in front upon a peninsula ; cornice. 

and above it stands the tomb of Muuatius The coins of Munatius Plancus present 

Plancus, which is a conspicuous object various points of interest. Some of them 

from every side." Cf. Ibid p. 502. have for their device the pj-«e/ej-(CH?w?ft (a 

- Gruter's account will be rendered vessel used in sacrifices), and therefore 

more intelligible by studying Montfaucon, illustrate the title Epulo, mentioned 

Op. citat., Tome v, premiere Partie (vol. above. The legend PR.VRB. (praefectus 

9), chap, xi, i)p, 127-131, Pis. CVII- urbis) refers to the appointment of 

CXVIII. 1. Mausolces de CaeciKa Plancus as Praefect of Rome made by 

Metella, 2. de Munatius Plancus, 3. Julius Cajsar, when he left the city to 

des Plautiens, 4. Autres Mausolees. fight against the Pompeians in Spain. 

The engravings consist chiefly of eleva- The winged thunderbolt corresponds with 

tions and plans by Bartoli. his proconsulate in Asia under Mark 

^ There is a good coloured Plate of Antony ; according to Borghesi it is the 

Caecilia Metella'ssepulchreinRheinhard's mint mark of Seleucia in Pieria, on the 

AlbumdesClassischenAlterthums,No. 28, Mediterranean coast west of Antioch. 

described in the text, p. 20. A bas-relief Cohen, Medailles Consulau-es, s.v. 

over the inscription on this monument Munatia, p. 221 sq. Eclaircissements ; 

represents a trophy, and commemorates PI. XXVIII. Bruckner, op. citat. p. 2675, 

the warlike achievements of Metella's ajjpends to his account of the inscription 

father, who subjugated Crete. at Gaeta a coin which is not mentioned 

Torre di Orlando is the modern name by Cohen ; on the obversi> is a laui-eated 

of the tomb of Plancus. The best en- head of Julius Ctesar with tlie legend 

graving of it which I have seen will be DIVVS IVLIVS ; the words on the 

f.jund in Luigi Rossini, Viaggio Pittoresco reverse are L. M," A T I-P I, A N C V S. 

da RomaaNapoh, fol. 1839. He describes PRAEF.VRB. Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. 

it thus : ^' Coronato da una cornice dorica vol. v, p. 257, summarizes the eventful 

con trigliti, e nelle metope vi sono corazze, career of Plancus. 
elmi, scudi, ed altre aimi guerresche 


not find in the Antonine Itinerar}^ any notice of a route 
between Aventicuni and Sedunum (Avenclies and Sion) ; 
but that such a line of comnninication existed in ancient 
times, seems to be proved by two stones of this kind, one 
at Sion, the other" at Amsoldingen about three miles west 
of the lake of Thun.' They cannot be called milliaries, 
because the distance is marked not in thousands of paces 
(millia passuum), but in leiigae, a Gallic measurement, 
which need not cause surprise if we take into account that 
the road began in Gaul. The leuga was 1,500 paces, and 
considerably less than the English mile and a half; it 
must therefore not be confounded with the modern league, 
a mistake into which Mr. Wright appears to have fallen."'' 
According to Muratori, quoted by Forcellini, the word 
occurs in an inscription of Antoninus Pius for the first 
time. The former of these lajrides leugarii contains the 
words AVEN LEVG XVII, and the latter avent levg vii, 
but the figures do not correspond with the distance 
from Aventicum, and have not been satisfactorily ex- 
})lained hitherto. They both belong to the reign of Gallus 
Trebonianus and Volusianus, i.e. a.d. 251 — 254. 

The Eoman Antiquities of Switzerland present many 
analogies with those of our own country ; we also can 
show some milliaria, the best preserved being at Leicester 
(Eatic) ; an imperfect copy is given by Mr. Wright in his 
" Celt, Eoman, and Saxon," but the deficiencies ma}' be 
supplied from Hiibner.^ Lancaster is a station rich in 

' Nos. 309, 310. This road was pr<3- " at the distance of seven leagues from 
bably connected with the ancient way Soissons," and adds " that in ancient 
over the SimiJlon, also known from an Gaul, as in modern France, they reckoned 
inscription on a rock near Vogogna in the by leagues." These expressions may mis- 
Val d'Ossola, of tlie year A.D. 196, Momm- lead the reader. Licue is of course de- 
sen, Inscc. Confoed. Helv. Lat. p. 61. rived from lewja, but the meaning is 
But see a better cojiy in the Zurich different. 

Mittheilungen, Band XV, Heft 5, p. 214, ^ Wright ib. The words IsER AEP 

XXI, Meilensteine, O.scella Sedunum, (grandson of Nerva) are omitted, and 

No. 47. PONT, which is unintelligible, is written 

The Antonine Itinerary mentions -r 

Aventicum under the heading, A f«r POT ; in the original we find HIB 

Mediolano per Alpes Pcuninius Mogontia- POT IV (liol.ling the tribunician power 

cum (from Milan to Mayence, over the f^i' the fourth time), which fixes the date 

Great St. Bernard) ; it is the station be- -^-D- 120-121. llubner, In.scc. Brit. Lat, 

tween Minnodunmn (Moudon) and No. 1169, describes the stone, stiites the 

Petinesca (Bid ?), and is called Aventi- circumstances of its discjvery, copies the 

cuium Helvetiorum ; edit. Wesseling, p. inscription carefully (showing the liga- 

3."i2 ; ed. Parthey and Binder, ]>. 163. tm-es), and gives copious references. 

- The Celt, the Roman and the Saxon, Compare the account of a Roman mile- 

2nd ed. p. 185 .'(7. Mr. Wright translates stone found in Carnarvonshire, Pro- 

SVESS LEVG VII on a milestone, dis- cecdiugs of tiie Society of Antiquaries of 
covered near the town of Vic-sur-Aisr.e, 



monuments of this kind, dedicated to the Emperors 
Hadrian, Philip, and Decius ; they have l^een enj^raved 
and described by Mr. Thompson Watkin in his vahiable 
work entitled Eoman Lancashire.^ 

2. There was a road from Sunniius Poeninus (Great St. 
Bernard),-' through Octodurum (Martigny), Tarnaiie (St. 
Maurice), Penneloci (Villeneuve), and Viviscus (Vevey) to 
Lousonna, also called Lacus Lausonius (Lausanne). The 
milestones on the route bear the names of Claudius I, 
Diocletian and Maximian, Licinius and Constantine the 
Great (colleagues) ; in round numbers the interval 
between the first and last includes a period of three 
hundred years, a.d. 47 — 337. From the letters avgg and 
CAESS we learn that the Caesars were associated with the 
Auo-usti in the government ; and in dd nn, the abbrevi- 
ation for Domini Nostri, as well as in the pompous epithets, 
iNViCTVS and nobilissimvs, we see the servility of a degen- 
erate race.' 

Londou, Second Series, vol. ix, No. 3, p. 
263, March 8, 1883. This report iden- 
tifies Caerhun with Canovium by means 
of the same kind of evidence as that 
wliioh proves Ratae to have been on tlie 
site of Leicester. See also Mr. ThominDn 
Watkin on Roman Inscriptions dis- 
covered in Britain in 1883, Archceol. 
Journ., vol. xli. p. 173 sq. 

' Pp. 181-183. Mr. Thompson Watkin 
translates IMP.C. M. IVLIO PHILIPPO, 
by the Emperor Ctesir Marcus Julius 
Philippus. This version would require 
the prejiosition a or ab to express the 
person Oi/ whom. I think IMP may 
stand for Imperatore, in which case the 
construction would be the ablative abso- 
lute — Philip Vjeing Emperor, or when 
Philip was Emperor. If we explain 
IMP=Imperatori (Dative), it would 
mean In honour of the Emperor. For 
the milestone formerly at Ribchester 
(Bremetonacum) v. ibid. pp. 140-142. 

^ We find a similar name in the ancient 
geography of the Pyrenees ; my paper on 
the South-West of France, in the Arclueol. 
Journ., vol. xxxvi, p. 2, where the road 
from Asturica (Astorga) to Burdigala 
(Bordeaux) is traced. " It crossed the 
frontier at Summus Pyrenaeus (Ilonce- 
veaux), and was carried through luuis 
Pyrenaeus (St. Jean Pied de Port),&c. 

•* I have heard that one of our Uni- 
versities addressed the Prince of Wales 
i\s Dominus futurus, meaning our future 

Sovereign. The word was incorrectly 
applied, because it signifies a master of 
slaves or a despot, not a constitutional 
monarch ; Cicero, De Re Publica II, 26, 
Hie eat enim dominus populi, quern Graeci 
tyrannum vocant. Tacitus calls the 
Emperor Princeps ; Ann. I, 1, Qui 
(Augustus) cuncta discordiis civilibus 
fessa nomine Priiicijns sub imperinm 
.accepit. Mr. Horton, History of the 
Romans, p. 319, note 4, refers by way of 
illustration to the title of First Citizen, 
which Napoleon assumed. 
■ With INVICTVS on the milestone, we 
may compare the following legends on 
the coins of Constantius II ; VICTOR 
SEMPER AVG, Cohen Med. Imp. vol. vi, 
p. 276, No. 8 ; T R I V M F A T O R 
BARBARR, ib. p. 301, No. 156. See also 
Arneth, Monumente des K.K. Miinz-und 
Autiken-Cabinetes in Wien. The same 
title was taken by Valeus, in whose reign 
the Goths crossed the Danube and occu- 
pied Thrace. I suspect that tlie money 
which bore these vain-glorious appella- 
tions was often employed as tribute to 
buy off the barbarians. 

In No. 311 FA^forum Augusti. No. 
312 is given very imperfectly by Orelli 
(223). On No. 319 Mommsen remarks 
that he has not foand the Dative case oi 
the Emperor's name in inscriptions 
before Ti-ajan. Op. citat. pp. 65-68. 


The importance of such records can hardly be exagger- 
ated, and it has been truly remarked that, if all the 
ancient histories of Home had perished, the loss might be 
to a great extent repaired by inscriptions on bronze or 
stone and legends on coins. In the case of Trajan a 
misfortune of this kind has happened ; scarcely any written 
account is extant, but the events of his glorious reign are 
known to us from the Epigraphy which still remains. On 
the other hand, where the old authors have come down to 
us, the monuments confirm and elucidate their statements ; 
though silent, they seem to speak to us like living witnesses, 
and prove that we have not believed " cunnino-ly devised 

3. Mommsen mentions a road on the south side of the 
lake of Geneva, sometimes called the left bank, I presume 
with reference to the river Elione which flows through it. 
Only two milestones have been found, one at Hermance, 
marked vii, the other at Messeri marked iv ; and it should 
be observed that the column further from Geneva bears 
the lower figure. This circumstance causes a doubt as to 
the existence of the road; the Swiss antiquaries conjecture 
that the stones were originally placed between Geneva and 
Nyon, and removed to be used as building materials — a 
supposition which is corrol)orated by the discovery of 
some milliaria collected near the latter place, on the shore 
of the lake, apparently with the view of transporting them 
by water-carriage to their respective destinations.* We 
must not too hastily jump to the conclusion that a Roman 
road passed through a place, because we find a milestone 
in it. Moreover, at the present time there is much less 
traffic on the Savoy than on the Swiss shore of the lake ; 
and the same was probably the case in antiquity, so that 

1 Zurich Mittheil Band XV, Heft 5, ii, 343, who substituted ARAB ADIAB— 

p. 215 sq. E(|ue8tii (rensivam. Nyon. Nos. words which occur in full (ARABICU.S, 

.'J2-o4. An inscrii)tion, neai-lj' identical ADIABENICUS) on many monunieuts 

with No. [')-2. was fo\ind at St. Panlien, of Septiinius Severus, and, on liis ti-iinu- 

llaute-Loire : Orelli Inscc. Lat. vol. iii. phal arch in the Roman .Forum, ci -rri's- 

Supplementby Henzen, p. 29, No. 5220. ]iond with the bas-reliefs ropresentiuK 

Guichenon, Histoire de la niaison de his (Ji-iental canipai^'us. Cf. (Iiuter, vol. 

Savoie, T>)nie. i, p. 42. rcails in the second i, p. 1, No. 1, Inscriptions on the front of 

line of No. 54 S.\BAUI.\, supposing it to the Pantheon, Rome, Uteris liijiUilibiis. 

bean an(;ii'nt name of Savoy, iiis mistake Sabaudia, Sabogia and Saboia are the 

wa.s corrected by Spon, the gieatcst of Latin names for Savoy : Graesse, Oibis 

French epigraphists, Histoire de CJenove, i.atinus. 


there would be little need for the route which Mommsen 
has imagined.^ 

4. On the other hand, there is no doubt about the line 
of communi(;ation ])etween Gc^neva and Lousonna, through 
Colonia Julia Equestrium, also called Noviodununi (Nyon).'^ 
We have here four examples of the phrase vias et pontes 
VETVSTATE COLLABS RESTrrv occurring in the inscriptions 
with slight variations, the earliest belonging to the reign of 
Caracalla, a.d. 213.^ This is an interesting proof of the 
pains taken by the Eomans to keep their highways in good 
repair ; as a military nation they were well aware that 
the security of the empire depended on the facility with 
which they could march their legions from one province 
to another, and the roads in Switzerland would require 
special attention on account of their proximity to the 
Khenish frontier. 

The way from Lousonna to Vindonissa (Windisch) was 
carried through Aventicum; the milestones upon it exhibit 
the names of Trajan (a.d. 99), Septimius Severus, Caracalla, 
Tacitus and Galerius (a.d. 292-304). It would be in- 
structive to examine the lettering of these monuments. 
We should probably find that the earliest characters, 
being of a good period, are carefully incised, and that the 

1 The railway on the south side of the VIAM RESTITVIT. Both the synonyms, 

Lake of Geneva extended only as far as reficio and restituo, occur in our Romano- 

Evian-les-Bains, which is nearly opposite British inscriptions ; Lapidarium Septen- 

Ouchy, in the autumn of 1883, when I trionale, Index xi, Forms of expression, 

visited Switzerland. This place is marked Nos. 94, 646, 743, and 22, 62, 121. REF, 

as a station for steamers in the Swiss REFE, REFEC in England are analo- 

Indicateur. gous to REST, RESTIT, RESTITV in 

- Besides the town in Switzerland, Switzerland, Mommsen, Op. cit. pp. 69, 

three places in Gaul, one in Pannonia 70 ; cf. Bruce, Roman Wall, Restoration 

Superior, and one in Moesia Inferior, bore of Decayed Temple, p. 160. 
this name, so that there is danger of con- From No. 322 we may supply the lacuna 

fusion. See Smith's Dictionary of Classical in an inscription on the pediment of the 

Geography s.v., but the article is incom- Temple of Minerva at Bath ; VETVS 

plete. The last-mentioned town is noticed (tate coUapsam aedem Minervae sua pec) 

by Mr. Bunbury in his Histoiy of Ancient VNIA REFICI ET REPINGI CVR 

Geography, vol. ii, p. 696, note 6 ; it was (arunt), which is the reading adopted by 

within a few miles of the mouth of the Lysous : Prebendary Scarth, Aquae SolLs 

Danube, and probably near Tultcha. pp. 19-21 : Hiibner, Inscc. Brit. Lat. No. 

Like many other railways, that between 39, p. 25 ; and IncUces, Res Ejiigraphica, 

Geneva and Lausanne follows the Roman ii, Tituli sacri, s.v. restituit, p. 340, cf. 

road closely, as may be seen by comparing Nos. 542, 563. 

an ancient with a modern map of In No. 329, Levade thought he had 

Switzerland. discovered the name of Cornelia Salonina, 

^ No. 322. My paper on the South- wife of the emperor GalHenus, who 

West of France, Archaeol. Journal, reigned a.d. 253-268 ; but this seems to 

xxxvi, 9 ; Inscription on the natural rock be a mistake, for as Mommsen truly re- 

by the wayside, at Pene d'Escot in the marks, non facile imperatorum uxores in 

Pyi-enees, near Oloron, II VIR BIS HANG cippis mihariis nominantur. 




deterioration increases as we proceed down the series, 
corresponding with the inferior style observable in the 
legends of the later medals. I beg to suggest this enquiry 
to learned travellers. 

There were other Eoman roads at least equal in im- 
portance to those already mentioned, but on which no 
milliaria have Ijeen discovered, viz. — (1) from Augusta 
Eauricorum to Argentoratum (Strasburg), to Salodurum 
(Solothurn), and to Brigantia (Bregenz) on lake Constance, 
passing through Vindonissa (Windisch), Aqute (Baden), and 
Ad Fines (Pfyn) ; (2) from Mediolanum and Comum to 
Curia (Coire) and Brigantia ; (3) on the side of Gaul, from 
Geneva to Equestrium, Lousonna, Urba (Orbe), Ariorica 
(probably Pontarlier) and Vesontio (BesanQon) ; this road 
crossed the Jura, leaving Switzerland at some point south 
west of the lake of Neuchatel, 

For this subject the Antonine Itinerary^ and the Table 
of Peutinger should be consulted, as they are our only 
ancient authorities besides inscriptions. In segments ii 
and III of the map, Helvetian towns, roads and distances 
are marked, but unfortunately they do not correspond 
with the road-book. The reader who is not accustomed 
to the Table will scarcely recognize the country at first 
sight, because the space from west to east is so greatly 

III. As in Britain, so in Switzerland, the mosaics rank 
among the most interesting relics of antiquity. Several 

^ Itiueravium Antonini edit. Wesseling, the western corner of the South of 

p. 237, Brigantia ; p. 238, Ad Fines, France also — a deficiency wliich was 

Vindonissa {cf. p. 251) ; p. 347, Genava ; jtointed out to me by the late Mons. Paul 

p. 348, Equestribus, Lacu Lausonio, Urba ; Raymond, Archiviste des Basses Pyrdndes. 

pj). 3ol-3o3, Sunimo Pennino, Octoduro, Burdigala (Bordeaux) and Ti)losa(Tou- 

Tarnaias, Pennelocos, Vibisco, Bromago, louse) are included ; but the part con- 

&c. taining Lapurduni (Bayonne) has perished. 

■■^ We find in Segment II both Some have doubted whether Bayonne 

Avenches and Augst — Auenticum Hele- corresponds to Lapurdum ; but, besides 

tiornm and Augusta Rvracum {sic). other evidence, an argument in favour of 

Conrad Mannert prefixes to his edition an this opinion may be derived fi-oin the 

Introduction, which is a copious disserta- Bascpie name Pays de Labourd, which is 

tion on the date, history and various enclosed within the rivers Adour luid 

details of the Tabula : cf. Dr. Bryan Bidassoa : Basque Legends collected 

Walker, Camb. Antiq. Soc. Communica- chiefly in the Labourd by the Rev. Went- 

tions, vol. V, pp. '^37-264. Mr. Bunbury worth Webster, Loud., 1877, p. 227. 

gives a more concise account, but e.xplains Being deprived of aid from the maj) 

its leading features sufficiently ; Op. towanls discovering ancient localities, we 

citat. vol. ii, p. 697 siy., chap, xxxi, sec. 15. can only fall back on the Itinerary and 

He remarks in a note that the whole of ISTotitia (Army-List) as our chief authori- 

Spain is wanting ; this is the case with tics. 


have l)een discovered at Aventicum ; some have dis- 
appeared, and others are still to be seen in the local 
museum. The Baron de Bonstetten gives a meagre account 
of six tessellated pavements at this place in his Carte 
Archeologique du Canton de Vaud.' Professor Bursian 
descri!)es more fully a larger number of them, with good 
illustrations, in the Mittheilungen der Antif|uarischen 
Gesellschaft in Ziiricli, Band xvi, AbtheiUing i. Heft 5. 

One of these mosaics. No. 23, exhil)it.s a subject well 
known to Art students, but there is a peculiarity in the 
treatment which deserves attention. Orpheus, with the 
plectrum in his right hand, and the lyre in his left, 
occupies the central medallion ; he is seated on a bench ; 
a lion, peacock and squirrel are grouped around him ; a 
small bird, probably a raven, is perched on the top of the 
lyre. The remaining figures fill up a quadrangular space, 
being arranged in s(juares and semicircles alternately. 
There is some difficulty in identifying them, which arises 
partly from the original having been destroyed ; but they 
appear to be a panther repeated twice (possibly one may 
be a lynx), hart and hind, horse and mare, goat and bear. 
The border consists of a foliated pattern, whose graceful 
curves contrast well with the straight lines enclosing the 
design. In the middle of each of the four sides is a large 
vase, like the cantharus sacred to Bacchus.- Orpheus 
usualh" wears the Phrygian bonnet ; so he appears in 
the mosaics at Cirencester (Corinium), at Palermo, and 
in Algeria f Ijut here he is bare-headed, as Polygnotus, 

' p. 12. Paves de Mosai'qnes : two are and its Remains, pp. 499-501. Museo 

inscribed ; one represents different Borbonico, vol. xi, Tav. XI, pp. 7-9, 

animals, with the words POMPEIANO Incisione in lastra di argento. 

ET AVITO CONSVLIBVS KAL. AVG.: ■' Millin, Galerie Mythologique, PL 

the other has a man's head in the centre, CVII, No. 423, who follows Laborde, 

and dolphins at the four corners, with the Voyage pittoresque de la Suisse, No. 197. 

proprietor's name, PROSTHASIVS Bnckman and Newmarch, Corinium, p. 

FECIT : De Schmidt, Pecneil d'Antiquites 32, " Orpheus habited in a Phrj'gian cap," 

de la Suisse, tome i, Avenches et Culm, PI. VII, coloured. My Paper on Anti- 

p. 15, xq. quities in the Museum at Palermo, Arch- 

- Silenus, the companion of Dionysus, aeol. Journal, xxxviii, 151-153, and 

also has the cantharus. Virgil says that notes, where the subject is treated at 

the handle was worn by the drunkard's length : cf. Heydemann in Archaologische 

frequent use, Eclogue VI, v. 17, Et gravis Zeitung, Antiken in Palermo, 1S69 ; a 

attrita j)endebat cantharus ansa. Seethe good photograjili of this mosaic lias been 

note in Professor Yonge's edition. Comp. published. Bulletin de la Socictc 

C. O. Miiller, Denkmider der Alten Nationaledes Antiquairos de France, 1883, 

Kunst, Pt. II, pp. 42-45, Taf. XLI, XLII, pp. 319-322, engraving at |>. 320, Memoir 

Nos. 494-517, esp. Nos. 500, 503, 506, by M. Heron De Villefosse on the nM).=aic 

517 ; Handbuch der Archiiologie, sec. at Chcrchell : he mentions many others, 

386 ; English translation, Ancient Art and among them one found at Blanzy, 


according to the description of Pausanias, ])ainted liim 
on the wall of a Delphic colonnade.^ This figure is 
one of those which Christian art borrowed from pagan- 
ism. The disciples of the new religion saw in 
Orpheus a symbol of the Faith subduing and refining 
barbarous iiatures ; but I think they also adopted it for 
another reason, — because the Thracian bard in a pastoral 
scene, charming the birds and beasts who listened to his 
music, was not unlike the Good Shepherd amidst the 
flock, an aspect of our Lord's character which the early 
church seems to have preferred to every other. '^ It may 
also be observed that Orpheus was represented as a young 
man, and that in the catacombs the figure of Christ is 
youthful, a type derived from classical antiquity. 

We have in the subject before us a good example of the 
close connexion between art and literature. The chapters 

which I i-emember to have seen in the 
Museum at Laon. Dr. Api^ell reminded 
me that there is a very fine example at 
Rottweil in Wiirtemberg, on the route 
from Stuttgart to Schaffhausen : Ber- 
lepsch, Schweiz, ed. 1882, p. 17, Schon zu 
Romerzeiten war Rottweil eine bedeut. 
Kolonie (Fundestelle interessanter Anti- 
quitiiten, darunter ein Mcsaik-Boden, 
Orpheus darstellend). 

^ To the left of a person entering the 
Lesche at Delphi there was a series of 
paintings upon the wall representing the 
infernal world, and Orpheus was a con- 
spicuous figure : Pausanias, x, 30, 6 ed. 
Schubart and Walz, 'Ettj \6<pov rivhs 
'Opcpevs KadeC6fji,(vos, ecpdirrfTaL Se Kal tj? 
aptarepa KiOdpas, rij Se erepa x*'P^ ireas 
KAwvf s fliriv uvipaiiei {locu^i tiirhatiiH) . . . 
'EWr]viKhv Sf T^ crxvi^d fo'Ti to! 'Op;pf7, 
Kol ovT( 71 «(r07)s ovTi inidrifj.d iariy iirl rrj 
Ke(pa\fj QpaKMov- On the other hand 
Philostratus Junior describes Orpheus as 
weariuga head-dress, edit. Kayser, ''EiKdvis, 
p. 10, 'Oprpehs dprixvovv fj.(v iK^dWwv 
XovKov iiTi^pfovTa Tr\ Trapeta, Tidpav 5e 
Xpv'J'a.vyri eVl Ki(pa\ris alwpwv 

" Ariiiglii, lloma Subterranea, vol. i, p. 
547 : Garrucci, Storia dell' Arte Chris- 
tiana, vol. ii, Tav. 4, Parve utile il dipin- 
gere I'imaginc di Orfeo, quasi ponendolo 
a confronto col vero restauratore e rigen- 
eratore dell' umana famiglia ... In 
questa pittura le tiere selvagge sono 
transformate in agnelli mansneti. Appell, 
Monuments of Early Christian Art, pp. 
46-48, with woodcut. 

The Good Shepherd, as we see Him in 
Christian Art, carrying the lost sheep on 

his shoulders, is a tj'pe said to be derived 
from the Hermes Kriophorus of Calamis at 
Tanagi-a, cf. omn. Pausan, ix, 22, 1 ; and 
coin of Tanagra in the British Museum, 
Reverse, Hermes Kriophoi-os with the 
legend TANAFPAinN ; Catalogue of Greek 
Coins, Central Greece, p. 64, PI. X, No. 
12 (photograph) : Aringhi, Roma Sub- 
terranea, vol. i, p. 531 : C. 0. Mliller, 
Deukmaler, Pt. ii, Taf. xxix, No. 324, 
Hermes in alterthiimlicher Gestalt einen 
Widder auf den Schulteru tragend ; cf. 
Pt. i, Taf. xlv, No. 210'', vase-painting of 
the gods assembled at the nuptials of 
Peleus and Thetis ; and ib. Taf. Ixxiv, No. 
431, from Aringhi ii, 101, Good Shepherd 
suiTOunded by Scriptural subjects in 
compartments : Westcott, The Epistles 
of St. John, Appendix III, The Relation 
of Christianity to Art, p. 335, and notes. 
This Hermes is Kpw(p6pos, carrying the 
ram ^see examples in the collection of 
casts formed by Mr. Perry at the South 
Kensington Museum) ; but sometimes he 
is Kpi6(popos. carried by the ram, or riding 
on it, Denkm. Pt. II, No. 323, from an 
engraved gem. For the Good Shepherd 
in an unusual attitude, v. Archa;ologia, 
vol. xlviii, p. 49, Fig. 18. 

The lamb in the bosom is a Semitic 
idea, Isaiah xl. 11 ; but modern artists 
Sometimes introduce confusion, mingling 
the Jewish with the early Christian treat- 
ment of the subject. 

Like the Boiuis Pastor, anotiier Chris- 
tian symbol, the Chi-Uho (XP), may be 
traced back to a Pagan origin ; it a])- 
pears on the coins of Ptolemy III, Eucr- 
getes I : Archicologia, voL xlviii, p. 242 


on Orpheus in Philostratus Junioi" and Callistratus would 
serve for descriptions of the mosaics mentioned above.* 

In No. 24 we see Bellerophon in a srpiare compai'tment 
mounted on Pegasus and liolding a lance ; his attitude, 
like that of St. George fighting with tlie dragon on our 
own coinage, suggests the idea that he is attacking 
Chimasra, but the lance is a more suitable weapon than 
the short sword with which Pistrucci has armed the saint. - 
The square is surrounded by four circular medallions, 
each containing a youth who blows a straight trumpet 
(tuba), instead of a horn formed in spiral twists (buccina), 
which is more usual when the winds are personified.^ 
All the figures have a mantle (chlamys) for their garment ; 
one of them also wears a broad-brimmed hat, a protection 
against heat and rain which seems to indicate the south 
wind. All four are beardless ; in this respect the mosaic 
now under consideration differs not only from another at 
Avenches, but also from the well-known reliefs on the 
Horologium of Andronicus Cyrrhestes at Athens.* 
Lozenges, each enclosing a single animal, alternate with 
the medallions ; these rectangles are ornamented, like the 
central square, with a kind of chess-board pattern on the 
borders. The remaining space is filled up with dolphins 
or fish in semicircles, and thunderljolts in pointed ovals. 
Outside this composition, at the top and bottom, hunting- 
scenes are represented, and a forest is conventionally 
denoted by a few trees, one of which is the Alpine fir. 

sq. Memoir by Mr. Alfred Tylor on New was derived from the Parthenon frieze 

Points in the History of Roman Britain, and rejiroduced " one of tlie cavahy in 

as iUustrated by Discoveries at Warwick the Panathen;ean (sic) procession." St. 

Square, City of London. Comp. Catal. George's sword is so short that he might 

of Greek coins in Brit. Mu.s., The Ptol- fall off his horse in attempting to pierce 

emies, Kings of Egypt, pp. 48, 51, 53, the monster. 

55, &c. ^ So Shakspeare, Midsummer Night's 

^ Philostratus, loc. citat. ; CaUistrati Dream, Act ii, sc. 2, 

Descrif)tiones {'^K<ppd<Teis) edit. Kayser, p. " The winds piping to us in vain ": 

30, 'E(s T^ Toil 'Opcpeais &ya\/xa. Milton, II Penseroso, 

-The same subject "treated in the " Wiile rocking winds are ?5i/)u?^ loud." 

highest style of art " occurs in a mosaic ** In this monument the costume of 

found at Autun; Roach Smith, Collec- each figure is appropriate to the natiire 

tanea A.ntiqua, V. 225. of the wind that it represents : Rhein- 

Pegasus is a very frequent device on hard. Album des Classischf^n Alterthums, 

the coins of Corinth ; Catalogue of Hun- PI. VII, p. 5 text. Lips uud Zephyi-(js 

ter's Collection, Tab. 20 ; Leake gives an halien nackte Beine, die iibrigen sind mit 

example of Bellerophon mounted on Halbstiefeln bekleidet ; cf. Hirt, Bilder- 

Pegasus, Numismata Hellenica, Euro- bucli fiir Mythologie, Die Diimonen der 

pean Greece, p. 38. Luft. S. 143-146, Taf. xvii ; and Stuart, 

Mr. Saintliill, Olla Podrida, I, 49 s(f, Antiquities of Athens, vol. i, chap. 3, PI. 

criticizes Pistrucci's design ; he says it XXI, 


Here also a symmetrical arranuement prevails, a large 
vase being placed in tlie centre, and a drinking-cup at 
each extremity. This mosaic has been destroyed. 

No. 25 has an unusual l:)order made to imitate regular 
masonry ; in the lower part there is a frieze consisting of 
Ionic volutes and palmetti. The general design is a 
maeander, in which the ordinary cable pattern {torsade) 
alternates with flowers. Upon the field five small squares 
are placed in a quincunx, like the marks for this number 
on a die ; the central one contains the head of the Sun, 
and each of the others had an animal in it. It should l)e 
noticed that there is a double row of rays around the face ; 
the inne'r short and straight, the outer long and resembling 
leaves with the point bent upwards.^ The ancient artists 
portrayed the Sun-god in two ways ; sometimes with a 
radiated head, as in the Palermitan mosaic, sometimes, as 
on the earlier coins of Rhodes, with flowing locks disposed 
so as to resemble his beams.'^ 

No. 2G is a swan standiup- on the edit'e of a laru'e two- 
handled vase, and drinking water therein. This subject 
is enclosed in broad concentric bands, the interior being a 
cable, and the exterior like crested waves. The design 
forcibly reminds us of the famous mosaic in the Capitol, 
called the doves of Sosus, from Hadrian's villa at Tivoli, 
where four l)irds are sitting on a C(Uitliariis. It has been 
so often reproduced in the round that we are in danger of 
forgetting the flat surface of the original.^ Between the 
inscribed circle and the square, the spaces at the four 

' A very fine example of this duuble Greek Coins, Thessaly to ^Etolia, )>. 110, 

radiation is supplied by a relief from PL XX, Nos. 2 and 5 (photogi-aphs). 
Hissarlik (4^11 century, B.C.), representing - Leake, Numism. Hellen., Insular 

Helios in a (juadriga ; ca.sts of it may be Greece, Khodes, Aegaean Sea, p. -jf), 

seen in the British Mu.seum, at South Beardle-ss head, adv. towards r, with hair 

Kensington, and in the Museum of Chus- divided into locks, and radiating (Apollo 

sical Archa'ology at Cambridge. Sohlie- as the Sun) ; Hunter's Catalogue, Tab. 

mann, Troy and its Remains, 1(5?.^), pp. -15. This arrangement appears on the 

;)2-34, PI. III. facing p. 32, Block of Tri- earlier coins, which are remarkably fine, 

glyphs, with Metope of the Sun-Cod. and was continued down to the siege of 

Frcjm the temple of Apollo in the Ruins the city by Demetrius Poliorcetes, B.C. 

of Grecian Ilium: "one of the most 30"). A stater of Phili]) II, struck at 

glorious masterpieces that have been liliodes, has a minute head of the Sun 

preserved from the time when (irecian radiated, as its mint mark : Midler, 

art was in its zenith." Schlieniaim, Ilios, Xumisniatique d'Alexandre, p. 324. 
1880, cliaj). xi. The seventh city, the » Mviller, Denkmider, Pt. I, Taf. Iv., 

Grecian Ilium, or Novum Ilium, No. 1470, No. 274; Murray's Handbook for Rome, 

l)p. G22-f)2.^>. Cf. onni. gold oboliis of Sect. I, sec. 26!^ Mus. of the Cajiitol, 

Alexander ], King of ]<>))inis, l)r(ither of Hall of the |)(jves. No. 101, where Pliny's 

(Jlyiupi:is, and therefore uncle of Alex- dt'scrii)tion is ipioted, Hi.^t. Nat. xxxvi, 

ander the Great : Brit. Mus. Catal. of 25, s. (50, sec. 184, ed. Sillig. 


corners, corresponding to spandrils in architecture, are 
filled up with birds and fishes. One cannot speak with 
certainty where there is so much conventional treatment, 
but if I may offer a conjecture, these creatures were 
probably meant for inhabitants of the lakes in whose 
neighbourhood the mosaic was discovered. 

No. 27 is a floral pattern which does not call for any 
special remark, but in two of the angles we see an inter- 
laced ornament, like the liunic knot which occurs in Irish 
and Scandinavian art.' This pavement was found in 
1863 at Conches Dessous, adjoining the high road from 
i3erne to Lausanne which passes through Avenches ; two- 
thirds of it are preserved in the Museum there. 

No. 28 contains a winged boy, seated and playing a 
lyre with his hands, not using the plectrum like Orpheus. 
A vase is placed on the table before him. Each of the 
four corners is ornamented with a medallion that re- 
minds us of kaleidoscopic figures. The principal features 
in the border are stars and cubes marked with the quin- 
cunx, seen in perspective. It has been conjectured that 
the central figure is an emblem of a musical contest 
(a-ywv), and that the vase represents the prize. This 
mosaic has disappeared. 

No. 29 was discovered, in the year 1830, at Cormerod, 
one league south-east of Avenches. As the former place 
is in the Canton Freiburg, the mosaic has been removed 
to the capital, and deposited in the museum there.- The 
subject is the Cretan labyrinth said to have been con- 

^ Comp. Buckman ami Newmarch, ordnede og forklarede af J. J. A. Worsaae, 

Oorimum, PI. VI, p. 36, " Endlc-js Jernalderen II, pp. 98-100, 114. 

knot" of a more complicated pattern; '^ Catalogue du Musee Cantonal de 

PI. VII, p. 32, another more like those Fribourg, p. 72, No *44. 

at Avenches ; Roach Smith, lUustration.s Avenches itself is in tlie Canton do 

of Ilomati London, PI. IX, p. 55. Mr. Vaiid, but the town with its adjacent 

W. T. Watkin, Roman Lancashire, p. 163, territory is almost surrounded by the 

gives a gool example of interlaced orna- Canton Fribourg, as in England we 

meut. It is a very beautiful bronze boss, sometimes have jmrt of a county separate 

found at Bremetonacum (Ribchester), from the rest ; see Bonstetten, Carte 

and now preserved in the Mayer Museum, Arclidologiqiie, Canton de Vaud, or 

Liverpool. See also my Paper on Scan- Keller's Reisekarte der Schweiz, where 

dinavian Antiquities, Archaeol. Journal, the boundaries are shown by different 

vol. xxxiv, p. 260 sq., with the foot- colours. 

notes ; Plates accompanying J. C. C. The German name for Avenclies is 

Dahl'sDenkmalereinersehrausgebildeten Wiflisburg ; it is said to lie derived from 

Holzbaukunst aus den friihesten Jahr- Count Wivilo, who built the feudal castle 

hunderten in den innern Landschaften in the seventh ceuLury ; Murray's Hand- 

Norwegens ; and Nordiske Oldsager i book for Switzerland, Route 43. 
Det Kougelige Museum i KjiJbenhavn, 


structed by Daedalus, at the order of Minos, for the 
residence of the Minotaur. It is surrounded by a circular 
embattled wall, with four towers at equal distances from 
each other. One of them has an arched entrance into the 
maze. The whole space is divided into eight wedge-shaped 
compartments, like the cunei of a Roman theatre, contain- 
ing severally nine concentric paths, and communicating b}'' 
the lines that radiate between them. In the centre we 
see Theseus conquering the Minotaur ; with his right 
hand he brandishes a club, from his left arm a chlamys 
in two folds hangs down. His adversary, a man with a 
bull's head, is falling on his knees ; he partly supports 
himself on his left arm, and raises his right in a suppliant 
attitude.^ Birds are perched on the battlements, one on 
each side of the towers, perhaps to indicate that the 
monster's carcass would be devoured by the fowls of the 
air.^ The border is ornamented with a chess board 
pattern ; five points are marked on the squares, as in the 
last example, but arranged differently, so as to form a 
Greek cross. 

There has been much discussion about the maze figured 
here ; some writers regard it as mythical, but others 
identify it with a cavern near Gortyna. Admiral Spratt, 
one of the best and most recent authorities, adopts the 
latter opinion, explaining his views at considerable length 
in chapter iv of his work on Crete. It may be objected 
that Herodotus, who describes the Egyptian labyrinth 
fully, is silent about the Cretan, that Pausanias positively 
says it was at Cnossus, and that it appears on the coins of 
this city alone. However, the argument from silence is 
generally weak, and in this case especially so, because the 
father of history does not profess to give a complete 
account of the island ; Pausanias does not assert that he 
had seen the labyrinth, and might be mistaken : lastly, it 

^ In a metope of the Theseum at described by Mr. Story - Maskelyne. 

Athens we see the same subject, but the "Theseus, having slain the Minotaur, rests 

posture of the figures is different. There on his ehib ; the dead monster Hes in a 

Theseus phices his left arm round the window of the Labj'rinth : " Catalogue, 

Minotaur's neck, and the latter presses )>. f>8, No. 3.31. 

the knee of Theseus with his foot. The - Comp. the words of Goliath, I Sam., 

group is in high relief, and forms i)art of xvii, 44, " And the Philistine said to 

a series representing the battles of the David, Come to me, and I will give thy 

Athenian lii^ro : Stuart's Antiquities of flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the 

Athens, vol iii, cha]). 1, PI. XIII, 7. beasts of the field," and the reply of 

The Marlboi-ougii (iems supply a modern David, ibid., v. 46. 
example, perhaps by the hand of Natter, 



might be figured on the coinage at Cnossus, at one time 
the chief city in Crete, not on account of its proximity, 
but because it was a national type recaUing to mind the 
great king Minos and the glories of his reign. ^ 

No. 30 is partially preserved. The central design 
consists of a head with wavy Icjcks, probably Neptune or 
Ocean, surrounded by the four wind-gods blowing l)lasts ; 
Eurus and Boreas are bearded, Notus and Zephyrus 
beardless. A similar variety occurs in the so-called 
Temple of the Winds at Athens, as may be seen by 
reference to the plates of Stuart's Antiquities."^ The 
remaining space was occupied by round and square com- 
partments containing many devices ; ^ amongst them are 
birds of different kinds, a pomegranate, a roll half open with 
strings and a stylus, also a labyrinth bearing a general 
resemblance to No. 29, but having only four wedge-shaped 
divisions, and a cornucopiee in the centre. 

No. 31 was fully exposed to view in the year 1751, and 

' Pashley positively denies that the 
caverns at Haghius Dhaka, the ten 
saints (Gortyna) are the same as the 
ancient hibyrinth, and says there is no 
sufficient reason for believing that it ever 
had a real existence. He has engraved 
several coins of Cnossus, showing the 
Labyrinth ; in one it is circular, in the 
others rectangular ; Travels in Crete, 
vol. i, chap, xii, pp. 202, 208 ; chap, xviii, 
pp. 295 sqq. Of. Hunter's Catalogue, 
Tab. 18, Figs. XI-XXIII. 

Beule, Les Monnaies d' Athenes, Les 
Bronzes de I'epoque Imperiale, p. 398, 
gives six figures of coins. " Thesee tuant 
le Minotaure , est encore la copie d'une 
OGUvre de I'Ecole attique. . . Les 
monnaies donnent des variantes tres- 
marquoes . . . Tantot Thesee saisit 
le Minotaure par les cornes et engage le 
combat ; tantot il le renverse d'un pre- 
mier coup de massue ; tantot il I'acheve, 
en le pressant du genou contre le sol." 
Note 2. Le sujet est frequent sur les vases. 
Hee Catalogue of Vases in British 
Museum, vol. ii, Mythological Index, s.v. 

Leake has a long note s.v. Cnossus, 
Numism. Hellen., Supplement, Islands, 
p. 1.56 aq. Basing his opinion on the 
tlescriptious of the excavation near 
Haghius Dheka given by Tournefort, 
Pocock and more recently by Cockerell, 
he concludes that it is the renowned 
Cretan labyrinth. 

Gori, Gemmae Antiquae Musei Floren- 
tini, vol. ii, p. 81, Tab. xxxv ; cf. Catullus, 
Carmen Ixiv, Epithalamium Pelei et 
Thetidos, v. 73 sqq. Tlie Minotaur here 
is represented as a centaur ; the labyrinth 
is oval, with a border of beading around it. 

Admiral Spratt, Travels and Researches 
in Crete, vol. ii, pp. 43-57 ; plan of the 
labyrinths and sketch of the entrance, p. 
49. The author's statements are specially 
interesting, because he explored "this 
subterranean quarry." 

The Archceol. Journ., vol. xv, pp. 
216-235, contains an important article by 
the Rev. Edward Trollops, Notices of 
Ancient and Mediaeval Labyrinths, with 
many illustrations. 

A mosaic similar to that described 
above was found at Bosseaz, but seems 
to have disappeared : Otto Jahn, Archiio- 
logische Beitriige, S. 271 ; Bonstetten, 
Carte Archeol. du Canton de Vaud, p. 
15, No. 3. Bosseaz is for the clas.sical 
archaeologist one of the most interesting 
places iu Switzerland ; its situation is 
accurately described by Bursian in his 
Monograph, Mosaikbild von Orbe, p. 1, 
grosstentheils mit Weinbergen bedeckten 
Anhohe, niJrdlich von dem waadtltind- 
ischen Stiidtchen Orbe, an der von da 
nacli Yverdon fiihrenden Strasse. 
■^ Loc. citat., V. supra note 45. 
■* The former are for the most part 
ornamented with kaleidoscopic patterns, 
like those in the cornei-s of No. 28. 


:i B 


is described at length by De Schmidt, Eecueil d'Antiquites 
de la Suisse, a work which is now to a great extent 
obsolete, but should be consulted for information about 
monuments which have disappeared since its publication.' 
This mosaic was equally remarkable on account of the 
beauty of its designs and their symmetrical disposition. 
The discovery of Ariadne by Bacchus is the chief subject 
here ; accordingly it occupies a prominent place in the 
central band between groups of compartments on the right 
and on the left. Ariadne is asleep and a Satyr unveils 
her charms ; Bacchus crowned with vine-leaves and 
holding a thyrsus is lost in wonder at the sight, another 
Satyr, in attendance on the god, shows astonishment by 
his uplifted hand.^ Immediately above there are. two 
dolphins with their heads turned towards an anchor which 
is placed between them. On either side of the band we 
see five octagonal medallions decorated with pictures of 
Bacchanalian revellers. Their nude forms and fl^'ing 
drapery recall the scenes portrayed in Pompeian wall- 
paintings. Nearly the whole of the right hand portion of 
this design had perished, but the left was better preserved. 
The central compartment contains two figures, while the 
others have only one. A Satyr crowned with vine-leaves 
carries off a Bacchante who puts her arm around his neck : 
to the right of this group a Satyr wearing a panther's skin 
strikes cymbals together held by strings ; to the left another 
Satyr, similarly clad, or rather unclad, holds a jiatera in 
one hand, and a long ribbon (tcenia) in the other. Above, 
a Bacchante carries a drinking-horn (rhyton) ; below, 
another Bacchante a tambourine with projections round 
the rim where we should expect rings.^ 

> For this mosaic see pp. 16-24 and Sir W. Gell, Pompeiaua, vol. i, PI. 

Planche.s I-XIII. The notes also deserve XLIII ; vol. ii, PI. XLIX. Xenophon in 

perusal, as they supply some curious the Banquet of Socrates insinuates that 

details together with quotations from Bacchus and Ariadne were favourite 

Roman authors and references to modern subjects for eating rooms ; ib. vol. ii, 

writers on classical antiquities, Mont- p. 111. 

faucon, Bellori, Spon, Ciampini, Caylus, ■' This woik of art is so interesting that 

&c. Bursian repeats some of flu; figures on a 

2 De Schmidt ajipositely cites Catullus, larger scale, Taf. XXXll, Aveiiticum 

Epithalam. Pelei et Thetidos, vv. 2.02 sqq. Helvetioruni, Fiinftes Heft. His plates 

At parte ex alia florens volitabat lacchus, are derived fiom drawings in the Library 

Cum Thiaso Satyrorum, et Nysigenis at Bern, the i)avement havhig been 

Silenis, destroyed by the French cavalry who 

Te quaerens, Ariadna, tuoque incensus were encamped at Avenches in the year 

amore. 1798. 


Lastly, a mosaic found at Conches Dessus in 1868 repre- 
sents Hercules contending with Antaeus — a subject treated 
by the ancient scul})t()i's and gem-engravers, but not very 
often.' Hercules, nude, bearded, and crowned willi the 
while pophir (Atw/cr;), grasps his adversaiy ckisely a])ove the 
hips, raising him from the ground that lie may not derive 
new vigour from his mother Earth. The hatter who wears 
a torcpie round his neck, in sign of l)arbarism, struggles 
with hands and feet to escape. We liave here an apt 
illustration of Juvenal's third Satire, v. 88 scp 

Et longum invalidi collum cervicibus ae(|uat 
Herculis, Antaeum procul a Tellure tenentis. 

And equals the crane neck and narrow chest 
To Hercules, when, straining to his breast 
The giant son of Earth, his every vein 
Swells with the toil, and more than mortal pain. 

There are also accessories which enable us to identify 
the wrestlers ; the club, bow and quiver of Hercules hang 
on the bare trunk of a tree, while a lion, facing the spec- 
tator, indicates that Antaeus was by birth a Libyan.^ 

But the mosaics at Bosseaz, about a mile and a half from 
Orbe, far surpass those which are to be seen at Avenches. 
The larger one, discovered in 1862, consists of thirteen 
octagons, each 22^ inches in diameter, surrounded by a 
framework in which the guilloche alternates with a 
triangular pattern. De Bonstetten calls the latter imbri- 
cated, Init I do not perceive that it overlaps anywhere. 
The whole of the design is enclosed in a broad border on 

' Stuart designated a metope in the poet agrees with the artist at Avenches ; 

Theseum at Atliens (No. 1.56) as Hercules e.ff. 

and Antaeus, but Mr. Combe considered v. 612. Ille Cleonaei projecit terga leonis, 

it to rejjresent Theseus overcoming Antaeus Libyci. 

Cercyou, king of Eleusis, in a wrestling v. 62.5 Jam terga viri cedentia victor 

match: Sir H. Ellis, Elgin Marbles, v(.)I. Adligat, et medium, compressis ihbus, 

ii, p. 51, and engraving p. .56. C. W. arctat : 

King, Antique Gems and Rings, vol. ii, Comp. Pindar, Isthmian Odes, IV, 83- 
p. 59, Description of Woodcuts, PI. S9 ; Philostratiis, Imagines, edit. Kayser, 
XXXIII, Fig. 9 : an early Cinque Cento ii, 21 (p. 845 sq.), Kara-KaXaiei Se avrhv 
work. Gori, Mus. Florent, vol. i, Tab. &v<» ttjj yr]s, otl tj yrj tw 'Avraiu) awe- 
LXII, Fig. 4. Hercules cum Antaeo -n&Xau Kvprov/xevr] koI fXfTox^^Covaa avrdv, 
luctans, but the group may perhajis be fire kivoIto. Maskulyne, Catal. of Marl- 
better explained as duo puf/iles. borough Gems, p. 54, No. .301. Spence, 

- Lucan, Pharsalia, book'iv, vv. 589-65.5, Pulymetis, pp. 121-12:3, PI. XIX, Fig. 1, 

inserts the contest of Hercules with Statue in Palazzo Pitti, Floience. Arclia;- 

Antaeus as an ejiisode in his account of ologia, vol. .\v. p. :W:',, PI. XXX, Roman 

Curio's expedition to Africa. The ])a,ssagc utensil in silver fouml in Nortliumbu-rland, 

may be regarded as a locus cla ssicus iur probably an e;«Wc?Htt : c. flutter from R. P, 

this legend. In many particulars the Knight. 


which various animals are figured ; on three sides we 
see the bear, lion, panther, bull, and horse ; the fourth 
alone contains a human fio^ure. A huntsman with three 
dogs is chasing a wild boar ; he wears a short tunic with 
sleeves reaching to the elbows, and long boots {;per- 
onatus); ^ in his left hand he holds a spear [venabalum), 
and in his right a leash attached to the collar of a dog.'^ 
Of the four corners two are ornamented with female busts, 
two are now vacant. Seven of the octagonal medallions 
are devoted to the heavenly bodies that preside over the 
days of the week. Beginning with that on the left of the 
central one, we have figures in the following order ; 1 , 
Saturn on a. pulvinai' carried by two winged genii ; 2, the 
sun in a quadriga, with radiated head, and holding a whip, 
3, the moon in a biga, nimbated ;^ 4, Mars with his usual 
attributes, helmet, lance and shield, in a chair supported 
or rather pushed by two winged genii ; 5, Mercury hold- 
ing sicaduceus, and riding on a ram ;* 6, Jupiter with eagle 

^ Pero, a boot made of uutanned 
leather, wa.s worn by shepherds, plough- 
men and agricultural labourers ; Rich, 
Companion to the Latin Dictionary, s.v. 
(vith engraving. Virgil, ^Eneid, VII, 690, 

vestigia nuda sinistri 
Instituere pedis, crudus tegit altera pero. 
Juvenal, XIV, 186 ; Persius, V, 102. 
Boots of this kind are called caligae 
mulionicae sive rusticae in an edict of Dio- 
cletian : Bursian, Mosaikbild von Orbe, 
p. 5, note 4. 

* A very interesting illustration of the 
chace, as an entertainment in the Circus, 
Ls supplied by the Mosaic of the Baths 
of Pompeianu.s, one of the largest known, 
found at Oued-Athmenia, 42 kilo- 
metres west of Constantine (Algeria). It 
has been published by the Societe 
Archeologique of that city: Recueil, 
tome xix, pp. 431-4.54, art. by A. PouUe, 
with .atlas of plate.s in folio. The pave- 
ment, hf)wever, is not in the perfect con- 
dition that might be supposed from these 
chromolithographs: M. de Villefosse, 
auTOTTTjs, informed me that it was 
" abtme." Among the inscriptions we 
reiwl SEPTVM VENATIONIS, and the 
names of horses, DELICATVS, TITAS, 
SCHOLASTICVS, &c., just a.s they are 
written now over stalls. Of. Corj). 
Inscc. Lat., vol. viii, Pt. II (Africa), edit. 
Wilmaniis, Adittamenta, LX, No.s. 1 0889- 
10891. I have not met with any account 
<jf this remarkable mosaic by an English 

A similar one was found at Cherchell, 
also in Algeria: Memoires de la Societe 
des Antiquaires de France, 1881, Tome 
xlii, Cinquicme Serie, Tome ii. Bulletin, 
pp. 189-191, and woodcut of one com- 
partment, showing a horse with inscrip- 
tions— M V C C S V S, that has the 
glanders ; PRA, jyrasinus or prasinianus, 
of the green party in the circus {v. 
Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap, xl, sec. 
ii), and CL. SABINI, name of owner. 

•' Both the sun and the moon occur in 
a Gnostic gem : King, The Gnostics and 
their Remains, PI. VI, Fig. 5 ; Descrip- 
tion of the Plates, p. 214. Sol in his 
quadriga above, Luna in her biga below, 
traversing the star-spangled heavens: as 
Manilius sings — 

■' Quadrijugis et Phoebus equis et Delia 
Astronomica, lib. V, v. 3. PI. IV, Fig. 
1. Sol with radiated head, mounted on 
a camel, holds a whip. PI. I, Fig. 7, 
Abraxas also brandishes a whip. 

Lucan, Pharsalia I, 78, mentions the 
biga of the Moon. 

obliquum bigas agitare per orbem 


■• 'Ep/u^s Kpi6(popos, V. sup. note 41. So 
in the worship of Cybele the ram appears, 
serving as a steed for her devotee Atys ; 
see an ivory relief figured by Miiller, 
Denkmiiler, pt. II, No. 812: Rev. S. S. 
Lewis, on a Bronze Ram now in the 
Museum at Palermo, Journal of Philology, 
vol. iv. 


and sceptre ; 7, Venus semi-nude, and looking at lierself in 
a mirror. She occupies the central space, as the chief 
personage in this composition, perhaps to px])r('ss her 
benignant hifluence over mankind and inferior animals ;' 
perhaps because the tessellated floor decorated the boudoir 
of some Helvetian beauty. The two subjects immediately 
above and below Venus at first sight appear to have no 
connexion with planetary influences, viz., the rape of 
Ganymede carried off" by an eagle, and Narcissus admiring 
the reflection of his person in water. A group consisting 
of two marine deities is placed at each of the four angles. 
Possibly Gan^nnede and Narcissus may refer to the 
beginning of the week and the repetition of days, but this 
is only conjectural. The marine deities may be symbolical 
of water considered as the source of life, with allusion to 
some ancient theory of cosmogony — -an explanation which 
I have noticed in my paper on the Gallo-Eoman Monu- 
ments of Eeims.^ 

De Bonstetten infers that the mosaic belongs to the 
period of the decadence, partly from the style of execution, 
partly from having found near the site coins of Constantine, 
Valens, Valentinian and Gratian.^ 

This pavement, representing the great heavenly lumi- 
naries, may also be considered in connexion with many 
passages in Eoman authors who flourished under the 

' Lucretius, I, 1-21, especially the last Deities presiding over the days of the 

two lines. week, and the adoption of this division of 

Omnibus incutiens blandum per pectora time by the Romans. It contains much 

amorem, curious information, but would be more 

Efficis, ut cupide generatim saecla pro- useful, if the author had given references 

pagent. exactly. 

Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. II, cap. VIII, sect. Comp. Mviseo Borbonico, vol. xi, Tav. 

6, sec. 38, edit. Hillig, Namque in III, I Giorni della Settimana — Dipinto 

alterutro exortu genitali rore conspergens Pompeiano. Seven busts of deities are 

non terrae modo conceptus implet, varum fully described ; in the original they are 

animantium quoque omnium stimulat. placed horizontally, in the Plate vertically. 

This passage is inaccurately quoted by Sol here is like the figures mentioned 

Bon.stetten. Cf. Lucan I, 661, Venerisque above ; p. 4 s.f., il dipintore aggiunse il 

salubre Sidus hebet ; Juvenal, VI, 570, flagello che proprio e degli aurighi ; ed in 

quo laeta Venus se proferat astro. abito di cocchiere, &c. 

^ Archaeol. Journ. vol. xli, p. 126 sq. ; Murray, Handbook for S >uthern Italy, 

Loriquet, Reims pendant la Domination p. 165 : in the Museum at Naples there is 

Romaine, p. 180 sq., and note 2, p. 181, an ink-vase with seven faces, found at 

Travaux de I'Academie Imperiale de Turricium (Terlizzi, province of Ban) 

Reims, vol. xxx, 1861. which has on it the deities presiding over 

•* Bonstetten, Second Supplement an the days of the week. It has been assigned 

Recueil d'Antiquites Suisses, appends to to the time of Trajan, but this seems 

the text explanatory of PL XV, Mosaique doubtful, 
de Bossaaz (Vrba), a dissertation on the 


empire.' For example Tacitus says that astrologers were 
a class that woiiKl be always forbidden, and yet would 
always remain in Italy. Juvenal in his sixth Satire 
describes a lady who cannot go anywhere without con- 
sulting her almanac,- and in his tenth, Tiberius sitting on 
the rock of Capri, surrounded by a Chaldean troop. 

The smaller mosaic, distant fifty paces from that just 
mentioned, was originally the larger ; all that remains is 
only a fragment of the border. It has Ijeen explained 
briefly by De Bonstetten in his Carte Archeologique du 
Canton de Vaud, s.v. Bosseaz, p. 14 sq. and more fully in 
his Eecueil d'Antiquites Suisses, Pt. i, p. 40 sq., Planche 
XIX ;^ but the best account is given by Professor J3ursian 
in the Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in 
Zurich, Band xvi, Abtheilung 2, Mosaikbild von Orbe, 
with coloured lithograph. 

To left, a bare-headed man wearing a cloak, and seated 
in front of a four-wheeled wao-o-on, with a lono- stick 
guides a yoke of oxen. A tree divides this group from a 
young man dressed in a tunic with short sleeves, who 
carries in his right hand a bucket [sitidtis) suspended by 
three cords, and under his left arm a bundle of rods. 
According to De Bonstetten, the objects in his hands are a 
cage containing a decoy-bird and a net rolled up : the 
former ma}' be somewhat uncertain, but the latter is out 
of the question." Then follow two smaller trees, and a 

' The Mosaic illustrates Trtcitus, Hist. •' Ue Boustetteu's quotatioDs must be 

V, 4, sou quod de septem sideribus, quis read with caution. Besides typographical 

mortales reguntur, altissimo orbe et errors, passages are attributed to authors 

praecipua potentia stella Saturni feratur. erroneously : in Pai-t I, p. 3, we find 

-' Tacitus, Hist. I, 22, genus hominum Lucian for Lucretius, and p. 41, Tacitus 

(matheniatici) potentibus infiduin,speran- for Plautus. 

tibus fallax, quod in civitate nostra et ^ Bursian offers various explanations of 

vetiibitur semper et retinebitur. Comp. the object carried by the left arm. It may 

Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epistles be a rectangular wooden vessel for holding 

of St. Paul, vol. i, chap, v, pp. 178-1^0, olives that had been crushed in the press ; 

edit. 8vo, and see the notes — Oriental or a bundle of pipes used by bird-catchers 

impostors at Rome and in the Provinces. (calami aucupatorii, Martial, XIV, 218, in 

Juvenal vi, 569-581. lemmate) ; or poles vnih which olive.-i, 

v. 573 In cujus manibus, ecu pinguia chestnuts or walnuts were beaten down 

succina, tritas from trees. The second interpretation 

Cernis ephemerida.s. may be illustrated by al imp repr&senting 

V. 577, Ad pi-imum lapidem vcctariquum the fable of the fox and crow (Phaedrus, 

placet, hora I, 13), tiguied in Koacli Smith's Illustra- 

Sumitur ex libro. tratious of Rom.iri London, PI. XXX, No. 

X 92. Tutor habcri :j, p. 110; rf. Birch, History of Ancient 

Priucipib angusta Caprearum iu rupu Pottery, 11, 286. The gathering of olives 

sedentis !«> ''^ subject that appears on an amphora 

Cum grege Chaldcieo. at Berlin, engraved by Panof-ka, Bilder 



huntsman blowing a horn, and carrying a chib in his left 
hand ; another tree terminates what is left of the com- 
position.' These figures form a frieze which is bounded 
by a foliated scroll aljove, and a cable pattern below. 
From the magnitude of this border, we may form approxi- 
mately some idea of the extent of the desij^'n when it was 

Augst and Avenches are the places most abundant in 
vestiges of the classical period. The former is very 
accessible from Btlle, and provides the traveller with a 
pleasant excursion that only occupies a morning or an 
afternoon. Basel-Augst, which is about ten minutes' 
walk from the railway station, contains the ruins of a 
Eoman theatre near the river Ergolz which flows into the 
Eliine. Its contour can be easily traced, and remains of 
buildings behind the cavea are popularly called The Nine 
Towers, but I was unable to discover the whole number, 
probably because some part had disappeared since the 

Antiken Lebens, Tafel XIV (Lcandleben) 
No. 8. If we take this view of the design 
in the mosaic, we must suppose it to be 
a copy from S(jme Italian original, as the 
olive cannot grow in Switzerland. 

Rows of tcssellae are jjlaced so as to 
follow the outline of the implement whose 
use has been disputed ; they might, at 
first sight, be mistaken for a net wrapped 
round it ; but this cannot be the case, 
because a similar arrangement appears in 
other parts of the mosaic, where such a 
supposition would be inapplicable. 

' The separation of one group 
from another by means of a 
tree frequently occurs in classical 
and mediaeval Art : one example 
may snliice here ; La Colonne Trajane 
decrite par W. Froehner, p. 97. See my 
Paper on Reims, Archaeol. Journ. vol. xli. 
p. 142, Note 2, where Kriegsbegebenheiten 
should be read for Kriegsbegenheiten. So 
in Roman inscriptions, a leaf often pre- 
cedes and follows a word, e.g. Bulletin de 
la Societ(5 Kationale des Antiquaires de 
France, 1881, loc. citat., p. 190 (feuillede 
lierre), .MVCCOSVS (feuille de Im-re). 

• Orbe is near Chavomay, and con- 
nected with it by a service jwstal. The 
latter is the station next but one to 
Yverdun, on the railway from that place 
to La\isanne : r. Indicateur General des 
Chemins de Fer Suisses. 

Urba is marked in the Antcjnine Itine- 
rary on the road a Mediolano per Alpes 
Graias Argentorato, from Milan to Stras- 

burg over the Little St. Bernard : v.p 
348, ed. Wesseling;p. 166 ed. Parthey. 
and Finder, Equestribus, Lacu I.ausonio, 
Urba, Ariorica, Visontione (Nyon, Lau- 
sanne, Orbe, Pontarlier probably, Besan- 

From Urba some derive Urbigentis, the 
name of one of the four districts (pagi. 
pays), into which Csesar says Helvetia 
was divided ; Bell. Gall. I, 12, 27. But 
in the latter passage Oudendori) gives 
the various readings Verbif/erfus, Vir- 
hujcnus, Verhiijinius (see Davis's note) ; 
the first of these is preferred by some 
I'ecent editors, and Moberley explains 
this ^3a.9«s as corresponding to Soleure, 
Lucerne, Aargau, and part of Berne. 
Perhaps the termination (jenux may be 
identified with the German Gau, a dis- 
trict, so that Urbigenus is a compound 
word like Rheingau. Conip. Dictionary 
of Greek and Roman Geography, vol. i, 
p. 1041, art. Helvetiiby Mr. George Long, 

Yverdun is only Eburodunum moder- 
nized : the termination du7ium means a 
hill; and, as might be ex])ected in a 
mountainous country, we find at no great 
distance from this j)lace the similar 
names Minnodunum (Mondon) and No- 
viodunum (Nyon). The map of Gaul 
supiilies man\- examples, Augustodunum, 
Uxellodiinum, Melodunum, Segmlunum, 
&c. Thirteen Roman inscriptions have 
been discovered at Yverdun : Monimsen, 
Insco. Coufoed. Helv. pp. 23-2;"), Nos, 


name was given. The local antiquaries have come to the 
conclusion that this theatre was originally erected for 
dramatic performances, and that it was altered in ancient 
times with the view of adapting it to exhibitions of a 
different character : shows of gladiators, hunts of wild 
beasts and the like. For the investigations on which this 
theory is based, I must refer to an elaborate essay by 
Burckhardt-Biedermann entitled "Das romische Theater 
zu Augusta Eaurica ;" it gives many measurements, and 
is accompanied by five plates showing ground-plans 
according to Amerbach's drawings (l6th century) and 
recent investigations, changes made in the construction, 
restorations, sections, and a view of the ruins as they 
existed in Amerbach's time.^ 

In the annexed engraving, the right hand half of fig. 1 
is a restoration of the rows of seats and flights of stairs in 
the first building ; the left hand half is a similar view of 
the second building : fig. 2 is the ruins, nearly as seen 
1587-1590, soon after their discovery. 

Those who wish to make a complete study of the 
remains at Augst should consult Professor W. Vischer's 
Eeport on the Schmidt collection now deposited in the 
Museum at Bale, Professor J. J. Bernoulli's detailed 
catalogue of the Antiquarian Department in the same 
Museum, and Dr. K. L. Poth's Poman Inscriptions of the 
Canton Bale.^ The reader of the last-mentioned work 
will soon perceive that Augst has contributed to epigraphy 
far more than an}^ other place in the district. 

Kaiser-Augst has no important buildings like the theatre 
at Basel- Augst, but its walls are distinctly visible from the 
railway station. When Bruckner published his Merkwlir- 
digkeiten der Landschaft Basel, there were considerable 
ruins of a tower on an island in the Phine, but a flood has 
carried them away. Their relative position and actual 

^ With Burckhardt-Biedermann's re- rings, fibulae, engraved gems, spoons, 
cent publicatiou (18S2) coinp. Bruckner's keys, &c. Mommsen in his list of 
volume cited below (17t53), RiJmische Auctores prajcipue Adhibiti, prefixed to 
Altertiimmer von Angst, Von dem the Inscc. Helvetic;c, justly praises 
.Schaupliitze, pp. 2772-2806 ; many Bruckner as Diligentissimus rerum anti- 
woodcuts are inserted in the text ; (piarum investigator. 

see also the Plates at the end of the - This treatise contains five chapters 

book, Antiq. Tab. II. A. Schauplatz under the following heads : — 1, luscrip- 

von Morgen anzusehen. B. Schauiilatz tions on stone ; 2, Potters' names ; 3, 

von Abend anzusehen, and Antiq. Tab. Legionary tiles ; 4, Smaller monuments; 

IV. Plates V-XXVI exhibit statuettes, f), Foreign inscriptions relating to Raurica. 
domestic utensils, specimens of pottery, 



condition at that time may ])e seen in the Antiquitatum 
Tabula3 appended to Vol. xxiii of his book : r, Lage von 
Angst ; II, Uberbleibsehi von Angst, E, as seen from the 
sonth, F, from the north.' 

Many architectural fragments have been removed to 
Bale, and arranged in the quadrangle of the University. 
They are, for the most part, drums and capitals of columns, 
or portions of cornices and entablatures. The ordinary 
tourist will turn aside from these blocks of stone, or bestow 
on them only a careless and momentary glance ; but the 
antiquary will linger here, for to him they are full of 
interest.^ With their aid and a little effort of imagination, 
he re-builds and re-peoples Augusta Eauricorum ; for he 
knows that Eoman colonists were no horde of destroying 
conquerors, but that they brought with them the spirit of 
their, ancestors, and renewed the outward manifestations 
of it with which their eyes had been familiar, marking out 
their forum, and erecting temples, basilica, and theatre, 
thus producing a copy more or less complete of their 
imperial home. 

Avenches can show much more than Aua'st to reward 

^ Kaiser-and Basel-Augst are included 
in Dr. Ferdinand Keller's excellent map 
of Eastern Switzerland, which is on a 
large scale — Archaologische Karte der 
Ostschweiz, 1874. An Introduction is 
prefixed, sub-divided as follows : I, Pre- 
historic times, Stone and Bronze Periods. 
11, Historic times, Gallo-Helvetic, Roman, 
Alenaannic Periods. Good classification 
and copious references make the Cata- 
logue of localities very useful to the 

I have mentioned the contents of these 
books because they are but httle known 
in England. 

- Museum in Easel. Catalog fur die 
Antiquarische Abtheilung von J. J. 
Bernoulli, 1880 ; Architectonische Reste 
und Inschriftsteine, pp. 1-7. Bruckner, 
Op. citat, pp. 2855-2861, relates the 
discovery of important buildings at 
Augst in the year 1586, and on various 
occasions in the course of the 18'''' cen- 
tury. He notices particularly marble 
columns, and the remains of piscmce 
(reservoirs) that belonged to an aqueduct. 

In 1736 near The Nine Towers, and a 
little below the surface, arches were un- 
covered, which seemed to belong to a 
bathing establishment. At p. 2860 
Bruckner gives woodcuts of two capitals 


of pillars and one base, with measure- 
ments. Lastly he mentions that several 
large sheets of gilt copper were found ; 
they probablj^ decorated the roof of some 
magnificent building. This circumstance 
reminds us of the bron.^e tiles on the 
cupola of the Pantheon, which were 
stripped off by the Byzantine emperor, 
Constans II : Gibbon, chap, xlviii, edit. 
Dr. Wm. Smith, vol. vii, p. 75, Mil- 
man's note ; Nibby, Roma Antica, Pai'te 
Seconda, p. 702, who gives references to 

During a long period the ruins at 
Augst were used as a quarry ; fragments 
from them re-appeared in a bridge, and in 
the doors and wandow-frames of private 
houses. The Swiss were as destructive 
as the Romans who converted the Col- 
iseum into a fortress, and built ])alaces 
with the materials which it supplied : 
Gibbon, chap. Ixxi, ed. Smith, v(j1. viii, p. 
284 ; Murray's Handbook for Rome, pp. 
18, 47, 7"' ed". 

Bruckner's volume on Augst is a work 
of original research, and even at the pre- 
sent time held in great esteem by the 
local antiquaries ; one can onlj- regret 
that the district did not provide him with 
a more copious theme on which to exer- 
cise his learning and industry. 



the visitor. Its situation is picturesque ; mediasval towers 
of different forms crowninj? the hill on which the modern 
town is built, lake Morat, the range of the Jura beyond, 
and a well-wooded undulating country in the nearer 
distance, compose a prospect which, if not sublime, is 
varied and pleasing. But we must now occupy ourselves 
with the ancient city, ten times as large as its degenerate 
successor. The Italian peasants said to Lord Byron 
" Eoma non e piii come era prima," and these words 
may be fitly applied to Avenches. The circuit of the 
Eoman walls was nearly four miles, and they were fortified 
with towers at intervals of 200 paces. ^ One remains 
nearly entire, on the north side ; it is a most conspicuous 
object in the scenery, and faces the traveller as he walks 
down the principal street. It presents a peculiarity which 
I have not met with elsewhere; the part turned towards 
the interior being convex, and the part towards the 
country a flat surface. The portion of the walls still 
existing is considerably larger than that which has been 
destroyed ; for about 100 yards parallel to the railway 
they are well preserved. 

Some of the most important antiquities at Avenches 
have been previously noticed, but I beg leave also to 
invite attention to the local Museum of which Mons. 
Caspari is director. This gentleman, who has made 
valuable contributions to Swiss archseology, will afford 
the inquirer assistance in studying the monuments and 
the literature connected with them. 

I have already mentioned a mosaic here as illustrating 
Juvenal; another object, apparently unimportant, will 
answer the same purpose ; viz., a Eoman brick that still 
bears the impression of nails on it. Describing the 
crowded streets of Eome, the satirist says — 

Planta mox undique magna 
Calcor, et in digito clavus mihi militis lia^ret. 

While the rude soldier gores us as he goes, 

' For the walls of Avenchei? see the d'enceinte is coloured red, the position of 

large maj) accompanying Biirsian's each tower is marked, and the Tour 

Memoir, Aventicum Helvetiorum, in the existante is at the extremity on the left 

Zurich Mittheilungen d. Antiq. Gesells- side. Taf. I shows the environs, including 

chaft, No. XXXI, Taf. II. The Mur part of the lake Morat (Murtensee). 


Or makes in bluod his progress on our toes.^ 
And again : 

Cum duo crura habeas, oflendere tot caligas, tot 
Millia clavorum ; 

With ten poor toes 
Defies sudi countless hosts of hobnail'd shoes. ^ 

The Museum contains architectural fragments of the 
same class as those at Augst. They are in the Corinthian 
style, as it prevailed under the empire from Vespasian to 
Diocletian, and exhilnt the decline of art in a profusion 
of overloaded ornaments, which contrasts unfavourably 
with the simplicity of earlier ages.^ 

The following objects, found at Avenches, seem worthy 
of special notice : — 

1. Colossal head of the Sun, radiated. Compare the 
mosaic above mentioned and the coins of Rhodes. 
Perhaps it was originally an akroterion on some public 
building, and visible from a distance : it may have been 
intended to denote that the god averted coming evils 
[airoTpoTTaioQ^ averruncus). 

2. Wolf and Twins. This device is very frequently 
repeated in marljle reliefs, armour, gems, and coins ; but 
the present example is remarkable on account of its size 
and some unusual accessories. The wolf suckles Romulus 
and Eemus, and at the same time licks them with her 
protruding tongue, so that the group corresponds with the 
well-known passage in the ^neid, 

Tereti cervice reflexam 
Mulcere alternos, et corpora fingere lingua.^ 

The grotto where this action takes place is enclosed on 
either side by a laurel tree, not the jicus ruminalis, as 
might have been expected. Above, to the spectator's left, 
is a nest with two young birds in it, wdio open their beaks 
to receive a worm which the parent is bringing : at the 

' Sat. Ill, V. 248, Gifford'.s translation. the passage as it is abridged iu Sillig'.s 

- Sat. XVI, V. 24. The nails, of whicii Index, 

the marks are visible here, .seem to be •* Bursian, Op. citat., Zweites Heft, Taf. 

those mentioned by Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. V-VIII. The cornices and ca))itals at 

xxxiv, cap. xiv, see. 41, see. 14:]. Avonclies are superior to siinilar riMnaiiis 

Clavis fugiendum ferrum fragile et from Augst. It is most prnh.iMe that the 

acrosum, contra aliud ferrum brevitate woikuKsn (/afe?'(' //(/««)•/') were directed by 

placet clavisiiue caligariis. I have quoted Italian sculptors. 

* Lib. VIII, vv. G.30-(5;34. 


opposite end we see an owl amidst foliage, and another 
bird not easy to identify, because only a part is left.' 

3. Statuette of a Paniska or female Pan. The male 
deity is common enough in works of art, but the female is 
rare.^ The upper part of the figure is human; the lower, 
animal. It has the hair parted in the middle on the 
crown of the head, and plaited in a tail at the back, and 
wears a wreath of ivy leaves and berries. From the 
position of the hands, and from the fact that lead was 
found on them, apparently to solder some object, it has 
been conjectured that this personage was playing double 
flutes of unequal length, the left one being the longer.'^ 

4. Hercules strangling the Nemean lion. While the 
hero grasps him with the left arm, the beast with failing 
eyes and at the point of death turns his head away from 
his victorious foe. This bronze group has unfortunately 
been lost." 

5. The judgment of Paris represented on an Etruscan 
mirror. To left Paris is seated, semi-nude ; Mercury erect, 
wearing a chlamys and endromides (boots), with wings on 
his broad-brimmed hat, offers him the prize of beauty 
which he is to award ; to right Venus is seated holding a 

^ So at Vaison (Department of Van- knieende Pauin. Hirt, Bilderbuch fiir 

cluse), near Orange, a Roman frieze was Mythologie, jj. 163 sq., Taf. XXI, No. 3, 

discovered, where an owl is figured in rich engraved gem. 

fohage, and two birds flying to it. This ■'■ Professor Percy Gardner remarked 

place is rich in antiquities ; hence came that the position of the forefinger of the 

the Diadumenus, now in the British left hand, which is nearly straight, does 

Museum, purchased from M. Raspail for not suit this action : Comp. the follomng 

£1,000. It is a copy of the famous statue figures in the Third Vase Room of the 

by Polycletus, wliich represents a youth British Museum, No. 740, female playing 

hindimj a fillet on his head, in sign of the tibme pares; No. 788 Satyi-, No. 880, 

victory (not wcarinff, as Smith's Latin the poet Anacreon ; the latter two have 

Diet, incon-ectly translates the word) : the tibiae impares. Cf. Catalogue of Vases, 

PHny, Hist. Nat. lib. XXXIV, cap. viii, sec. vol. ii, p. 325, Index, Auletae, Auletrides. 

19, sec. 55, ed. Sillig. For an account of •* This action, which occurs very 

Vaison, Vasio Vocontiorum, and objects frecjucntly in Ancient Art, may be well 

of ai-chaeological interest found there, see illustrated by the coins of the city of 

Dictiounaire geographique, historique, Lucania that bore the hero's name : Rollin 

archeologique et biographique des com- et Feuardent, Catalogue deMedailles de la 

munes du departement de Vaucluse ; par Grcce Antique, No. 882, Rev. Hercule 

Jules Courtet, esp. pp. 341-344, 351 s(/., debout, etoutfant le lion ; and No. 893 bis: 

1877 : Guides-Joanne, grand format. Pro- Hunter's Catalogue, Tab. 29, figs. XI V- 

vence, Alpes Maritimes, Corse, p. 180 sq. XXV, shiistra leonem ctmiprehendit, 

2 Miiller. Archaok)gie der Kunst, sec. leonem suffocans : but see esp. Numi 

388, Anmerk 2, Eng. transl. p. 503, says, Italiae Veteris by Cavedoni and Carelli, 

Female Satyrs rarely occur : he gives PI. CLX. figs. 2-16, explained p. 85 sq., 

examples of the female Pan. Denkmaler, PI. CLXII, figs. 31-41, and p. 87. 

Part II, Taf XLIII, No. 536, Pan und Cohen, ISIedailles Consulaires, Gens 

Panin in Bcgriffein Opfer darzubringen Poblicia, PI. XXXIII, No. 7. Gori, Mus. 

Oder einen Schmaus z\x halten ; Taf. Flor. vol. i. Pis. XXXVI, 9 ; XXXVII, 

XLIV, No. 548, die vor ihm (Pan) 1, 2, p. 82. 



speculum, as in the mosaic at Orl)e ; two winged females 
stand behind Mercury, each familiarly placing an arm on 
his shoulder ; they may ])crhaps be goddesses of fate, as 
there are no distinguishing attributes to indicate Juno 
and Minerva, who would naturally find place here. A 
symmetrical arrangement pervades the whole composit ion, 
and in this respect it resembles the groups on the pediments 
of Greek temples.' 

The material of Nos. 1 and 2 is stone ; of 3, 4 and 5, 

The most recent archasological discovery in Switzerland, 
as far as I know, was made last winter at Geneva, and 
described by a correspondent of the Times newspaper. 
In the course of operations for utilising the water-power 
of the Rhone, the bed of the river was laid bare, and the 

' Comp. Gerhard Etruskisclie Spiegel, 
Urtheil des Piiris, Band II, Taf. 
(Fates) see Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries 
of Etruria, vol. i, pp. Iv, Ixxv ; vol. ii, 
p. 68. 

The Judgment of Paris has been a 
favourite subject with modern artists, who 
generally introduce emblems as acces- 
sories — Cupid for Venus, the peacock for 
Juno, and the owl for Minerva. The 
most famous example is a picture by 
Rubens, formei'ly in the Escurial, now in 
the Museum del Prado at Madrid, No. 
15P0, with hfe-size figures : Smith Cata- 
logue Raisonnc of Works of Dutch, 
Flemish and French Painters, Part 2, 
p. 208 ; Pt. 9, pp. 315, 322 ; Bartsch, Le 
Peintre Graveur, vol. xiv, p. 197, No. 245, 
and Les vieux Maitres Allemands, Table 

" The above-mentioned antiquities are 
all engi-aved in Bursian's Aventicum 

The following objects found at Avenches 
deserve notice : — 

1, a Roman bronze pen. Bursian, Taf. 
XVIII, Fig. 3. As in the case of dis- 
coveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii, so 
here at Avenches we have proof that an 
invention, supposed to be modern, was 
known to the ancients. This pen closely 
resembles those now in use, consisting of 
a thin plate of metal formed into a tube, 
with a split point at the end (jissipes), 
which was gilt, to prevent the writing- 
fluid from corroding it. Slight traces oi 
gilding s^till remain, and lines have been 
incised on the outer surface by way of 
ornamentation. The pen {calamus) and 
pen-case {thcca calamaria) are engraved, 

orig. size, as an illustration of Dr. Keller's 
Memoir, in the Arcliaeol. Journ. vol. xxii, 
pp. 134-136. 

2, A bronze vase, on which Bacchanalian 
orgies are represented, ibid., Taf. XIX. 
There are two scenes, divided by a tree in 
the centre — an arrangement we have 
already remarked in the smaller mosaic at 
Orbe. To the left we see a temple on a 
a rocky elevation; in front of it a seated 
Satyr plays the flute, a naked boy dances, 
and a woman adores a Hermes-figure of 
Dionysus (perhaps Priapus). The second 
group is well composed ; a woman falls 
exhausted by Bacchic frenzy, another sup- 
ports hei-, and a third strikes cymbals, 
behind them a Satyr plays the flute, as 
before. The vase was used to hold a 
salve or perfume, andthough theornameu- 
tation is of an indelicate character, it may 
have stood on the toilet table of some 
lady of rank. Comp. Musee de Naples, 
Cabinet Secret, Paris, 1857, p. 61, Deux 
Hermes en Bronze. " Nul doute que ces 
petits bronzes ne fussent les dieux lares 
d'une maison romaine." Mr. Cecil Smith 
showed me a similar vase in the Bronze- 
Room of the British Museum. 

3. Fragm.ents of a coat of mail, found 
in the ruins of the Theatre, 1847. The 
scales are fastened together by wire. The 
Rev. C. W. King, in his Memoir on the 
Lorica trilix of Virgil, Archmol. Jounial, 
vol. xxxii, p. 52, quotes Atneid XI, 770. • 

" Quem pellis ahenis 
In plumam squamis auro comuta tegebat. 
On this passage he remarks, " In this 
case the bronze scales wei-c so^^vcd upon 
the leather coat with gold wire, exactly 
as the steel scales in certain mediaeval 
jazerines are with wire of brass." 


upper part of a Eomaii altar was exposed to view. It 
bore the following inscription : — 


which may be thus expanded : — 

Deo Neptuno^ C. Vitalinius Victorinus, miles legionis XXII^ 
a curis, votum solvit libens merito. 

This altar was doubtless erected by some soldier to 
express gratitude for his escape from shipwreck in the 
Lake of Geneva.' The phrase a curis seems to denote 
some special mission on which he was employed. Such a 
use of the preposition is common enough in Latin, and 
we have an example of it in our word amanuensis.' 

Many names of places in the modern map of Switzer- 
land are derived from the Latin, and therefore prove the 
Eoman occupation, e.g. Olten (the chief railway junction 
in the country), Ultinum,^ Ober Winterthur Vitudurum ; 
Windisch, Vindonissa ; Ziirich, Turicam ; Zofingen, Tobi- 
nium. It would be easy to multiply examples from 
Mommsen's map of Switzerland, in which the sites are 
marked where Latin inscriptions liave been found. To 
this Map another is appended, showing the provenance of 
bricks and tiles made at Vindonissa/ The great number 
of these localities proves the importance of the Roman 
station there. At first sight one might be inclined to read_ 
C. VI. on the tegulce Vindonissenses as equivalent to cohors 
se.cta, but another interpretation has been proposed which 
seems very plausible, viz., Castra Vindonissensia. It is 
illustrated by a Roman brick found under the General Post 

'" By a singular chance the whole stoue authors: Of. Key's Latin Grammar, ji. 

of the Jura, which testifies to the fulfil- 292 57. first ed". " Ab epistolis et libellis 

luent of his v(nv, has been preservpcl by et rationibus (Tac), Hecretaries, regis- 

fallinginto the very waters from which he trars, accountants." Such an expression, 

was saved There is still in the harbour therefore, induces us to place the date of 

of Geneva a huge en-atic lilock, known as the inscription after Augustus. On the 

the Pierre de Niton (Xeptune), on which, other hand as the characters are very 

iiccording to tradition, sacrifices to Nep- well executed, they are probably not 

tune were made, and traces of the cuUc subsetpient to the reign of Septuuius 

may yet be found in song and story." Severus. 
Art. in the " Times," about May 24, 1884. '' The Roman name Ultinum is doubt- 

'^ This soldier might have been era- ful ; it is not mentioned by ]\Iommsen in 

ployed in inspecting a custom-liouse, his art. Oltcii, Inscc. Confoed. Helv. cap. 

levying taxes, or surveying roads : Jbid. XVII, p. 44 ; but it occurs in 15erlei)sch, 

The use of the preposition a witli the Schweizer Fiihrer, p. 309, od. 1870, with 

ablative case to denote an office is chiefly a unto of interrogation. 
post-Augustan, as may be seen in Forcel- "* These m.ips are placed ;it the end of 

lini's Lexicon, A. c. ; he gives one example Mommsen's lu.scriptions. 
from Cicero, the rest being from later 


Office in London, which is stamped with the inscription : — 


perhaps meaning primipilares Britannici Londini. Similar 
instances might be cited from Vienna and Hungary.' 

For the most part Swiss antiquities are to be studied not 
in situ, but, as I have hinted, in the Cantonal Museums at 
Bale, Berne, Lausanne, Geneva, Zurich, and other towns 
of less consequence. That at Fribourg may serve as a 
specimen. We see there, besides the great mosaic de- 
scribed above, fragments of frescoes, cement from the 
aqueduct at Avenches, leaden pipes, a bronze bell, 
statuette of Minerva, fibulae, a glass bracelet, and a lacry- 
matory so called, but improperly, because it was used to 
hold perfumes sprinkled over the incinerated body.-' With 
the catalogues of such collections the student should 
compare Mommsen's 27th chapter entitled Instrumenti 
Domestic! Inscriptiones. His list, which occupies 28 quarto 
pages, includes tessellated pavements, weights, diptychs, 
spoons, ladles, amphonc, lamps, bowls, &c. All these 
objects are of course inscribed.^ 

1 This brick is now deposited in the In support of the explanation of CVI. 

Anglo - Roman Room of the British Mornmsen, Op. citat., p. 78, mention.'? 

Museum : see an article by Mr. Franks, tegulae Vindobonenses inscriptae Anl. 

with engraving in the ..4cc7i!.feo^. ./oi«-rt., vol. Tib. Vindob; Karnuntinae inscrii)tae C. 

X, p. 4; he refers to vol. iii, p. 69 sq., Val. Const. Kav ; in Huugaria reperta 

where it is said that the initials P.P. BR. prope Quadriburgium inscripta Quad- 

probably indicate the name of the manu- rihur, u.s. (id est. ala sagitturiorum). Cf. 

facturer. The analogy of other examples omu. Von Sacken und Kenner Die 

may seem to favour this conjecture, but Sammlungen des K.K. Miinz-und 

I think it inadmissible here. Antiken-Gabinetes. Inschriftliche Denk- 

Mr. Roach Smith, Illustrations of maler. IV. Zimmer, p. 99 and note.s. In 
Roman London, p. 31 sq., observes that this room 113 .stamped tiles are exhibited 
" Tile-stamps are among the most useful on the wall in four rows ; we find here 
of Roman Inscriptions, as they prove the the names of legions quartered at Vindo- 
presence of the legions and cohorts at bona (Vienna), Carnuntum (Petronell^ 
particular places," &c. ; cf. p. 116 and and Arrabona (Raab) ; also of private 
PL VIII, Figs. 3-6, inscribed tiles found firms to whom brick and tile-kilns be- 
at Chequer's Court, Bush Lane, Bloom- longed. Birch, Ancient Pottery, Stamps 
field street, Finsbury, and Lambeth Hill. on Tiles, ii, 241-243. 
The inscriptions are PRB.LON. — P.BRI. ^ Archicologia, Vol. xlviii, pp. 75-/7 
LON. — P.PR.LON. — PPBR.LON, ire, f The local antiquaries in Switzerland 
which Mr. Roach Smith expands, Prima might do good service by ])ublishing 
{cohors) Brittonum Londiiiii. The word cataloguesof collections hitherto unedited. 
cohors will not account for the second P Judging from the learning and ability 
in the last abbreviation. Mommsen disjilayed in the Transactions of the Bale 
suggests a probable explanation — Pub- ami Zurich Societies, I have ut> doul)t 
licani provinciae Britanniae Londinienses: that there are many .savants in the 
Hiibner, Inscc. Brit. Lat., p. 21, Intro- coimtry fully competent to perfonn tliis 
ductory Remarks, s.v. Londinium ; and useful task. 
p. 227, Tegulae, No. 1235. 


Other, and less agreeable, duties have prevented me from 
expatiating as on some former occasions ; my remarks have 
been onl}^ tentative and suggestive. But I shall be content 
if I have succeeded in proving that even Switzerland 
exhibits many traces of that wonderful civilization which 
no longer displays its grandeur and beauty as a whole, but 
which still survives in scattered fragments and in a per- 
meatinsf influence. 


I subjoin the titles of some works which may aid the student of Swiss 
antiquities in liis investigations. 

Heer's Prim;eval World of Switzerland with 560 Illustrations, edited 
by Heywood, 2 vols. 8vo. This bocik treats of a period antecedent to 
that which is the subject of Keller's Lake Dwellings. 

Revue des Deux Mondes, Tome Soixaute-Quatrieme, pp. 162-19.5. La 
Suisse Primitive, par ]\I. le Mar(|uis de Saporta. 

E. Desor, Die Pfahlbauten des Neuenburger Sees (Xeuchatel), jNIit 117 
in den Text eingedruckten Holzschnitten. The German edition is said to 
be superior to the French original. Fig. 81 is a Roman axe, engraved 
one-third of the actual size, p. 109 Eizenzeit. 

G. Finlay, TLapari^ptjcnL'i eirl rvys ev 'EA/3eTta Kal 'EAAaSt 7rpOL(TTOpLKrj<; 
a.p)^acoXoyia'i i'tto F. ^LvXdov. 

Troyon. Memoires et Documents publics par la Societe d' Histoire de 
la Suisse Romande, Tome XVII, Habitations Lacustres des temps anciens 
et modernes par Frederic Troyon. XVII PP., 380 Fig^. 1860. A 
comparison of this work with the Proto-Helvetes of Victor Gross will 
show how much photography has contributed to the illustration of pre- 
historic archcBology. 

Le Baron G. de Bonstetten, Recueil d' Antiquites Suisses, folio, 1855 
accompagne de 28 Planches Lithogra})hiees. The following passages are 
those most^closely connected with the statements^made in the preceding 
Memoir — Epoque Ilelvete et Helveto-Romaine (Age de bronze et de fer), 
pp. 9-20, and Epoque Romaine (Tombes k ustion et k inhumation), 
p. 21 sq. ; Planche XIX, Mosa'ique d' Orlie, p. 40 sq. Supplement, 1860, 
PI. XX, Hercule etouffant le lion, p. 26 sq. Second Supplement, 1867, 
PI. XIV, ]\Iosai(pi(; decouverte a Yvonans (canton de Vaud) ; Orpliee 
entoure d'animaux (ju'il charme aux sons de sa lyre. PI. XV, MosaiVpie de 
Bosseaz (Urlxi), pp. 16-18. Xotwithstanding some mistakes and a want 
of that minute? accuracy which we usually hnd in German writers, this 
work must be regarded as highly meritorious, and even indispensable. 

Gdttlii'b Emanuel von llallcr, Bibliothek der Schweizer-Geschichte, 
IV Tlieil, Sect. 6, In Ilclvetien gefundciu' Alterthiimer. 1, Uebcrhaupt. 
2, Insbcsundiin;. .'5, Untergeschobenc. 

Anzeiger flir Sclnveizerische Alterthumskundc, Zurich. 


Neiijahrsbliitter von dcr Stadt-Bibliothek in Zlii'icli. 

Le Koy, IJiio visite aux Mosa'iques d' Orbe. This book is very scarce : 
I was uiiabli! to find it in the Bibliotheque Natiouale at Paris, tliougli a 
diliti;(!nt search was madt'. 

S. Lysons, Reliquia- nritannico-lioiuanie, vol. [[1, p. G, Mosaic at 
lU.guor, PL VI., Nos. 1, 2. He says tliat at Avi-iichos (vide supra, No. 
31) is like it. Each of them has a eist(!rn of abont the same size. So 
liursian, Aventicum, Heft I. p. 23, J ii der Mitte d(!S Fussbo(h;iis, wdcher 
einen Saal von 55 Fuss Liiuge und 36 Fuss IJreite zierte, befand sich ein 
achteckiges Bassin {lahnim) von wcissem Marnior von 6 Fuss Durch- 
messer und 1^- Fuss Tiefe, woraus man schliessen muss, dass der Saal als 
Baderaum diente. Both pavi;inents show similar defects in drawing ; 
and at Avenches there appenrs a blue nimbus round the head of Bacchus, 
as at Bignor round the head of Venus. The resemblance Ijeing so close 
has naturally led to the conjecture that the same artist was employed in 
both cases. See also the article by Lysons on a Roman Villa discovered 
at Bignor in Sussex, Archteologia, vol, xviii, p, 220 (1817). 

Orelli, CoUectio Inscriptionum Latinarum, ed. 1828, vol. I, cap. i, 
Geographica, sec. 5 Helvetia, pp. 101-135, professes to give all the in- 
scriptions found in Switzerland. No one can dispute his eminence as a 
textual critic and expositor of classical authors, but he has failed as an 
epigraphist ; and though his residence at Zurich must have given him 
great facilities, the section relating to his own country is specially 

Mommsen, Inscriptiones Confoederationis Helvetieae, has corrected the 
mistakes and supplied the omissions of preceding writers ; later publica- 
tions by Swiss antiquaries have, in their turn, improved upon his labours. 
The list of Auctores ^??'rtecij?«i'3 adhihiti, pp. xi-xviii, op. citat., contains 
many valuable suggestions, Mommsen has made a long stride in advance, 
but his work is not finished with the same care and completeness as the 
volumes of the Corpus Inscc. Led. that have appeared at Berlin. Helvetia 
has not yet been included in this series. 

Die Wappenrolle von Ziirich, Ein heraldisches Denkmal des vierzehnten 
Jahrhunderts, 1860, coloured plates 4to. 

The Rev. S. S. Lewis, Fellow of Corpus Christi Collegt^, Cambridge, 
possesses a model of a Lake-Handet built on piles, such as is supposed to 
have existed in the pre-historic age, executed by Max Gotzinger of Bale, 
scale -j-^o of life-size. It is " constructed on materials carefully gathered 
by Professor F. Keller," and represents groups of inhabitants, male and 
female, engaged in various occupations. Mr. Lewis exhibited this model 
at a meeting of the Caml)ridge Antiquarian Society, and read a Memoir 
in which he explained it fully. He also remarked that it illustrated 
^d'^schylus, Persae v. 865, and Herodotus, book v, chap. 16. The latter 
passage is particularly interesting, because it supplies an historical })arallel. 
Herodotus descriljes at length habitations in Lake Prasias (Macedonia) 
upon planks brought from Mount Orbelus, Com]), the frontispiece of Dr. 
Keller's book quoted above, Englisli translation ; it is an " ideal sketch " 
of the Pfaldhcm according to the latest discoveries. See also Baehr's 
edition of Herodotus loc citat,, and Rawlinson's Translation, vol, iii, pp. 
225-228, with notes containing many references. 

The chief ancient authorities for Helvetia are the following : — 

Caesar, De Bello Gallico, lib. I, cc, 2-29, This passage is our most im- 



portant source of information, as it relates the migration of the Helvetii 
into Gaul, Caesar's war with tliom, and the defeat which they suffered near 
Bihracte (Mont Beuvray). We find in chap. 2 the dimensions of their 
country ; in 12, 27 the pagi (cantons) into which it was divided; in 29 
a statement that they recorded their numbers in Greek characters, tabulae 
repcrtae sunt. Uteris Graecis confectae ; with which comp. the use of 
Greek letters by the Druids, ihirl. VI, 1 4, and inscriptions in the same 
language on the borders of Germany and Khaetia, Tacitus, Germ. c. 3. 

Tacitus, Histories, I, 67-69 : Slaughter of the Helvetii by Caecina in 
the civil war that followed immediately after Galba's death: C. 67, he 
relates that Aquae was plundered. The modern name of this place is 
Baden (Canton Aargau, Argovie), just as Aquae Sulis is now called Bath. 
The town is noAV resorted to on account of its sulphureous waters, so that 
the historian's description still remains applicable — locus amoeno salu- 
brium aquarum usu frequens. C. &^, Mons Vocetius occurs; this is Boetz- 
berg, a lofty hill in the north-eastern branch of the Jura, over which a 
Roman road is said to have been carried. Vocetius must not be con- 
founded with Vogesus or Vosegus, the Vosges (Vogesen) in Alsace. " JSTot 
far from these places, and guarding the German frontier, was Vindonissa, 
an important military station, as we have already seen, at the junction of 
the rivers Limmat, Reuss and Aar, on which the cities Zurich, Lucerne 
and Berne are situated respectively ; the combined stream falls into the 
Rliine at Coblenz {confluentes), which reminds us of the town so called at 
the union of the Moselle with the Rhine. The Romans here showed their 
usual sagacity in choosing an advantageous situation for their camp : 
comp. the expression of Tacitus, Agricolac. 20, loca castrisipse capere;ib. 
22, opportunitates locoruni; and the position of their forts in the North of 
England: Bruce, The Roman Wall, edit. 4to., Stationary Camps, p. 60 
sq. ; BorcovmiSj Housesteads, p. 180. 

Ammianus INIarcellinus was a contemporary of the Emperor Julian, and 
in his military career visited most parts of the Roman world. He 
inforins us, lib. XV, c. 5, s. 22, that he was sent to Gaul on the staff of 
Ursicinus, as 'protedor domestiens, officer in the life-guards (a.d. 354). 
Hence it seems very probable that he spent some time in Helvetia. Two 
passages in his history are interesting, because they refer to the localities 
which are now most remarkable for Roman remains. XV, 11, 12, Alpes 
Graiae et Poeninae exceptis obscurioribus habent et Aventicum, desertam 
quidem civitatem sed non ignobilem quondam, ut aedificia semiruta nunc 
quoque demonstrant. XXX, 3, 1, Valentiniano post vastatos ali(pios 
Alamanniae pagos munimentum aedificanti prope Basiliam, quod appellant 
accolae Robur (Stronghold), offertur praefecti relatio Probi. XV, 4, 1-5. 
Annuianus mentions Brigantia ; he uses the word as the name first of a 
city (Bregenz), and secondly of the lake of Constance (Ijodensee) : he 
describes the latter as round in form, of vast extent, with impenetrable 
forests on its banks, horrore squalentium silvarum inaccessura. 

But little additional knowledge can be gleaned from the ancient 

Strabo, p. 192, Lib. IV, cap. Ill, s, 3, says that the Rhine rises in 
^Mount Adula, j^robably the Splugen, and in the country of the Helvetii ; 
p. 208, IV, c. VI, s. 11, that the Leman lake, the plains of Switzerland and 
the Jura (tv)v Ai/xvtjv rvyv Av^/xevvai', tcL 'EAoi';;ttioji' TreSta, '\op(i.) are on 
tlie way from the Pennine Aljis (Great St. Bernard) to the Seijuani and 


T>iii<f()iu's (Franrlir Coniiu and Laugrcs) ; and p. 271, VI, 2, 4, that tlie 
KliDiU! Hows through the lake of Geneva and visibly maintains its current 
(yvixfxkveL tu /k?/xa Ota Xl/jlviis lov, opaTi]V (tm^ov ti)i' pva-tv). P. 292, 
VII, 1, '5, he gives the dinaensiuns of the Lake of Constaucc — 
more than 300 (perhaps we should read GOO) stadia in circunifennice, and 
200 in l)readth. He also mentions an island in it, which Tiberius used 
as a point (Vcqipal. or base of operations {opix-ijTi'ipioi') in liis war against 
the Vindelici. This seems to be Reichenau in the ITntersee, a few miles 
from Constance, as there is no island in the larger lake (IJodensce), 
Tiberius gained the victory in a naval engagement, surprising the enemy 
where he least expected to be assailed: Merivale, History of the Romans 
under the Empire, vol. iv, p. 202, edit. 8vo. The Parliamentary General 
Ludlow achieved a similar success on the Lakes of Killarney in the year 
1652. Strabo also mentions that the Helvetii and Vindelici inhabit high 
tabledands. (opoTreSta) 

Besides Bregenz, and Constanz Avhere the Emperor Constantius Chlorus 
built a fort about a.d. 304, Romanshorn and Arbon testify to the pre- 
sence of the Romans in these parts, both being on tlie shores of the 
Bodensee. The former is immediately op])osite Eriedrichshafen, and was 
formerly called Cornu Romanoni.m, on account of its situation on a tongue 
of land. So Caesar uses the word with reference to the harbour of Brindisi ; 
Cicero ad Atticum, lib. IX, ep. 14, Ab ntroque portus cornu moles 
jacimus. The latter was Arhor Felu; a station on the high road from 
Vindonissa through Aquae (Baden), and Vitudurum (Ober Winterthur) 
to Brigantia. 

Ptolemy, Geographia, lib. II, cap. 9, Gallia Belgica, s. 9, under the 
head Raurici mentions two cities, Augusta Rauricorum, and Argentovaria 
which appears in Ammianiis Marcellinus as Argentaria, XXXI, 10, 8 ; 
the latter relates that a battle took place there in the war of Gratian with 
the Germans. Some suppose the modern name to be Elsenheim, and 
others Arzenheim. Ibid. s. 10 " Behind the mountain situated below 
them (the Lingones) and called Jurassus (Tovpacrcros) are the Helvetii 
along the River Rhine, whose cities are Ganodurum and Forum Tiberii." 
Cf. Mommsen, Inscc. Confoed. Helv., p. 27, note. We cannot speak with 
certainty about these towns, because they do not occur elsewhere. Some 
have identified Ganodurum with Burg opposite Stein, where the Rhine 
issues from the Untersee. Cluverius proposed to read Salodurum, which 
seems probable. Several inscriptions have been found there, Mommsen, 
Op. citat., Nos. 218-233 ; amongst them one containing the words 
VICO SALOD, A.D. 216 ; it is in honour of Epona, for whom see my 
Paper on Autiin, Archaeol. Jour., vol. xl, pp. 35-37 and foot-notes. The 
termination durum indicates that the place was near water ; it is common 
both in Gallic and British names, and comes from the Celtic Dm\ duir, 
Armoric doiir and dollar (Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, s.v.). Dur 
appears sometimes at the beginning, sometimes at the end of a word : 
comp. Durovernum, 1 )urol)rivae, Durocornovium in Britain ; Duro- 
cortnrum, Divodurum and the river Adour (Atur or Aturus) in (iaul. 

Walckenaer thought that Forum Tiberii was at Reichenau ; others 
have placed it at Steckborn between Stein and Constanz, oi at IVtinesca 
(l)erhaps Biel, Bienne.) 

The edition of Ptolemy by Karl Midler, Didot, Paris, 1883, should 
be c(jnsulted, as it is a great improvement upon its predecessors ; the 


notes ( untain many quotations from, and references to, recent authorities, 
e.g., Leake, Kiepert, Bertrand, Desjardins. At present only the first 
vohime has appeared. 

Pomponius ]\I('la, who flourished in tlie reiyn of Claudius I. repeats the 
statement of Strabo about the Rhone passing through the lake of Geneva, 
II, 5, p. 51, ed. Parthey, se per medium integer agens quantus venit 
egrcditur. He says that the Rhine descending from the Alps forms two 
lakes, Venetus and Acronns, by which he seems to mean the Bodensee 
and Untersee, III, 2, p. 67, ed. Parthey. 

The Ajitonine Itinerary and the Table of Peutiiiger. 
There were three great routes in Helvetia, one on the eastern and two 
on the western side. The former connected Brigantia with Connmi and 
ISIediolanum (ISIilan), passing through Curia (Coire, Chur) ; at this ])lace 
it divided into two branches forming a loop, as they united again above 
the head of the lake of Como : Itinerary, pp. 277-279. Of the latter, 
one Avas carried over the Graian Alps (Little St. Ika-nard), and LmI from 
^lediolanum to Argentoratum (Strasburg), through Augusta Praetoria 
(Aosta), Darantasia (Moutiers, capital of tlie Tarantaise), Geneva and 
Vesontio (Besan^on), so that the course of the road was south and west 
of the Leman lake, and west of the lake Xeuchatel ; Ih., pp. 346-350. 
On the other road, from Mediolanum to ]\logontiacum (Mayence), over 
the Pennine Alps (Great St. Bernard), we find the stations, Aventiculum, 
Salodurum and Augusta Rauracum, so that this route took a more 
easterly direction, ih., pp. 350-355. The pagination is Wesseling's, and 
is given in the margin by Parthey and Pinder in their excellent edition 
(1848), which contains a Conspectus Itinerum, pp. 291-296; a copious 
Index of ancient names with corresponding modern ones, pp. 297-403 ; 
Facsimiles of ]\ISS., and a map of the Orbis Romanus showing the roads 
and chief stations. 

The greater part of Helvetia appears in the Second Segment of the 
Tabida Peutingeriana ; in the Third Segment we have a small part of 
eastern Switzerland, including Ad Fines (Pfyn), Arbor Felix and 

There must have been important lines of traffic through Switzerland 
in ancient times, but I have not met with any direct statement by the 
Greek or Latin authors to this effect. From evidence of various kinds 
we know three trade-routes to the amber-coasts — the western, central and 
eastern : see my paper on Scandinavia, Archarol. Jour., vol. xxxiv, \\ 
245 sq. and notes ; Professor Boyd Dawkins, Early Man in Britain, 
map, Fig. 168, p. 467. " The Etruscan trade i)assed also northwards 
through Switzerland into the valley of the Rhine as far as its mouth, 
and found its way also through various Alpine passes and by the Mediter- 
ranean into France." 

I add two Inscriptions which deserve special notice — the one on 
account of its intrinsic interest and comiection with Avenches, the other 
because our own country is mentioned tlierein. 

VIA / / v/CTA PER M 


Momniscn, Inscc. Helvct., p. 34, Nc 181 ; Orelli, Inscc. Lat., vol. i, 
p 124, No. 401, edit. 1828. 

Nnmini Auoustorum Via ducta jht M. Dunium (or Duiuuu) Patcrnuni 
II Vinuu Colonic Helvetionuu. 

In the expansion Orelli \v.\s farfa (iur ihirf(() and Duinunm (sic), buUi 
of which iirc inaccurate. 

This inscription is still visil)le at Pierre Pertuis, Pnivijort— rianies 
evidently derived from I'etra Pertusa and Petra I'orta— in the ]\Iiinster 
Thai (Val Moutiers), north-west of Biel (Pienne). The solid rock, in 
which there is a natural opening, prohably enlarged by art (Murray's 
Switzerland, Route 1), here formed the boundary between the ScMpiani 
and Raurici, and the letters were cut on the side facing the latter, i.r., 
towards IVde. Savants of the last and of the present century have climbed 
up on ladders to deci[)h(!r them. 

EG • iTil • MACeD • HAST • PVRA 


Mommsen, Op. citat., p. 33, No. 179; Orelli, Op. citat., p. 119, No. 
363. The inscription is given incorrectly by Muratori in his Thesauru.=, 
from which it has been copied in the Monumenta Historica Britannica, 
p. cvi. No. 4, and again in the Rev. H. ]\f. S earth's Early and Roman 
Britain, Appendix lY, p. 241. It commemorates honorary rewards con- 
ferred on a veteran (evocatus), who had served under Claudius in his 
British campaign, a.d. 43 ; they consisted of a spear without a i)oint, 
like a sceptre (hasta pura), and a golden crown. The monument is 
interesting, because it is one of the earliest in which the name of Britain 

Gmter, p. ccccxv. No. 1, has a similar inscription relating to the same 
war, and containing the words, Donis donato a Divo Claudio bello 
Britannico torquibus armillis phaleris corona aurea. So Juvenal mentiojis 
bosses and neck-chains as decorations of soldiers ; Sat. xvi, v. 60, Ut 
laeti phaleris omnes et torquibus omnes. 

On this monument the Roman name of Aventicum appears in full, 
Colonia Pia Flavia Constans Emerita Helvetiorum, and here each word 
may be satisfactorily explained. We cannot doubt that the colony was 
planted by an Emperor of the Flavian dynasty, under which also it seems 
to have been most prosperous. Suetonius informs us that the father of 
Vespasian practised usury and died in Helvetia (Vesp. c. i.) The 
laudatory epithets Pia Constans were applied to the city on account of 
its fidelity to Galba (Tacitus, Histories I, 67, Helvetii . . . Vitellii 
imperium abnuentes), which cau.sed it to be attacked by Caecina, the 
lieutenant of Vitellius (Tac, ib. c. 68, Aventicum... justo agmine 


peteretur). Lastly, the title Enierita implies that veteran soldiers were 
sent thither ; the same word occurs in the ancient name of ]\Ieri(la, 
Augusta Emerita, on the river Anas (Guadiana) : Ford, Handbo(jk of 
Spain, pp. 260-62, edit. 1878 : Heiss, INIonnaies Antiques de I'Espagne, 
Lusitanie, Conventus Emeritonsis, pp. 398-405, Plates LX-LXII ; there 
are many types, but the most remarkable is a gateway with two arches, 
which has been adopted in the armorial liearings of the modern city. 
Like Avenches, Merida was once very flourishing, but has now shrunk 
into small dimensions. " Ses mines seules attestent son ancienne splen- 
deur." Heiss, Hid, p. 399. 

For the details of the Roman remains at Avenches, I must refer the 
reader to Professor Bursian, (_)p. citat. In the first Part (Heft 1) he will 
find a copious account of the walls, towers, gates, aqueducts and theatre ; 
also a special notice of the Corinthian column, which is the most remark- 
able architectural feature in the scene, and immediately arrests the 
traveller's attention: See Tafel III, a view of two pillars, or rather half- 
pillars, together with a ground plan. The loftier one, called Cigognier 
from storks building a nest there, is 37 feet high, and has a diameter of 
rather more than ih feet. Byron, Childe Harold, Canto III, Stanza 

" By a lone wall, a lonelier column rears 
A grey and grief-worn aspect of old days," &c. 

I traced the wall Avhich Lord Byron mentions for about 30 yards, 
visible just above the ground. From this and other ruins we may infer 
that the column belonged to some important edihce, but its use is uncer- 
tain. Some think it was a Cryptojjorticus, which Avas not underground, 
as might be supposed from our word crypt ; but a gallery resembling a 
cloister, as distinguished from an open colonnade QDorticus). Bursian 
suggests a comparison with the Tahernac anjentoriae (silversmith's shops) 
in the Roman Forum: Bunsen, Beschreibung der Stadt Rom., l)and III, 
Abtheil 2, p. 25 sq. 

The topography and scanty vestiges of "levelled .\venticum'' should 
be studied in connection with the Inscriptions. We find in the latter the 
word Schola descriptive of a building ; foundations and jambs of a door 
that have been discovered seem to correspond with an account of a Schola 
erected in honour of the Camilli, Inscc. 142, 192, edit. Mommsen. 
Another structure of the same kind, but much more important, had a 
fa9ade 112 feet long, adorned with columns: it may probably be identified 
with that mentioned in Insc. 184, Avhere the name Q. Cluvius jNIacer 
occurs. From the honours conferred upon him and the repeated mention 
of his family, it appears that they held a high position among the local 
magnates: (/. Inscc. 185, 186. A third schola, not far off, was built by 
the Nautae Aruranci Aramici in jionour of the imperial house (in honorem 
domus divinae). They seem to have been employed on a navigable canal 
between the Murtensee (Lake ^lorat) and Avenches, and derive their 
name from tlie river Arula (Arola), now Aar. In Bursian's plan of the 
town, we see on the outer side of the north wall, Place (Vnnn houcic 
d'amarre (ring for mooring boats). This statement rests on the uncertain 
foundation of a local tradition. 

The word Schola may often be translated a .scliool, and .sometimes it 
means a waiting-i)lace in the public baths (Smith's Diet, of Anti(|(|., pp. 
180, 191 ; Vitruvius, V, 10), where people stood till their turn came 


(o-XoAi/, rest, leisure) ; l)ut it is also used in a wider sense, answering to 
our hall and the French salk. Forcellini, in his Lexicon s.v., gives a 
satisfactory explanation, Dictae sunt etiani Scholae corpora sive ordines 
varii generis honiinuni, uni eidemque officio addictoruui. . . . Eodem 
nomine appellata sunt aedificia, ubi ejusmodi corpora conveni(;l)ant. 
Similarly there was a Schohi at Komc;, named Xantlia from Bebi'yx 
Drusianus A. Fabius Xantlius, between tlie temples of Vespasian and 
Saturn in the Forum. It is described in INFurray's Handbook, p. 23, edit. 
1864, as a raised triangular space surrounded by the remains of a portico, 
under which were the statues of the 12 JJ/i C()nsei/fi(sic). Read Con-vntes 
i.e. Conesentes, those who are together ; cf. ibid. p. 44, and Emil Braun, 
Ruins and INIuseums of Rome, p. 13 ; Dr. W. Smith's Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Geography, vol. ii, p. 788 sq. ; Bunsen, Beschrei- 
bungder Stadt Rom, Band III, Abtheilung 2, p. 9, Versammlungssaal der 
Genossenschaft der Schreiber und Ausrufer der curulischen Aedilen 
(librariorum et praeconum aedilium) ; cf. Plan at the end of the volume, 
Fori Romani et Clivi Capitolini Vestigia. , Xantlim occurs frequently 
on pottery at Autun, Memoires de la Soc. Eduenne. Tom. Ill, p. 394. 

Some vaults and walls of the amphitheatre are still visible at the 
northern end of Avenches, close to a tower used as the local museum, and 
also adjoining the road from Berne to Lausanne. It was elliptical in form, 
having a greater axis of 314 feet, and a lesser of 282. The theatre was on 
the south-eastern side of the ancient city in a quarter where few Roman 
remains have been found, beyond the Forum and Cigognier column ; 
when Bursian wrote (1867), part of the substructions of the cavea (semi- 
circular tiers of seats for spectators), and of the eastern outer wall had 
been laid bare. 

A steep ascent on the north side leads to the town of Avenches, and 
this circumstance points it out as the place where the Capitol was situated, 
which the colonists built in imitation of that of Rome See Daremberg and 
Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines, d'apres les textes 
et les monuments, s.v. Capitolium, Here too, were the temples of the 
tutelary goddess (Stadtgtittin) Aventia and of Victoria ; IMommsen, Inscc. 
154-156, 165 sq. 

In the plan of Aventicum, above mentioned, the dates of discoveries are 
marked on the respective localities. 

The Mosaic of Orpheus, Ko. 23, if Bursian's engraving may be trusted, 
presents another peculiarity ; the musical insti-umont which the Tliracian 
bard is playing resembles a banjo, as it has a circular sounding l)f)ard, and 
thus differs from the Greek lyre, which is shown with more details than 
usual in Sir George Grove's Dictionary of ]\Iusic and Musicians, s.v. Lyre, 
Part viii, p. 181 sq. The illustration, copied from a drawing upon an 
amphora (b.c. 440-330) in the British Museum, represents Apollo 
holding a cithara : First Vase room. Case 53, No. 744 ; Catalogue of 
Vases, vol. i, p. 217. We see here seven strings, but there are only five 
in the " curious and rudely formed instrument," which Orpheus hohls at 
Corinium : Buckman and Newmarch, Plate VII, opposite p. 32. Sir J. 
G. Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, vol. ii, pp. 234-237, 297-304, with 
woodcuts, gives many examples of the guitar, none of the i)anj(j. 
Millin's Plate of the Swiss Mosaic has the lyre of the ordinary shape, 
Galerie Mythologique, CVII, 423; Explication des Planches p. 17 sq. 
Millin follows Laborde, Voyage pittoresque de la Suisse, No. 197. 


In the arabesque honler acorn-cAip.s, for which Valonia is the commercial 
name, alternate with heart-shaped leaves (ivy ?). 

M. Caspari, the local antitiuary, recommended the following works as 
useful to those who would make a special study of Aventicum — Dobloff 
(Vienna), very recent, containing the Bibliography of Avenclies : De 
Maudrot, Voies romaines ; Hager, Antiquities of Avenches. 

Basilia (Bale) is said to be called Basiliensium Civitas in the i^otitia; 
it must not l)e confounded with Basilia near Reims, from which the Porte 
Bazee, Bazeil and Bazel in old French, Basilicaris in Latin, derives its 
name. The latter place is marked thus in the Antonine Itinerary, p. 173, 
ed. Parthey and Pinder ; p. 363 sq., ed. Wesseling. 

Item a Durocortoro (Reims) Divodurum (j\Ietz) usque mpm LiXIIsie. 

1 Basilia ... ... ... ... mpm X 

2 Axuena ... ... ... ... mpm XII. 

Loriquet, Reims pendant la Domination romaine, Travaux de TAcademie 
Imperiale de Reims, 1861, pp 278-285, esp. p. 284. 

In reading abbreviations the Helvetii must be distinguished from the 
Helvii, a people wlio lived in Gallia Narbonensis, and were separated l)y 
the Cevennes from the Arverni : Caesar, Bell. Gall. VII, 7, 8 ; Strabo, 
IV, ii, 2, 'EAouot [x'ev aTTo tov PoSavoi) rryv dp)(^i]v €>(oi'Tes, Oi'eAAdi'ot 8e 
/xera Tovrovi, ol Trpocrwpi^oi'To ttotc 'Apovepvoa. Schmidt, Antiquites 
d'Avenches, p. 8, gives an inscription, in Avhich the words GENIO COL. 
HEL. occur, and, by way of illustration, refers to a medal of the Emperor 
P. Helvius Pertinax with the legend COL. HEL. These letters have 
been variously explained as meaning Colonia Helvetica, Helvia and 
Helipolitana (sic). One would expect Heliopolitana in accordance with 
the Greek words 'HAtoi™-o/\t9 (Baalbec), 'HAtoi'TroAirat, v. Pape, Wiirter- 
buch der Griechischen Eigennahmen. The coin was most probably a 
forgery ; it is not mentioned by Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet., or by Cohen, 
Med. Imp. 

De Bonstetten, Carte Archeologique du Canton de Vaud, concludes his 
Article on Bosseaz by noticing a Roman cemetery below Urba. " II 
renfermait des assiettes en terre sigillee et des urnes cineraires en verre 
dont I'une en forme de poisson." Comp. " the glass vessel in the form of 
a fish " at the Hotel de Ville, Autun, described in my Paper on the 
Antiquities of that city, Arrhaeol. Joiint. vol. xl, p. 41 sq. and notes. 

In the same work, p. 4, De Bonstetten mentions that an aqueduct 
brouglit water to Avenches from the mill at Prez, four leagues distant in a 
southerly direction, and two kilometres from the little lake of Seedorf, 
which is marked in Keller's Reisekarte der Schweiz. It was a channel 
carried umlergrouiid, and entered the city at the West gate. All that 
remains in .•<itti is a fragment of arched masonry that has been walled up, 
2^ feet high, nearly one mile from Avenciies. There was another aque- 
duct, mucli shorter, from a spring on the west side of tlie Bois de Chatel, 
of which traces are visil)le ; viz., a square piece of Jura marljle with an 
0])ening in the centre, and vestiges of the fastening of a cover ; and 
secondly, some hard cement on whicli water has left a solid deposit. 
Comp. Catalogue du Musee Cantonal de Fribourg, 1882, p. 76, No. 129, 
" Blues de ciment de I'aqueduc romain Pre-Avenclies, — Don des entre- 
preneurs de la ligne Fribourg- Yverdon, 1875." 


Much curious information will be, found in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London : vol. vi, Second Series (1873-1876), 
p. 49 sq., contains an account of drawin<:fs of Roman plate discovered at 
Wettingen, a village neai' Haden in the Cantoii Aargau, on the road from 
^rogontiacuni (Arainz) to Vindonissa (Windisch). Amongst the ol)jects 
found tliere was a highly-ornamented skillet, round which W(!re repre- 
sented, in relief and partly gilt, the deities who pr(\side over the days of 
the week with distinguishing attributes. This vessel, ili(U'efore, illus- 
trates the great mosaic at Orbe, described above. Comp. Keller's Arch- 
Jiologische Karte der Ostschweiz, ]k 30, Wettingen under the heading 
Aargau, Riimische Ansiedelungen ; p. 31 Fund von romischem Silberge- 
schirr. Besides the large Map, this brochure of 34 pages is accompanied 
by the part of Peutinger's Table relating to Helvetia, a chart showing 
the Antonine Itinerary for the same country, the Castra Yindonissensia, 
and plans of Vitudurum (Ober-Winterthur), Turicum (Zurich), t^c. For 
the treasure found at Wettingen see also Mommsen Inscc. Xo. 241 sq. 
s.v. Aquse Vicus Helvetiorum ; and for Swiss arclueology in general, 
Indices to vols, vi and viii. Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Lond. The most 
important object mentioned in the latter volume is an Etruscan War 
Chariot of Bronze from the Lake Dwellings, pp. 95-98 : cf, Catalogue of 
the Fribourg Museum, p. 75, No. 121, Cercles en fer et fragment d' 
anneau, probablement d'un chariot de guerre. 

See also Archfeologia, vol. xlvii, pp. 131-136, and full-page Plate ; 
The Grave-mounds of Lunkhofen, in the Canton of Aargau, by Dr. 
Ferdinand Keller, with a Translation by W. M. Wylie, Es(i. 

Cf. omn. The General Index to volumes i-xxv of the Arcluoolmilnal 
Jimrnal, s.v. Switzerland : the references closely printed occupy nearly 
an entire column. 

The pre-historic antiquary should not fail to visit the Glacier-Garden at 
Lucerne : a description of it in four languages — English, French, German, 
and Italian — may be obtained on the spot. These geological remains 
were discovered in the years 1872-75. " Unmittelbar angrenzend, neben 
dera Lowen-Denkmal, der Gletscher-Garten, eine Stelle, wo die Wir- 
kungen d. einstigen Gletscherzeit (quaterniire Periode) in hochst merk- 
wiirdiger Weise sich zusammengedriingt haben. Man sieht grosse Fiind- 
linge in s.g. Riesentopfen v. 10 bis 18 F. Durchmesser u. 9 bis 15 F. 
Tiefe. Berlepsch, Schweiz, 1882, Luzeru und Umgebung. This edition 
omits soirie names of i)laces included in earlier guide-books. 

The finest work of Greek sculpture in Switzerland is a Torso of Venus 
at Geneva. Mr. Talfourd Ely read a learned and exhaustive Paper upon 
it (which I regret to say has not been printed) before the Classical 
Society of University College, -London, March 31st, 1881. There is an 
excellent cast in the Slade School of Art. The original was found in the 
Gardens of Sallust, which lay in the valley between the Quirinal and the 
I'incian (Dr. Wni. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geograiihy, 
vol. ii, p. 831). Cf. Tacitus, Annals, III, 30, diversus a veterum institute 
])er cultum et munditias ; and Orelli's note, mundltiae magis ad supelloc- 
tilem ac tabulas pietas signaque pertinent. This statue was bought by M, 
Etienne Duval for a Museum at Geneva, belonging, I believe, to the 
Municipality: see Univ. CoU. Lond. Calendar, Session 1883-4, p. 291. 

It ordy remains for me to express my deep obligations in conqjiling 
this Memoir to the writings of Mommsen and Bursian ; to bear my humble 

VOL. xwi. 2 e; 


testimony to the industry and acuteness of the Swiss Antiquaries ; and to 
return my cordial thanks to Dr. Sieber, Uuiversitats-Bibliothekar, and 
Professor J. J. Bernoulli of Bale, and to M. Caspari of Avenches, for 
their kind co-operation during my visit to Switzerland in the year 1883. 

P. S. —With the Inscription of Plancus above-mentioned comp. Caylus, 
Eecueil d'Antt., Ill, 251, PI. LXVIII, 1, l. plancvs]l.f.cos|imp. iter.| 
DE. MAXIB. A statue of Plancus has been erected in the court-yard of the 
Town-hall (Ratlihaus) at Bale. 

For a ^lithraie altar found at Angst see Bulletin, Soc. of Ant. of 
France, 1883, p. 117, with engraving ; art. by the Abbe Thedenat. 

]\Iommsen, Inscc. Helvet., No. 343'^ ihec. gemellanvs p. M. Castan 
thinks the Inscription is votive, and reads aqvis HEL(veticis) gemelli- 
ANYS. Memoir es de la Societe d'Emulation du Doubs, Seance du 
14 fevrier, 1880. 


By the Rev. J. F. HODGSON. 


My direct and immediate answer to the first of the five propositions I 
undertook to refute, viz. : — that which alleges that the churches of 
Austin canons were always, or nearly always, parochial, being now com- 
plete ; I have next, and conversely, to shew further that, " though some 
of them were undoubtedly of this dual or compound character, such Avas 
also the case with a consideral)ly greater number of the Benedictine, and 
other churches of monks." AMiat that number — so far as I have been 
able to ascertain it — was, the following list, which wiU be found I think 
as complete and exact, perhaps, as can now be made out, may suffice to 
shew. The total number of Austin canons' churches, which were really 
parochial as well as monastic, was shewn, it may be remembered, to be 
just thirty -seven. I now proceed to describe no fewer than one hundred 
and nineteen churches of the various Benedictine orders which belonged 
to the same class ; in other words to shew that, so far from it having 
been in any way a special or peculiar characteristic of — or, as would seem 
to be implied, one involving a certain stigma or mark of inferiority in — 
such Augustinian churches that they were parochial ; those of the Bene- 
dictines which were so too, were not only, as I have stated, *' considerably " 
more in number, but positively stood to those churches in the ratio of 
more than three to one. So much then for this comparative, or, as it may 
be called, " tu quoque " aspect of the case, the examples, in illustration of 
which I hereunder subjoin in — 


Abergavenny Benedictine Priory Church, Monmouthshire. — 
Hamclin Balon is said to have founded this house, temp. William the 
Con(|ueror or William Kufus. Among many other advowsons, it ixisscs.sed 
that of the parish church of Abergavenny, which servi'd also as that of tlie 
priory. The ruins stilh exist adjoining the nave, wliich, v.-ith th(> rest of 
the church remains, not only in use, but in very perfect preservation. 


Alueby Jjenedictixe Priory Church, Xorfolk. — Aljiics dc V>cUo, wife 
of Hubert de Eye, castellan of N(jrwich, at the request of Herbert de 
LnsiuL^a, tlie bishop, .^ranted .ifrcat part of the lordsliii) of Aldeby to the 
priory of Norwich, together witli the patronage of the churcli (the bishop 
appro] )riating it tliereto), whereupon a cell, consisting of a prior and tlirec 
niLUiks, was erected in honour of S. Mary, closely adjoining the parish 
church. Dug. iv, 461. 

The church, a picturesque, though plain and somewhat irregular 
building, remains perfect, and in use as that of the parish. 

Allerton Mauleverer Bexeuictixe Aliex Priory Church, Yorks. — 
The church of S. jSIartin here, having been given by Richard Mauleverer 
to the abbey of ]\Iarmoutier, a cell to that house was forthwith estab- 
lished on the spot. " Henricus Dei gratia rex Angliae, &c. . . .' . 
Sciatis me .... confirmasse monachis majoris nionasterii in 
Alvertona, ecclesiam sancti IMartini in Alvertona, cum omnibus pcr- 
tinentiis suis, et decimis, et obventiones, et homines, et terras, et 
possessiones," &c. Dug. vii, 1028. For a translation of the original 
charter of the endowment, and of the conversion of the chapel of S. 
INIartin into a parochial as well as conventual church, see York vol. of the 
Institute under heading, " Holy Trinity Priory, York," pp. 27-8. 

The church, a fijie cruciform building, is still standing and in use. 

Andover Bexedictixe Alien Priory Church. Hampshire. — Andovor 
priory was a cell to the abbej^ of S. Florence, at Saumur, in Anjou. The 
buildings of the priory adjoined the church of S. Mary at this place, which, 
Avith all its possessions, was given by William the Conqueror to that 
foreign house. It continued to exist as the church of the parish till its 
complete destruction by Dr. Goddard (head master of Winchester 
College), about forty-six years since. 

" From the complete separation of the chancel and nave, I should 
conclude that the church must have been monastic and parochial. The 
tower was between the nave and chancel. The altar was in the chancel, 
and the inhabitants went through a door from the nave into the tower, 
and again by a door in a kind of screen into the chancel. There were 
signs of a large arch in the tower on the nave side."- — 

Letters of Rev. C Collier, vicar, accompanied with drawing of old 
church from painting in the vestry. 

Arundel Benedictine Alien Priory Church, ^ssex. — "The case of 
the collegiate church of Arundel" has been already so amply and 
excellently set forth by Mr. Freeman in this Journal, xxxvii, 244-70, that 
all that need here be said concerning it is that, originally, and before its 
conversion into a collegiate church, it was not onlj' tlie parish church of 
Arundel, but also that of a priory of Benedictine monks, established by 
Roger de ]\Iontgomery, as a cell to the abbey Secz, in Normandy. 

AsTLEY Ijexedictine Alien Priory Church, Worcestershire. — Astley 
priory was a cell to the abbey of S. TauriuTis, near Eljroix, and was 
founded by Ralph de Todenei, liefore A. D. IIGO. According to Nash, a 
portion for the vicar was precisely set down about a.d. 131 G. He had 
also, it .seems, the liberty to fetch water horn a certain fountain in the 
prior's garden. " This fountain still remains in the rector's garden. The 


old rectory was to the soutli of the cliurcliyaiil, and was very j)robal)ly 
the priest's house l)efore the Reformation. Ueiiig very dilapidated, how- 
ever, it was removed about the l)i',i,'iiiiiin<:!; of the present century."- -Letter 
of the Rev. H. W. Crocket, rector. 

As the priory would seem from the facts above stated to have closely 
adjoined the churchyard in the usual way where the church was connnon 
l)oth to tlie priory and parish, there can be little doubt, though jiositive 
proof be wanting, that such was the case also in the })resent in.-tance. 

Ijaurow Gurney Benedictine Phiouv Church, Somehsetshiue. — 
Tanner, following Leland, attrilmtes the foundation of this ])ri()ry to one 
of the Gurncys, at a date uncertain, but prior to a. d. 1:100. It was 
endowed, inter aJin, with the rectory of the parish church, which, closely 
adjoining it on the north-east served also as that of the convent. The 
priory, though much altered and rebuilt, is at present represented by 
a spacious mansion known as the " Court "; while the church, in spite of 
much mischievous rebuilding in 1820, retains generally, as it would seem, 
its original plan and dimensions. — Letter, with sketch gi'ound plan, of the 
Rev. A. AVadmore, vicar. 

Bennington, Long, Cistercian Alien Priory Church, Lincolnshire. 
— Tanner says, the church and four carucates of laud in this town Ix'ing 
given by Ralph de Fulgoriis to the abbey of Savigney, before a.d. 11 To, 
here became an alien priory of Cistercian monks subordinate to that 
foreign monastery. — L)ug. vii, 1024. 

" The chancel " (of the ancient i)arish cluirch) " is V(!ry large, but of 
good proportions. The prior's seat, as also the ends of other of the 
old chancel seats, remain. The church is cruciform, and the tower well 
preserved. A farm house, close to the churchyard, is said to be built on 
the site of the domestic buildings, and the fish ponds still exist." 

"An old man told our jmrish clerk that the stalls" (of 
which there are five) " used to be under the north window in the 
chancel " (that is in the western half of that side; " and that the prior's seat 
was in the position marked on the plan " (that is, facing south in the 
angle formed by the north wall and the respond of the chancel arch). 
"This seems its natural position, as one side was originally built into a wall, 
and on the other side there is a mark of a plain bench having been fitted 
against it, and also a board for the back. It seems quite clear that this 
seat stood by itself, and that the other five stalls belong to a separate 
range." ..." With these excejitions, that it is slightly larger than 
the other stalls, and that it is a little more carved, there is nothing to dis- 
tinguish this particular seat from the rest. Yet it has always stood by 
itself, and has always been known as ' the prior's seat.'" — Letters and 
plan, of the Rev. W. Barker, vicar. 

Binham Benedictine Priory Church, Norfolk. — " Notum sit . . . 
quod ego Petrus de Valoniis et Albreda uxor mea, . . . dono et concede 
Deo et sanctaj Marise et sancto Albano ecclesiam sanctse iNLarise de Binham 
totumque manerium meum &c . . . Quae ecclesia 8anctpe Marioe de Bin- 
ham eo tenore subjicitur ecclesiae sancti Albani in cella"&c. At the 
Dissolution, the choir and transepts of this lai'ge church were destroyed, or 
let go to ruin ; the nave he'nvj. retained as aforetime for the use of the 


parishioner^?. Two good plates of Binliam priory, with a plan, are given in 
Britton's Arch. Ant. of Gt. Britain, iii, 71. 

BiRSTALL Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Holdernbss, Yorks. — 
Birstall was a cell to the abbey of S. INIartin de Alceis, near Albemarle. 
Stephen, earl of Albemarle, having given a.d. 1115, to those monks 
several tithes and churches in this part of Yorkshire and north Lincoln- 
shire, they sent over a procurator with some brethren to look after the 
same. These fixed their cell in the chapel of S. Helen here, and so con- 
tinued till the sale of their property to the abbot and convent of Kirk- 
stall, 18th Kichard II. 

*' Omnibus &c. Walterus Dei gratia Eboracensis archiepiscopus &c. . . 
Attendentes etiam quod non habuerunt hucusque in provincia nostra 
locum suae habitationi congruum . . . capellam de Birstall, cum suis ])er- 
tinentiis, et cum decimis de Skeflings . . . eisdem impcrpetuum conce- 
dimus . . . ita quod pra^dicta capella in nullo ecclesiae de Esinton subji- 
ciatur ; sed prior de Birstall capellanum, quern parochiie de Birsta diixerit 
praeponendum, decano pra?sentet pro voluntate prioris amovendum ; qui 
excessus parochianorum decano denuuciet et capitula sectetur," &c. — Dug. 
vii, 1019-20. 

Blythb Benedictine Priory Church, Nottinghamshire. — " Xotum 
sit . . . quod ego Rogerus de Builly et uxor mea Muriel . . dedi, coii- 
cessi, et hac pnesenti carta mea confirmavi Deo et beatae INIarise de Bliila, 
et monachis ibidem Deo serventibus, ecclesiam de Blida, et totam villam 
integre, &c." — Dug. iv, 623. 

The eastern, or monastic part of the church of 8. Mary is pulled down 
and destroyed ; the western part, or nave, continues to be used as the 
parish church. There are also some slight remains of the adjoining priory. 
Plans and drawings of this interesting churcli have been ])ublished by Mr. 
Hodges, architect, Durham ; reference to which may be seen in this 

BoxGROVB Benedictine Priory Church, Sussex. — The church of S. 
Mary and S. Blase at Boxgrove was founded by Robert de Haye, and 
given by him to the abbey of Essay, which placed in it a cell of three 
monks. Th(^ western, or parochial portion of this fine and singularly 
interesting building is ruined ; the eastern, or monastic church or choir, 
being noAV occupied as the parish church. An excellent historical and 
architectural account, with plan, view and details, may be found in the 
volume containing Prof. Willis's Architectural History of Chichester 

Brecknock Benedictine Priory Church. — Brecknock priory was a 
cell to Battle abbey. The church, a fine cruciform building, perfectly 
l^rescrved, was always, as at })resent, parochial. A long and interesting 
agreement between the vicar, and the prior and convent, may be seen in 
Dugdale, Mon. iii, 267. 

Bromfield Benedictine Pinouv Church, Shropshire. — A college 
of secular canons Avho were established licre from an early period, in a.d. 
1155 yielded up their church and all their lands to tlie abbey of S. 


Peter at Gloucester ; wlioreupon a prior and certain monks were settled 
on the spot, and so continued till the dissolution. 

" H. dei gratia rex Angliae, &c., Sciatis nie dedisse ecclcsiam 

ineaiu S. INIaria^, de Bronifeld, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, priori et 

monachis ibidem Deo servientibus, tenendum de me sicut nostram 

dominicam capellam salva tamen tenura prsedictorum canonicorum 

(piamdiu vixerint. Post mortem auteni illorum libercN et quiete ad 

l)roprios usus revertantur," &c. Dug. iv, 154-5. 

The ancient parocliial and monastic church of Bromfield still exists, 
though badly " restored " in 1840. The remains of the priory buildings 
stood till lately — perhaps still stand — closely adjoining it towards the 

Bungay Benedictine Priory Church, Suffolk. — The priory of 
Bungay was founded by Roger do Glanviil, and the countess Gundreda 
his wife, virtually by the latter alone, circa a.d. 1160, to the honour of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Holy Cross ; and endowed, inter (ilia, 
with the church of S. Mary, Bungay, to which it was attached. The 
church (near which the ruins of the house remain), though much altered 
and rebuilt, still remains in use as that of the parish. 

Burton upon Trent Benedictine Abbey Church, Staffordshire. — 
Founded by Wulfric Spott, temp. Ethelred, whose charter of confirma- 
tion is dated a.d. 1004. It Avas placed under the invocation of S. jNIary 
and S. Modwenna, an Irish saint who lived as an anchorite for several 
years on an island in the Trent near the place, and was there buried. 
After the dissolution, king Henry VIII founded, according to Tanner, 
about Nov. 3, 1541, on the site, and in the church of this monastery, a 
college, consisting of a dean and four canons, but it lasted only for a 
short time, being dissolved before a.d. 1545. The ancient monastic iuid 
collegiate church of St. Mary and vS. Modwenna continued to be used as 
that of the parish till a.d. 1720, when, being greatly dilapidated, it was 
taken down and the present church built in its stead. 

BuRWELL Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Lincolnshire, — The 
priory of Burwell was founded, according to Tanner, by some of the 
Lords of Kyme, by whom it was given as a cell to the abbey of S. 
Mary Silvse Majoris, near Bordeaux. '' A Honurable honrnu^ et sage de 
seint religion I'abbe de Silve-Majour, Gilbert de Umfranivill, count Dangos, 

et seignur de Kyme, honours, Szc vous priouns cherement, que vous 

voillies mander un priour covenable pur la sauf gard de la priorie et 

pur servir la eglise parochial, car il ny ad chapelain pur servir la eglise ni 
ministrer les sacramentz au parocliiens," &c. — Dug. vi, 1015. 

The parish, and formerly conventual, church of Burwell — a small, 
aisleless building of Norman date — is still standing and in use. "The 
ruins of the priory (mounds and hollows) come close up to the east end 
of the cliurch, and we have come upon some stone work when digging near 
the east end." — Letter of the Rev. C. A. Alington, rector of Muckton, 

Cannington Benedictine Priory Church, Somersetshire, — Robert 
de Curcy was the founder of the nunnery of Cannington, circa a.d. 
1140; endowing it with the manor, and rectory and vicarage of the 


place. LelanJ, speaking of Cannington, says, " There was a priory of 
nunne;^, wliose cliircli Avas lianl adnexid to the est of the paroch chirch." 
Dug., iv, 416-17. 

By " hard adnexid " is to l)o understood — ^joined on to ; the structural 
chancel having, in fact, formed the monastic chapel. 

Cardigan BEXEurcTiNE Priory Church. — This was a cell to the 
abbey of Chertsey, of uncertain foundation, but existing prior to a.d. 
1291. Leland says that in his time it was inhabited by only two monks. 

"Thomas Hore prior priorutus i)ra?.dicti tenet prioratum domus et 

edificia prioratui ac ecclesiam parrochialem villse Cardigan' cum 

capella de Tref jMayne, cum omnibus eorum emolimentis et profic'," 
&c.— Valor Hen. VIII. 

The parish church of Cardigan, which was also that of the priory, 
stands to the east of the town, the site of the priory lying eastwards of it 
again. There still exists a " door leading to the priory from the south- 
east corner of the sanctuary. " — Letter of the* Rev. W. C. Da vies, vicar. 

Carisbrooke Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Isle of Wight. 
— William Fitz-Osbern, earl of Hereford, having founded the abbey of 
Lira in Xormandy, endowed tlie same, circa a.d. 1071, Avith several 
possessions in England ; among others with the church of S. Mary in 
Carisbrooke, wherein a prior and some other monks from that house 
were soon after settled. 

" Sciant pra3sentes, &c., quod ego Willielmus de Vernun, filius comitis 
Baldwini, dedi et concessi ethac carta confirmavi, ecclesioe beatcB iMario? de 
Carisbroc, et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus," &c. — Dug. vii, 1U40-1. 

" The present church of Carisbrooke was the church of the cell of the 
Benedictines at Carisbrooke." ' The remains,' says Mr. Freeman, ' are 
worth studying as an example of monastic arrangements on the smallest 

"The cliurch is not cruciform, Init with a double nave after a pattern 
common in the Isle of Wight. The choir was single, projecting from the 
northern body, but has been pulled down ; on tlie north side stood a 
small cloister that did not take up the whole length of the nave, a gate- 
way ranging with its west wall. 

" I think there is every reason to suppose that where the i)resent com- 
munion table stands, at the end of tlie nave, there was an altar for the 
use of the parishioners, and that there was a small choir beyond it for the 
use of tlie few Benedictine monks of the cell of Carisbrooke." — Letter of 
the Eev. E. B. James, vicar. 

Chepstow Benedictine Priory Church, Monmouthshire. — Chepstow 
priory was founded as a cell to the abbey of Corineilles, according to 
Coxe, soon after the Conquest. The cliurch of St. Mary — a fine cruci- 
form building — which was also that of the parish, retains yet, thougli 
much mutilated and rebuilt, several of its Norman features. 

Chester Benedictine Abuey, now Cathedral, Church. — The abbey 
church <)f S. Werburgli, at Chester, was in its origin the ancient parish 
or niiitber church of .S8. Peter and Paul, to Avhich tin; relics of S. 
Werburgh were l)rought Ini' safclv, circa A.D. 875. In honour of her re- 


mains, it was rebuilt on a much enlarged scale by ^Ethelred, earl of Mercia, 
and his wife yEthelflaxl early in the tenth century, wluai it was served l)y 
secular canons. In a.u. 1005, Hugh Lupus, earl of Chester, at the per- 
suasion of S. Anselm, expelled these seculars and introducetl Tjonedictines 
in thciir stead. This history may serve to account for the fact of tlio 
church having been parochial as well as monastic to the last, and for tlio 
rel)uilding of the south transept, on svich an enormous and disproportionate 
scale — as the parish church of S. Oswald — late in the 14th century. In 
the Survey, temp. Hen. VIII, we read : — " The p'sonage of Saynt 
Oswaldis w* a certeyn tythe barne w'tin the seyd late abbey of Chest'r 
. . , . Is worthe by ze'ce Ixxij li, xiJ6", \'yl. Whiche p'sonage was 
latelye in the abbotts hands to the use of his house," &c. And : — 
" Wagis of p'sts, that is to saye, .... the wagis of the p'rysshe 
pryste of Saynt Oswald's askethe vjs, viij'^. for mete and tlrynk of a prysto 
helpynge hym in the tyme of Lente and att Easter, to here confessyon, as 
ytt hathe ben accustomyd," &c. 

CoGGES Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Oxfordshire. — Cogges 
was a cell to the abbey of the Holy Trinity at Fecamp, in Normandy, and 
was prol)ably establislied by the ancestors of jManaser tie Arsic, lord of the 
barony of the place, who added new donations to it in 1103 and 1107. 
Dug., vii, 1003. 

" The church undoidotedly was that of the priory (in which I 
now live), and I imagine it must have been originally as now, 
parochial, as well as monastic, because the porch, the oldest remaining 
part (Norman), is on the south side, i.e., furthest from the priory, as an 
entrance for the people, while there is another door (now closed) on the 
north side, which served as an entrance for the monks, and distant only a 
few steps — twelve yards or so — from the old doorway of the priory." 
Letter of the Kev. I. Payne, vicar. 

Cranbournb Benedictine Priory Church, Dorsetshire. — Aylward 
Snew is said to have built an abbey for black monks here, to the honour 
of the Saviour, S. Mary and S. Bartholomew, circa a.d. 960 ; and to it, 
the ruined monastery of Tewkesbury, with the possessions of which it 
became endowed, remained as a cell for above a century. In a.d, 1102, 
however, the great body of the monks were removed by Robert Fitz 
Hamon, earl of Gloucester, the patron of both houses, to Tewkesbury, 
leaving at Cranbourne only two or three of their number, as a cell. Dug. 
iv, 465. 

The conventual, which was also the parish, church of Cranbourne, still 
exists in its integrity, preserving many of its Norman features. 

Croyland Benedictine Abbey Church, Lincolnshire. — This church, 
which is said to have been founded by Ethell)ald, king of Mercia, in a.d. 
716, was probably parochial from the first. Shortly after the dissolution, 
the choir and eastern parts were taken down; the nave with its two aisles 
being left as the parish church. It so continued till the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, when the roof of the nave and south aisle falling 
in, the north aisle and north-west tower Avere enclosed to serve for that 
purpose, an arrangement which continues to the present day. The solid 
screen of stone, with its two doors, which separated the parochial nave 



from the monastic choir and transept, may still be seen forming part of the 
terminal wall of the church as arranged when the eastern part was 
destroyed. Good views of Croyland abbey church are given in Britton's 
Arch. Ant., iv, 85-102. 

Deeping S. James, or East Deepixg Priory Church, Lincolnshire. — 
Deeping priory, a cell to the abbey of Thorney, was founded a. D. 1139, 
by Baldwin, son of Gilbert de Wake, who gave the church of S. James, 
Deeping, to that house, for the purpose. — " Ego Baldwinus Wac ... ad 
usus monachornm quos abbas Thorneiae, consilia capituli sui, sub obedientia 
sua mansuros ibidem voluerit collocare in ecclesia sancti Jacobi, &c. 
confirino Deo et sanctse Marias et ecclesise Thornensi omnia beneficia 
. . . . quae avus mens Baldwinus, &c. eidem ecclesi?e dedimus 
in Deping, scilicet ecclesiam sancti Jacobi, cum pertinentiis suis," &c. . . 
"Memorandum quod anno Domini millessimo ccccxxij f rater Ricardus 
Over tunc prior de Depyng habuit pro domino Thoma Berham ecclesise 
sancti Jacobi de Est depyng vicario equum suum cum sella et frcno, 
nomine Principalis, qui obiit undecimo Kal. Januarii." — Dug. v, 1G7-9. 

The ancient monastic and parochial church of S. James — a very stately 
and remarkable, though mutilated building — still continues, as aforetime, to 
serve as that of the parish. Letter of the Rev. I. George, vicar of 
Deeping S. James. 

Deerhttrst Benedictine Priory Church, Gloucestershire. — Of very 
ancient foundation, the house of Deerhurst is said to have been rebuilt 
A.D. 1056, by king Edward the Confessor, who gave it, with its lands and 
the advowson of the church, to the abbey of S. Denis. Thence it passed 
to Richard, earl of Cornwall, and in the 21st lien. VI. was made denizen. 
The conventual, was all along, as it still remains, the parish church of 

Dunster Benedictine Priory Church, Somersetshire. — A very full 
account of this church having already appeared in this Journal, xxxvii, 
271-77, it is only necessary to say here that the priory was founded by 
William de jNIohun the elder, temp. William the Conqueror, and endowed 
by him inter alia, with the parish church of S. George, which thereafter 
became also the priory church. In a.d. 1498, the monks and parishioners 
being unable to agree, the folloAving division of the building was effected : 
— The monks retained to their private iise the chancel, Avith its aisles or 
chapels, and most probably the transept Avhich gave entrance thereto, and 
would thus serve as a sort of narthex or ante-chapel : the parishioners took 
the nave and its aisles ; and, constructing a ritual chancel by means of 
screen-work carried across its entire breadth, set up the parish altar in the 
deeply recessed space between the western piers of the central tower ; 
opening at the same time doorways in the blocked eastern ends of the 
aisles, so as to admit the joint processions of monks and parishioners which 
were ordained to take place on certain specified occasions. 

Easebournb Benedictine Priory Church, Sussex. — The small priory 
of nuns at Easebourne is said to have been founded by Sir John Bohun 
of ]\Iidhurst, towards the end of the reign of Henry III. In a.d. 1521, 
Joan Sackfylde, the prioress, is enjoined — " quod faciat clausuras fenestras 
capella;, ex orientali parte infra (inter?) capellam prioratus et ecclesiam." 


The nunnery liouse is still existing; but the cloister, formerly connecting 
it with the soiith aisle of the i)arisli church, which served as the chapel of 
the nuns — now in ruins, however, and roolless — is destroyed. Dug. iv, 

East Dereham Benedictine Priory Church, Norfolk. — " Est in 

])riivincia Nordfolca villa qute dicitur J.)ert,'ham Hie nionasteriuin 

condere satagebat Withburga, sepeiitur in csemeterio Derhamensi. Illud 
originale nionastcriuni in Derham, irniptione paganoruni, ac tenipestate 
bellorum, fugato choro sacraruni verginuni, in vidgarem parocliiani est 
dcstitutum." — Leland, Coll. ii, 154. 

Edith "Weston Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Eutlandshire. — 
The jniory of Etlith Weston was a cell to the abbey of S. George at Ban- 
((uerville, in Normandy, to which it was given by William de Taucnrville, 
chandjerlain to king Henry I. " If the site of the church is any guide, 
Ave may certainly infer that the parish church in this place was used as 
the church of tlie priory, for not only is the remnant of the priory near the 
church, but actually touches it, and until the year 1848, when the church 
was restored, there was a room connecting the priory Avith the church over 
the north aisle." — Letter of the Rev. C. H. Lucas, vicar. 

Elstow Benedictine Priory Church, Bedfordshire. — The priory of 
Elstow was founded temp. William the Conqueror, by liis niece Judith, 
wife of Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon. The church, which was also that 
of the parish, still remains in use. 

EvERDON Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Northamptonshire. — 
" Ther(^ is no doubt the present parish church is the old priory church. The 
old fish pond is still traceable in the field below the church yard ; and the 
southern porch, a fine decorated piece of EdAvard IV period, Avas the mode 
of access to the jirior and his clergy from their grounds and buildings. . . 
There are monumental slabs of some of the priors in the floor of the 
church. I may add the last ]irior was appointed first rector. As to the 
priory buildings no trace remains of them near the church, but they are 
said to have extended from the church to the mill on the Nene, about a 
quarter-of-a-mile off, Avhere a fireplace in the manor cottage claims to have 
belonged to the priory." — Letter of the Rev. W. L. Hardisty, vicar. 

Ewenny Benedictine Priory Church, Glajviorganshire. — According 
to Leland, the priory of Ewenny was founded by Sir Jolui de Londres, 
probaljly early in the 12th century. It was endoAved, inter alia, with the 
rectory of the parish church of S. Michael there, and given a.d. 1141, by 
Maurice de Londres to the abbey of S. Peter at Gloucester, as a cell. 
The nave of EAvenny priory church still continues to be used as that of 
the parish ; the originally conventual choir seems to be noAV set apart as a 
charnel-house for the OAvner of the monastic estate. 

Eye Benedictine Priory Church, Suffolk. — The priory of Eye Avas 
founded, temp. "William the Conqueror, by Robert jNIalet, one of the com- 
panions of his expedition, who endoAved it, inter alia, Avith the ]iarish 

church of S, Peter, and all its possessions there " Ego Rdljertus 

Malet, . . , ad usus monachorum apud Eyam monasteriura construo, ct 


luoimcliorum convcntum in e(j pono. Et . , . eidem monasterio .... 
confero, . . . Imprimis ecclesiam Eye . . . cum omnibus terris ct 
decimis eidem pertinent:bus." — Dug. iii, 404-.5. 

" The ruins are distant about a quarter-of-a-mile from the cliurch, and 
are on the opposite side of the small river Dove, a tributary of the 
Waveney. The church is not cruciform. It has aisles to the nave and 
chancel, but they do not extend as far east as the chancel. The south 
chancel-aisle was used, I believe, by the monks from the priory. According 
to the notes of iMr. Sewell, vicar of Yaxley : ' In 1410 ahhey dt.a2)el or 
south-chancel aisle, and ahhey aisle or south aisle were built.' These were 
formeily kept distinct (by a screen, I believe). The entrance to 
ahhey chapel was through priest's door (now bricked up.)" — Letter of 
the Rev. D. Campbell, vicar. 

Farewell Benedictine Priory Church, Staffordshire. — The nave of 
the ancient nunnery church of Farewell, which was also that of the parish, 
was taken down and rebuilt in brick, in a.d. 1747, the chancel being 
suffered to remain. A view of it as it appeared in 1744 is given in Shaw's 
History of Staffordshire. 

" Ego Rogerus dei gracia Cestrensis episcopus .... confirmavi sancti- 
monialibus et Deo devotis mulieribus ecclesiam sanctse Mariae de Faure- 
welle in perpetuam elemosinam cum omnibus appendiciis suis " &c. — 
Dug. iv, 110-11. 

Folkestone Benedictine Priory Church, Kent. — Folkestone priory 
was originally of very early Saxon foundation. At a later period it became 
a cell to the abbey of Lonlay, and later still, a.d. 1137, on account of the 
incursions of the sea, was removed by AVilliam de Abrincis to a site south- 
wards of a new church which he had built, and which, with all its appur- 
tenances, he made over to it. This church, which from the first was 
designed for parochial, as well as conventual uses, still continues as the 
parish church of Folkestone. 

Frampton Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Dorsetshire. — This 
priory was a cell to the abbey of S. Stephen at Caen, to which the manor 
of Frampton was given by William the Conqueror. Dug. vii, 1000. 

The site of the priory, now called Frampton Court, is about one furlo:ig 
distant from the church, a line cruciform building with aisles to the nave, 
and which served both as that of the parish and monastery. — Letter of the 
Rev. R. C. Macdonald, vicar. 

Frieston Benedictine Priory Church, Lincolnshire. — The nunnery 
of Frieston was founded by Alan de Croun, " dapifer " to king Henry I, 
who, A.D. 1114, gave to the abbey of Croyland the advowson of the church 
of S. James with all its appurtenances ; and shortly after, divers lands ;ind 
other neighbouring churches, to he subject to the church of S. James at 
Frieston, as a cell. 

" Ego Alanus de Creun, et uxor mea Muriel . . . donationem in 
elemosina de hiis rebus fecimus ; ecclesiam scilicet Frestonia}," &c. " Has 
omnes ecclesias, cum decimis . . . et terris praidictis, concedimus esse 
subjectas ecclesitc S. Jacobi Frestoniae, cellae S. Guthlaci, libertate qua 
praiuotavimus, jure perpetuo," — Dug. iv, 124-5. 



monks of Whitby having been couipL'lh'(l l)y pirates and otlier lawless 
persons, temp. VVilliam Enfus, to retire to Ilackness, established, on their 
snbseqnent return to Whitby, in, or neai' the church of vS. Ptiter at 
Hackness, the place of their temporary sojourn, a cell of three or four 
monks, Avhich so continued till the dissolution. The church of S. Peter 
still remains as that of the parish. 

Hallystone Benedictine Priory Churcu, Northumberland. — This 
priory was founded for ]5cnedictine nuns Ijy one of the l.'mfravilles of 
Harbottle castle, who gave them the vill, impropriation, and advowson 
of the church of Hallystone. 

" Kicarchis episcopus Uunclmensis consolidavit et univit ec'clcsiam de 
Crossenset, et capellam de Harbotell, ecclcsi?e. dc Halistan, et monialibus 
ibidem Deo servientibus," d^c. — Reg. K. Kellawe, ep. Dunelm. 

Hatfield Pbverell Benedictine Priory Church, Essex. — Ingelrica, 
wife of Ralph Peverell, sometime mistress of William the Conqueror, 
founded here, in ex])iation of her past life, a college of secular canons, 
previous to her decease circa a.d. 1100. This foundation was converted 
by her son William Peverell, temp. Henry I, into a jiriory of Benedictine 
monks, as a cell to the abbey of S. Albans. " Sciatis me dedisse ecclesiae 
sanctse Marise de Hatfelda, meam ])ropriani mansionem, et omnes domos 
meas, ad componenda habitacula monachorum, (^uos ibidem constituo, 

cum omnibus ad eandeni ecclesiam pertinentibus et ([UcB eidem 

ecclesise collata et data fuerunt et Drago capellanus teneljat, et Radul- 
phus," &c. 

The parish church of Hatfield Peverell, which was also that of the 
priory, forms now its sole remains. 

Hatfield Regis, or Broad Oak, Benedictine Priory Church, 
Essex. — The priory of Hatfield was founded circa a.d. 1135, by Alberic 
de Vere, father of Alberic, the first earl of Oxford, on a site closely 
adjoining the parish church, with the rectory and advowson of which it 
was endowed. " The prior and convent having the great tithes of the 
parish church of Hatfield Regis appropriated to them supplied the cure 
by their own members, till a vicarage was ordained, wdiich was before 
1370 ; and they were the patrons of it till their suppression." In an 
Inquisition taken concerning the benefactions of one Robert Taper and 
Milicent his wife to the monastery, the distinction between the eastern, 
or monastic "partem fabricae novae conventualis ecclesiae," and the 
western, or parochial part, " fenestram magnam ad caput occidentale 
parochialis ecclesia",," may be readily detected. The ruins of th(! priory 
still stand close to the church — now altogether appropriated to the parish. 
Dug. iv, 432-5. 

Hertford Benedictine Priory Church. — This })riory was a cell to 
the abbey of S. Albans. The church of S. Mary is said to have been 
rebuilt a.d. 1638, by Thomas AVillis (the then owner of the priory estate) 
under the invocation of S. John Ikptist ; and the parish to which it 
belonged is now united with that of AH Saints. The following extracts 
relating to it are taken from the Register of S. Albans : — 

" Radulfus de Limesey donavit ecclesiam, quam extruxit apud Hert- 
ford, ccclesiiu sancti Albani in cellam pure, pro retleniptionc animse 


SUSP," &f. " Sciendum est auteni quod, pro hoc beiicticio, debet ubbas 
saucti Albani, post prinium annum providere sex monachos, de sua con- 
gregationc, ad servieuduni Deo et sanctie Marise in prsefata ecclesia de 
Hertford," &c.— Dug. iii, 299-300. 

Hinckley Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Leicestershire. — 
This was an alien priory for two Benedictine monks onl}', ])elongiug to 
the abbey of Lira, and founded, according to Nichols, by Hugh de 
Grantmesnil the ekler. — Dug. vii, 1030. 

The parish clmrch of Hinckh-y, which is a large and handsome cruciform 
building, with a magnificent western tower and spire, "was in connection 
with the priory, which stood quite close. There is a view of it in 
Nichols' History." Letter of the Rev. W. H. Disney, vicar. 

Holland, or Up-Holland Benedictine Priory Church, Lan- 
cashire. — At first, this priory was founded for a dean and twelve secular 
priests in the church or chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr at Holland ; 
but these, in a.d. 1319, were changed, on the petition of Sir Kobert de 
Holand the patron, into a prior and Benedictine monks. The domestic 
buildings are now destroyed, but the church — a fine and most interesting 
building of three aisles, under a roof Avhich is continuous and unbroken 
from end to end, with a low tower to the Avest — continues in its integTity 
as that of the parish. Dug. iv, 409-11 ; and view forwarded by t^ie 

Little Horkesley Cluniac Priory Church, Essex — a ceU to the 
priory of S. jNlary at Thetford, was founded temp. Henry I. by Robert 
Fitz Godl)old and Beatrix his Avife, who gave aU their churches to the 
priory of S. Mary, Thetford, on condition that as many monks of that 
house should be sent to the church of S. Peter at Horkesley, as the place 
would conveniently hold. 

" Ita videlicet, quod prior de TeflPord, concedente toto conventu in 
capitulo, mittet monachos in ecclesia S. Petri de Horchesleia, quantum 

poterit convenienter sustinere locus ille." 

"Contirmasse ecclei-i* S. Petri de Horkesleia, et monachis ibidem Deo 
servientibus," &c. ; " ecclesiam de Horkesleia, ubi monachos Cluniacenses 
posuit ad serviendum Deo in perpetuum," &c. — Dug. v, 156-7. 

The priory stood on the north side of the church of St. Peter, Little 
Horkesley, which is still standing and in use as that of the parish. 

Horton Benedictine Priory Church, Dorsetshire. — " Orgarus, 
comes Devonise, primus fundator. Postea quidam Rogerus, episcopus de 
Shirburne, obtinuit ab Henrico priino, ut possessiones monasterii de 
Horton transferret ad monasterium de Shirburne." — Leland, Coll. i, 78. 
From th(; l)<jmesday survey it appears that beside other possessions, the 
church held the village in which it stood, the lands being rated at seven 
hides. After its annexation as a cell to Sherbourne, one or more monks 
from that house residctl in tlie priory, all traces of which are said to be 
now lost. The church, howevei' — under the invocation of S. Wolfiida — 
whicli was also that of the parish, continued to be in use till a.d. 1720, 
Avheii it is said to have bi:en ^vhully, or in great part, rebuilt. 


Hurley Benedictine Priory Cnimcii, Berkshire. — Geoffrey de 

Magna-vilLa was the founder of this pi'iovy, temp. WiUiani tlio Conqueror, 
as a cell to the abbey of Westminster. " Sciant, &c. cjuod ego Gode- 
fridus de Magna-villa .... donavi JJeo et sancto Pctro et ecclesiae 
Westmonasteriensi necnon et Sanctae Mariae de Hurleia .... 
eandem ecclosiam saneta; Marise de Hurleia in Bcrroclisira, cum tota 
prsedicta villa de Hurleia," &c. 

The church of S. Mary at Hurley above referred to, still continues, 
as before the foundation and during the continuance of, the priory, to 
serve as that of the parish. 

Ipplepen Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Devonshire. — This 
was a cell to the abbey of S. Peter, of Fulgc^rs, in Britany, to which the 
patronage of the church of Ipplepen was given at an early period by the 
Felgheres family. The rector of the church, from holding his appoint- 
ment immediately from the abbey, was called a prior. Dug. vii, 1046. 

"The church is an ancient Gothic building, five or six hundred 
years old, having nave, chancel, and two side aisles, with a handsome 
tower a hundred feet high. The old priory is still standing, and is in a 
grand state of repair. It is but a short distance from the church which 
stands high, so that the chimneys of the priory are just below the church- 
yard at a little distance. There is a saying in the parish that some sub- 
terranean passage formerly connected the two. We have an old record 
that in 1274 Brother Luke resigned the priory and Brother Thomas suc- 
ceeded him ; and a list of the priors, rectors and vicars ever since." 
Letters of the Rev. R. Harris, vicar. 

Kidwelly Benedictine Priory Church, Caermarthenshire. — Of this 
church Leland writes thus : — " In the new towne is onely a chirche of our 
Ladi, and by is the celle of blake monkes of Shirburne. Ther the prior 
is parson of our Ladi chirch." 

" Ricardus .... Menevensis episcopus .... domino Johanni 
Griffith vicario perpetuo de Kidwelly," &c. " Quia nos alias legitime 
procedentes . . . . et eniolumenta quaecunque ad ecclesiam parochialem 
beatte MaritB Virginis de Kidwelly, ac ad prioratum ejusdeiu villce 
spectantes," &c. — Dug. iv, 64-6. 

Tlie church of S. J\Iary above referred to — a fine cruciform building 
with a western tower surmounted b}^ a lofty spire — is still perfect, and in 
use as that of the parish. 

Lancaster Benedictine Alien Priory Church. — The church of S, 
Mary at Lancaster having been given by Roger, earl of Poictiers, a.d. 
1049, to the abbey of S. Martin at Seez, in Xormandy, a prior, five 
monks, three priests, and two clerks, with their servants, were thereupon 
establishi-.d on the spot, as a cell to that house. 

" Xos .... priori, et monachis Lancastrite, ecclesiam beatae Mariae 
Lancastriie, cum omnibus terris, decimis, possessionibus, et capellis ad 
dictam ecclesiam spectantibus ; . . confirmamus." . . " dilccto nobis in 
Christo Johanni Innocent, priori ecclesiae beatae Mariae Lancastr' et 
successoribus suis priorilius loci prsedicti," &c. — Dug. vii, 997-8. 

" I have always understood that the monks did live on or near the site 
of this ])resent house, and did serve the parish church and some of the 


outlying chapelries. The chancel (of three aisles, and of the same 
breadth and height as the nave) is just exactly half the church. There 
was once a very massive and beautiful ebony (black oak V) chancel screen 
(or rather it exists now, transformed into a book-case for the library at 
Copernwray), and I have always supposed that the shape of the church 
Avas due to its monastic origin." Letter of the Rev. J. Allen, vicar. 

Lapley Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Staffordshire. — Lapley 

was a cell to the abbey of S. Eemigius at Rheims, to which the manor of 
Lapley was given, temp. Edward the Confessor, by Algar, earl of Chester, 
or Mercia. Dug. vii, 1042. 

" The church is, I think, certainly that of the Benedictines. It was 
originally cruciform, with a central tower. The transepts are now gone, 
but there are traces of their extent and proportion. The chancel is of 
unusual length, I think (about 4.5 ft.), in comparison with that of the 
nave (60 ft.) . . . . The priory has been a farm house, and is now 
occupied by the lord of the manor. It is situated about a hundred yards 
S.W. of the church, as is usual. To the best of my beHef, all the 
evidence of site, &c., points to the conclusion that the church was both 
parochial and monastic." Letter, accompanied with large folio plans of the 
church, of the Rev. A. H. Talbot, vicar. 

Leominster Benedictine Priory Church, Herefordshire. — Of this 
well-known church, it will be enough to quote Leland's account : — " Tlier 
is but one paroch chirch in Leominster, but it is large, somewhat dark 
and of antient building, insomuch that it is a grete lykelyhood that it is 
the church that Avas somwhat afore the conquest. The chirch of the 
priorie was hard joyned to the est end of the paroch chirch, and was but 
a small thing." Though wrong as to the age of the existing fabric, recent 
diggings have shewn that the worthy itinerant was quite right in calling 
the eastern or monastic church " hard joyned " to the end of it, a small 
(and it may be added, very un.symmetrical), thing. Beautifully engraved 
views of Leominster church may be seen in "Neale and Le Keux's 
Churches," vol. i ; and excellent accounts, with illustrations and plans, 
in Archceolo(jkaI Journal, x, 109 ; and Journal of the British Archceoloijinil 
Association, xxvii, 438 ; the latter acconqoanied with a very clever and 
ingenious restored elevation of tlu; interior as originally designed, by the 
late j\Ir. Roberts. 

LoDERS Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Dorsetshire. — The 
priory of Loders was a cell to th<; abbey of iMountsburgli, in Normandy, 
to wliich the manor and parish church were given, tenq). Henry I, by 
Benedict, or Richard de Redvers. Dug. vii, 999 and 1097. 

" This church is said to have been the church of- a monastery. . . . 
It has the usual receptacle for holy water in the south door of the chancel. 
The older ])ortion of the vicarage — about 200 yards distant — is reported 
to be the former monastery, and the old framed roof of our kitclicu 
conveys that impression." Letter of the Rev. J. 8. Stewart, vicar. 

Lyminster Benedictine Alien Priory Church op Nuns, Sussex. — 
Lyminster was a cell to the nunnery of Ahiianesche, in Normandy, 
founded by Roger ile Montgomery, earl of Arundel, temp. "William the 


ConqufU'or. Hence, says Tinmcn-, it is probahle that tliat oail ov one of 
his sous gave the church of tin's phice and other lands hereabout to 
that monasteiy, wliich might occasion the lixing of a convent of those 
nuns here before A.n. 1178. Dug. vii, 1032. 

" Lyminster churcli is the ancient priory church, and belonged originally 
to a nunnery of which traces have been found witliiu nieinory on the 
south side, of the building. The nunnery stood close to the churchyard, 
about thirty yards from the church, the nuns having a ])rivat(> entrance 
into the chancel, which they used more peculiarly as tlieir own. The 
chancel is of remarkable length." Letter of the Rev. E. Durnford, 

Lynn Regis Benedictine Priory Chuuch, Norfolk. — Tlie priory of 
Lynn, together with the church of S. Margaret there, was founded circa 
A. D. 1100, by bishop Herbert de Losinga, as a cell to his cathedral priory 
of Norwich. Dug. iv, 462. 

The magnificent church of S. ]\Iargaret, with its two western towers, 
still continues entire, as that of the parish. 

Malpas Cluniac Priory Church, Monmouthshire. — Malpas priory 
was a cell to the priory of Montacute. The church, which remains intact, 
is still in use as tbat of the parish, as it probably was from the hrst the 
cell containing only the prior and two monks. Dug. v, 173. 

Marrick Benedictine Priory Church, Yorks. — The priory of jMarrick 
in Swaledale, was founded for Benedictine nuns by Roger de Aske, either 
in the reign of Stephen, or beginning of that of Henry IL on a plot of 
ground adjoining the parish churcli of S. Andrew, with which, among 
other gifts, he also endowed it. The chancel is in ruins, but the tower and 
mutilated body of the church still serve as that of the parish. For a view 
of it, see Whitaker's Riclimondshire, i, 220. 

MiDDLESBURGH Benedictine Priory Church, Yorks. — The church of 
S. John and S. Hilda at Middlesburgh, was given by Robert de Brus 
circa 1120, with all things thereto pertaining, and two carucates and two 
oxgangs of land in Newham, in perpetual alms to the church of S. Peter 
and S. Hilda at Whitby, to the intent that in the said church of Middles- 
burgh, there should be certain monks from that house serving God and S. 

" Notum sit . . me dedisse . . et confirmasse Deo et ecclesise sanctse 
HyldEe de Midlesburc, et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus," &c. liurton 
says that, at the time of the Dissolution, two or three monks only were 
resident in this cell. — Dug. iii, 361-2. 

The present parish church of Middlesburgh is built upon the site of the 
ancient parish, and monastic, church or chapel of S. Hilda, now destroyed. 

Minting Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Lincolnshire. — 
Ranulph de Meschines, earl of Chester, says Tanner, before the year 1129, 
gave the church of S. Andrew at Minting to the abbey of S. Benoit sur 
Loir ; whereupon an alien })riory of Benedictines was hxcd in it. — Dug. 
vii, 1023. 

The parish church of Minting consists simply of a chancel, nave, with 

VOL. XLIl. 2 G 


south porch, and north aisle of tliree hays with chistered cohTiiins; the latter, 
with the chancel arcli, being of tine transitional Xornian work, and from 
their superior character, most probably the Avork of the inonks. " There 
are no remains of the priory," but the old yicarage, which, in all like- 
lihood, occupied the site, was immediately adjacent to the churchyard 
towards the west ; and a large field containing remains of the viyaiia 
extends Avestward again of this. — Letter, containing sketch ground plans 
of church, and adjoining laud and buildings, of the Rev. J. Bestforth, vicar. 

Minster Benedictine Priory Church, Isle op Sheppy, Kent. — 

Sexburga, widow of Ercombert, king of Kent, Avas the foundress of this 
priory, circa a.d. 675. Destroyed during the devastations of the Danes, 
itAvas reedified and replenished Avitli Benedictine nuns in a.d. 1130, by 
William de Corbeuil, archbishop of Canterbury, Avho dedicated it in 
honour of SS. Mary and Sexburga. 

"Rex omnibus &c. Sciatis nos concessisse ... ecclesijB sanctse Mariap 
et sanctffi Sexburgae de 8capeya, et sanctimonialibus ibidem Deo servien- 

tibus locum suum in Scapeya et ecdedam .scaiche Marice et ftancta' 

Sexhurgoi" &c. 

There can be little or no doubt that the existing church of 
Minster, both from its age and identity of dedication, is not only that of 
archbishop de Corbeuil's reconstituted monastery, but of its ancient Saxon 
predecessor. Hasted says it formed part of the endoAAaiient at the first 
foundation ; and Weover, that — " Some part of it is now converted into a 
parish church." An interesting notice of this church — AAdiere some recent 
discoveries tend strongly to faA^our these conclusions^may be seen in 
vol. xli, 54, of this Journal. 

MoNKLAND Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Herefordshire. — 
Monkland priory Avas a cell to the abbey of S. Peter at Conches, to AAdiich 
the manor and church of this place Avere given by Ralph de Toni the 
elder, temp. William Rufus. The church, a small but very interesting 
building, dating from a.d. 1100, and Avhich has recently been admiral )ly 
restored, is still in use as that of the parish. — Dug. vii, 1026 ; and account 
by the Rev. Sir Henry Baker, Bart, 

Monmouth Benedictine Priory Church. — AVih(,'noc, of IMonmouth, 
temp. Henry I, brought over certain monks from the abbey of S. Florence, 
of Saumur in Anjou, whom he placed, first in the church of S. Cadoc, near 
his castle there, and afterAvards in the church of S. Mar3^ 

" Wihenocus de Monemue &c. Notum sit quod ego construxi in 

castro meo de Monemue ecclesiam, eamque dedi monachis sancti 

riorentii de Salmuro et dedi eis diversas possessiones ecclesiam 

sancti Cadoci juxta castrum meum sitam in fundo, et dominio meo, ul)i 
primum monachi pra^fati, antequam ecclesia Monemue perficeretur, ali- 
quandiu iidiabitavcirant," &c. Dug. \\, 595-6. 

" The churcli of tlie ])riory," says Coxe, ''occupied the site of S. Mary'.^^!, 
the present paiish church, and about sixty years ago Avas partly taken 
doAvn and reconstructed. The tower and loAver part of the s\)\vc are the 
only remains of the ancient edifice, Avhich a])i)ears to have Ijeen built in 
the gothic style of architecture." The slight remains of the priory stand 
to fcbe north of it. 



«HIKB. — According to Tiunu'r, this was a cell to the abbey of Shiowsbury 
to wliich the church of S. Gregory here, with all the lands belonging to it, 
\vas given by the founder, carl Roger, llis charter describes it as : — 
" ccclosiani dc Muniorlield cum t(jta terra quani clerici tencbant." Tlic 
editors of the MonastlcoH supply the following inforniation resi)eeting in it 
a note, iii, 516, e : — " Anno iiij of December xxxvij lien. VIll, pro 
domino..., ..admirallo Anglioe. Revere, nuper celhe sivc grangia? de More- 
felde in com. Salop, parcell. possessionum nuper monasterii de Sahijjp. 
(;onccss. cuidam Ricardo IMarshallc clerico pro termino vit;B absque aliquo 
inde reddendo ultra vll, xvjs, oh. pro stipendio curati de INIorefeld," &c. 

Newnton Longueville Cluniac Alien Priory Church, Bucks. — 
Newnton Longucvillc was a cell to the abbey to S. Faith at Longuevillo 
in Normandy, to which this, and several other churches and lands were 
given by Walter Gifiixrd, earl of Buckingham, temp. Henry I. — Dug. 
vii, 1036. 

"The church of S. Faith here was attached to the alien priory of 
Cluniac monks from Longueville in Normandy ; the priory being dis- 
solved in 1444, and its property given to New College, Oxford. 

" The present church has nave and north and south aisles, the north 
aisle being further extended into an aisle of the chancel, which is known 
locally as the New College chancel, to distinguish it from the Rector's 

" An old house (tenanted by a farmer in occupation of land belonging to 
New College) is still standing, traditionally associated with the priory, 
very near the south side of the church, and, in fact, connected with it (it 
is said) liy a subteranneau passage. 

" The church has lately been restored with great care by Mr. Blouditdd 
who has noticed some peculiar moiddings on the capitals of jullars as 
similar to Avhat he had seen in Normandy." Letter of the Rev. H. C 
Blagden, rector. 

Nunkeelixg Benedictine Priory Church, Yorks. — " Omnibus, <^c. 
Agnes de Arcliis salutem. Notum sit vobis me concessisse ct dedissc ac 
l)rsesentis cartas meae testimouio eonfirmasse Deo et sanctai Mariie et sanctre 
Ilelenae et monialibus de Killingc ecclesiam ejusdem villas," &c. — Dug. 
iv, 185-6. 

"Md. that it (the conventual church) stondith at the nether (west) 
cnde of the parish churche of Nonnekelynge, and the walles and the roofe 
are alle hole of one story, and the parish belles in their steepulle aforo- 
scid, and there are ij doorys by the hygh alter for to go and come into the 
parish churche." Survey, temp. Henry VIII. P. R. 0. 

The parish church of Nunkeeling was meanly rebuilt with brick in 
1810, part of the old materials being re-used. 

Nun Monkton Benedictine Priory Church, Yorks. — Henry ^^hirdoc, 
archbishop of York, appropriated this church to the prioress and nuns of 
Monkton and also ordained a perpetual vicar, who should reside per- 
sonally in the church, and have the care of the parishioners' souls, &c. Dr. 
Burton, Reg. Ebor. Melton, p. 181. 

The nave, or parochial church of this line, and, perhaps, unique build- 
ing, is still standing and in use. 



Church, "Wiltshire. — About tlic year 1149, Maud de Waliiigford, lieiress 
to Robert D'Oiley, gave to the abbey of Bee in Xormandy, the manors 
and churches of Great and Little Okeburn ; at the former of which places 
a convent was not long after established, and became the chiefest and 
richest ceU to it in England. — Dug. vii, 1016, 

" I should say the church is cruciform, with a centre aisle right through 
to the baptistery at the west end door ; it has two side aisles, each leading 
to what were two chapels. There is a large house next the church, 
evidently once the residence of the monks. The village was once around 
the church, now it is lialf-a-mile from it." Letter of the Rev. A. Pyne, 

From the foregoing account, it seems tolerably certain that the parish 
church, though direct and positive proof of the fact may not be forth- 
coming, was also that of the closely adjoiniitg- priory of Ogbourne. 

Otterton Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Devonshire. — This 
priory was a cell to the abbey of S. Michael in Periculo Maris, in 
Normandy, to the monks of which house the manor of Otterton was 
given by the Conqueror, The priory, which seems to have adjoined the 
parish church— now, with the exception of the tower, entirely destroyed — 
towards the west, contained four monks only.— Dug. vii, 1033 ; and 
letter of Dr. Brushtield, containing sketch of original cliurch from an old 
print taken before its destruction, kindly communicated by the Rev, J. B. 
Sweet, vicar. 

Penwortham Benedictine Priory Church, Lancashire. — Warine 
Bussel having given the church and tithes of Penwortliam, temp. William 
the Conqueror, to the abbey of Evesham, a priory was shortly afterwards 

erected on the spot as a cell to that house. "Ego Ricardus Bussell 

confirmo ecclesi;e de Evesham, omnem donationem, et totam elemosinam 
quam fecit pater mens AVarinus prsedictee ecclesiae, videlicet, ecclesiam de 
Peneverham, cum decimis et omnibus pertinentiis suis," &c. 

The church thus bestowed upon the abbey of Evesham, and utilized 
up to the time of the dissolution, as that of its cell, remains still in use 
as the parish church of Penworthaui. 

Pershore Benedictine Abbey Church, Worcestershire. — This 
church is said to have been founded by (Oswald, nephew of Ethelred, king 
of Mercia, a.d. 689. Leland, Itin. V, says : — " Oswaldus primum 
instituit canonicos .syeculares apud Persore. Postea fuit ibidem chorus 
monachorum, rursus canonici inducti. Postea monachi per Edgarum." The 
convent possessed the rectory of the parish church of S. Cross, whicli was 
probably lield in the nave of the abbey church, though the Monasticon — 
as so constantly ha]ipens in points of special interest — says nothing of it. 

At the present time, and since the suppression, the parisli, having by 
some means, not apparent, accjuired the choir, central tower, and south 
transept of the abbey churcli, liave used them as their parish church 
instead of the nave, which has been destroyed, 

Pbeston Cai'es Cluniac Priory Church, Xdrthamptonshire. — Hugh 
de Leycestre, about the end of the Coiniueror's reign, placed in the churcli 


of this })lacc four Cluniac monks. Afterwards they wero rfiiioved to the 
churcli of Davcntry, where were foui' secular canons, two of whom took 
their habit, but the other two refused, and had food and clothing allowed 
them for the rest of their lives. 

" Hu^'o de Leycestre, dictus vice comes, dedit nobis ecclesiam de 
Preston, ubi prinio fundavit prioratum et monachos instituit. .Sed i)0st 
annorum paucorum — -removit ad eccleniam de Da ventre, ubi secundo 
fundavit prioratum et monasterium construxit in honore beati Au<,aTstini 
Anglorum apostoli, juxta ecclesiam parochialem ejusdem vilioa," iV:c. 

From this it would seem clear that in the first instance at least the 
monks were established in the parish church, though how long they con- 
tinued there is uncertain ; all that can now be said for certain is, that at 
some consideralile time before the dissolution, another and distinct 
building had been erected for their separate use, as witness the following : — 
"The churche and chauncell of the late monastere of Daventro clcrelie 

dekaied, and nothing there standyngs but the walls and li tie and 

div's wyndowes that ha glased ; which seid walls and glasse were taken 
down and the stone saved for the reedifiengs of the tenandrics in the 
towne of Uaventre," &c. — Dug. v, 184. 

Rochester Benedictine Priory and Cathedral Church, Kent. — 
From a very early period, probal)ly from the first, the cathedral church 
of Rochester was in part also parochial ; since we find the famous 
Gundulf — under whom the original foundation of seculars was changed 
into oni! of monks — confirming to the latter by charter (1100-1108), the 
advowson of the altar of 8. Nicholas " which was parochial in the church 
of the blessed Andrew." It appears that the site of this altar was changed 
by the monks early in the 14th century, against the will of the i)arishioners; 
but an arrangement was eventually come to by which the jiarish mass was 
to be celebrated " in altari existente in corpore ecclesi;« anteriori sub 
pulpito." Finally, on Dec. 18th, 1423, the parishioners removed to a 
separate and distinct church erected for them by the monks in the 
cemetery to the north of the cathedral church ; solemnly renouncing before 
the altar of S. IS^icholas, in the nave of the said cathedral church, all 
their rights thereto.— Notes on the architectural history of Rochester 
cathedral church, by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. 

RoMSEY Benedictine Abbey Church, Hampshire. — Romsey abbey 
held the vill and rectory of the parish church at the time of the Domesday 
survey ; facts which may help to account for the position of that 
building, subsetpiently to the erection of the nave of the abbi^y church, 
viz., in the eastern part of its north aisle. Later on, it was found neces- 
sary to increase these somewhat narrow limits by building another aisle 
towards the north, which opened to the original one by an arcade. After 
the dissolution, when the inhabitants acquired the whole of the conventual 
church, this additional aisle was pulleil down, and the arcade built up, 
but it still remains distinctly visible in the north wall of the aisle proper. 
See plate by Coney in IMonasticon, ii, .50G. 

RuMBURGH Benedictine Priory Church, Suffolk. — The priory of 
Rumburgh, originally founded by Agelmar, bishoj) of Elmhaiii, and Thur- 
stan, abbot of S. Benet at Holme, between a.d. 1004-1070, was given, some- 


time in the reign of Henry I, either 1iy Steplien, ov his son Ahiii the third, 
earl of Kiehniond, as a cell to S. Mary's abbey at York. Kuniburgh, at 
the time of tlni foundation of the priory, was a member of Wissett, in the 
church of which place, at the time of the Domesday survey, there were, it 
seems, twelve monks :—-" In hac ecclesia xii monachi, et sub hac i 
cai)ella." In a survey of the monastery made temp. Henry VIII. it is 
said : — " The township of Rumburgh clayme their churche to be a p'oclie 
churche, but it is none, and the proffytts tliereof wyllnotiiynde a pryest." 
And again. aft(>r a description of the building, is added the following : — 
"The inli'itaunts of Rumburgh (dayme it to be their churche." AYhatever 
its technical character maj' have been, it was, at least, used by the 
inhabitants as their church before the su])pression, and served by one of 
monastic chaplains on their behalf, since it is further stated: — " The late 
monasterye there wern persons in p'sonye of Wysett, Rumburgh, and 
Saynct Michaells in I'dmeh'm, and have founde iij prycsts in the same 
iij townes." 

The church, which occupied the south side of the cloister, continues 
to be used as the parish church of Rumburgh. 

Scarborough Cistercian Alien Priory Church, Yorkshire. — The 
church of S. ]\Iary at Scarborough having been given, with divers other 
possessions, to the abbot and brethren of the mother house of Citeaux, 
certain of the latter were sent over and settled there as a cell, before the 
fourth year of king John. The present church consists of the nave, 
central tower and l)ases of two western towers, and south transept ; the 
north transept, and the choir with its aisles, are said to have been ruined 
in the Civil AVar. It is i-emarkable as being one of the very fcAv 
examples of Cistercian churches in the kingdom which were parochial 
as well as monastic. 


well-known church it is unnecessary to say much. Originally the seat of 
a bishopric, and. served by secular canons, it was converted into a IJene- 
dictine monastery by bishop Wlsin in a.d. 998. The rectory of Sher- 
bourne, after the translation of the see to Salisbury, was held by the 
abbot as })rebendar}' of that cathedral, e.c officio, and the nave of the. 
abbey church used as that of the parish. Leland says : — " The body of 
the abbay chirche dedicate to our Lady, servid ontille a hunderithe yeres 
syns for the chife paroche chirch of the towne." Then he describes the 
riot that ensued on the removal of the font from the nave of the abbey 
church to the chapel of Allhallows, attached to its west end, and the 
burning of the monastic church by the townspeople, adding — " after this 
time Alhalowes chirch and not S. Maries, was used for the paroche 
chirche." The case, therefore, stood thus, that " from the beginning and 
jiiimeval foundation thereof," tlie parishioners used the nave of the 
monastic, as their parish, church. Then, probably to get rid of them, 
about the last quarter of the fourteenth century, the monks built the 
chapel of Allliallows a large three aisled structure, at the west end of, 
and connected with, the nave — for their use, retaining, however, the font 
in the monastic nave. Then came the riot, and after that the conversion 
of the chai)el, intfi the pai-isli eliurch, of Allhallows. After the supi)rcssion, 
and the purchase of the abbey church by the inhabitants, Leland supplies 


us with this further and ihial notice, "Allialowos Parocli Chircli puUid 
down alate, and tlic Paroc.h Cliirch made in our Lady Cliircli at the 
Al)l)ay." And tliere, as before the buildin-,' of Allliallow.s, it still remains. 
An excellent account of Sherbouriu- abbey church may be se<'n in the 
Jjristol volume of the Institute, enriched with many i)lates by th(i late 
Rev. J. L. Petit ; and in the .lournal for 1865, by the late Professor 

New Shoreham Benedictine Alien Priory Churcu, Sussex. — 
At a distance of between four and five miles only from Steyning, stand 
the remains of what must, in some respects, be considered the even still 
finer and more remarkable church of S. Mary, Xew Shoreham. As the 
historical evidence relating to it is an all i)ut absolute blank, we are 
conse(|uently compelled to fall back upon the internal evidence of the 
luiilding itself ; l)ut that, 1 think, is so conclusive as to admit of no 
degree of doubt \\-hatever. The facts of the case are Ijriefly these. The 
parishes of Old and New Shoreham, which adjoin each other, contain 
2,077 and 66 acres respectively. Both are in the Rape of l>ramber, and, 
together with all the rest in tliat district, belonged to the Lords of Brai ise 
on whom they were bestowed by the Con(|ueror. In the tenth of that 
reign, ^Villiam de Braose made a gift of sundry properties to the abbot 
and monks of St. Florence; at Saumur in Anjou ; and among these were 
the following churches in Sussex, viz.: — S. Peter de Sela, S. Nicholas de 
Brembria, S. Nicholas de Soraliam, and S. Peter de Veteri-ponte. In 
consequence of these gifts the abbey of St. Florence established at Sele 
(now called Beeiling) a small priory of Benedictine monks, to which 
these churches were all attached. At the date of this foundation, tlie 
parish of New Shoreham did not exist, being then parcel of that of S. 
Nicholas, Old Shoreham. But that it was both fdrmed, and the church 
of S. Mary built there bj' the monks in the interval l)etween that time 
and circa A. D. llOo, is conclusively proved by the following passage; in 
the confirmation charter of Philip dc; Braose, son of the benefactor. 
" lerosolimis autem prsedictus Philippus reiliens ecclesiani sanctae Marifp 
de Nova Soraham, c^uia monachorum praidictorum exstitit juris, diligenter 
concessit et confirmavit." To this spot then, it would seem certain that 
the monks settled at Sele (and who, as a matter of fact, continued there 
till the suppression), were at least designed to be removed : for not 
only was the church, even as first built— a grand cruciform structure 
with aisles and central tower — utterly out of keeping with the reejuire- 
ments of a parish of 66 acres ; but the original short Norman choir 
M'as taken down and rebuilt on a greatly enlarged scale, and in the most 
sumptuous style of monastic splendour, towards the close of the twelfth 
century. To suppose tliat such a work as this, consisting, as it does, of 
five bays in length, with north and south aisles, triforium imd clerestory, 
vaulted throughout witli stone, and sculptured from end to end with a 
prodigality of the richest detail, was designed for the sole use of a small 
country parish — and sucli a i)arishl — is, of course, preposterous ; and its 
erection for conventual as well as parochial uses must, therefore, T think, 
be assigned to one or more of tlie Lords of Braose (for there was a 
manifest pause Ijetween the lower, or Transitional, and tlu; upper or 
Lancet portion of this great choir), or, to their joint action, perhaps, with 
the convent of S. Florence. What has happened here (conversely 


to the instance of Steyning), is just what happened at Boxgrove, where 
a simihir rebuilding of the choir took place ; — the parishioners abandoning 
the plainer and humbler nave, and appropriating, or having appropriated 
to them, the far more splendid monastic chancel as their parish church. 
In this capacity it still continues. 

Shrewsbury Benedictine Abbey Church. — The abbey church of 
Shrewsbury having been foundi^d in what was originally the parish church 
of the place, remained parochial as well as monastic till the dissolution. 
The parochial nave, with its aisles and western tower, still remain here ; 
the monastic choir and transept are destroyed. There are good views of 
tlie west end (exterior) and east (interior) of Shrewsbury abbey church 
in Neale and Le Keux, vol. ii. 

Snaith Benedictine Priory Church, Yorkshire. — In a.d. 1100, 
Gerard archbishop of York gave the church of this place to Selby 
abbey, which gift was confirmed in A.D. 1310 by "William de Grenefeld 
his successor, who decreed that it should be lawful for the abbot and 
convent to place and remove two of their monks in the church of 
Snaith, to be continually resident ; and, by a secidar priest, to hear the 
confessions of the parishioners, i^c, and so perpetually to serve, without 
any ordination of a vicar. — IJug. iii, 493. 

The ancient church of S. Mary at Snaith, an extensive and interest- 
ing building with no less than four attached chantry chapels, still 
remains in excellent preservation as that of the parish. 

Sporle Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Norfolk. — Sporle 
Avas a cell to the abbey of S. Florence near Saumur, in Anjou, and 
together with the parish church, which would seem to have been that 
of the convent as well, under the invocation of the Blessed Virgin ]\Iary. 
The remains of the priory "or rather mounds of earth which indicate 
foundations, are in a field adjoining to the churchyard. There are great 
peculiarities about the building. In the north and south angles of the 
chancel (interior) are Xorman pilasters, &g. But the most strange feature 
of the building is two blocks of masonry in the nave near the chancel 
arch, and the general opinion is tliat there was a central tower, or that 
the cliurch only extended to that limit."— Letter of the Kev. T. Jones, 

Steventon Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Berkshire. — This 
was a cell to the abbey of Bee, to which it was given liy king Henry I. 
—Dug. vii, 1044. 

Tlie church of Steventon, as I learn from queries addressed to the 
vicar, the Rev. F. Theobald, was that of the priory, from which it was 
about a hundred yards distant. It is not cruciform, but has aisles to 
both nave and chancel. 

St. Alban'h Benedictine Abbey, now Cathedral Church, Hert- 
fordshire. — Of this famous church there is no need to speak. "What is 
remarkable in so vast and dignified a structure is the fact that, it too, like 
.so many other humViler ones of its class, was parochial as well as mona.stic. 
The parochial part, or chapel of 8. Andrew, on the north-western side of 


iho iKivc — now complciuly destroyed — was, up to tlie dissolution, a l)uild- 
in;^ of vcivy ^roat size and importance indeecl, hti'nvj; no less than l-io feet 
in length, by about 6G in breadth ; in other words, oceui)ying the .spac(! 
of six out of the thirteen bays of the enormous navo, or nearly half its 
length, and witli a breadth of ruthor more than that of the nave and one 
of its aisles, the walls included. The nave, or western part of this 
parochial chapel, opened to the aisle of the abbey church by an arcade of 
four arches, the bases of tlie pillars of which still remain in situ ; the 
choir, or eastern part, had the wall between it and the aisle of the; 
abbey church inipierced. 

A good handbook to St. Alban's has been published 1)y Mr. ^Murray, 
where a plan of the chajjel of St. Andrew may be seen. Several views 
— some exquisitely engraved — showing it in its then state, are given in 
Nealc and Le Keux's Churches, vol. i; and many folio plates of eli'vations 
and details, in the Spring (hardens Sketch l>ook. 

St. Bkb's Benedictine 1'riorv Ciiuucn, Cumberland. — Bega, an 
Irish saint, is said to have founded the first of her many English cells 
in Coupland, whence .she migrated to a spot between the Wear and 
Tyne ; thence to Hartlepool ; after that to Helcacester ; and lastly to 
Hackness, near Scarborough, where .she died. The church in Coupland, 
being afterwards built in honour of her, Avas given by William, son of 
Randulph de Meschines, temp. Henry I, to the abbey of St. Mary at 
York, conditionally to a priory being established therein. " Uedi ... i^t 
contirmavi ecclesise sanctse INIarite Eboracensis Ccenobii, ecclesiam sanctre 
Vx'giG qua? est sita in Caupalandia. Keddidi etiam et dedi eideni ecclesicp. 
l)arochiam suam, &c. Et abbas E1)oraci et capitulum semper mittant et 
liabeant in ecclesia sanct® Begae, priorem, et cum eo sex monachos ad 
minus residentes," &c. At the dissolution, the choir of the monks was 
allowed to fall into ruin, but not destroyed ; the tower and transept were 
left standing ; while the nave with its aisles was retained to serve as 
before, for the parish cbureh. 

St. Clement's or Clementiiorpe Benedictine Priory Ciiurcii, 
York. — " The church belonging to this nunnery," says Drake, " was 
very anciently parochial, ami was, together with the inhabitants ami 
parishioners, appropriated to the prioress and convent." " This church," 
lie adds, "continued to be parochial till A.D. 1585, when it was united to 
St. Mary's Bishop-hill the Elder, along with its jiarish of Middletliorpe," 
&v. Drake, pp. 247, 248. 

S. Helen's Benedictine Priory Church of Xuns, London. — 
William, son of William the goldsmith, having obtained the advow.son 
of tlie church of St. Helen from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, 
founded therein a priory of nun.s, circa a.d. 1212. The church, the 
north aisle of which formed the conventual chapel, still serves as that of 
the parish. The conventual buildings, which adjoined the church on the 
north side, were demolished about a century ago. 

S. James's Benedictine Priory Church, Bristol. — The [)riory of 
S. James, a cell to the abbey of Tewkesl)ury, was founded by Roliert 
earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I ; the church being consecrated ia 



1130, l)y Simon, bishop of "Worcester. In 1374 it was made parochial, 
when the inhabitants undertook to build a campanile, the bells of which 
— to be used in conmion by both — were to be bouifht and kept in repair 
at their mutual expense. Lelaud, speaking of the priory, says : — " the 
ruins of it standithe hard buttynge to the este end of the Paroche Churche." 
What now remains of this once fine building are the five western, of the 
seven bays of the nave — deprived of their aisles — and the much altcKnl 
and mutilated tower — Letter, view, and account, forwarded by the vicar, 
th(j Rev. J. Hart Davis. 

S. Peter's Benedictine Priory Church, Hereford. — The collegiate 
church of St. Pi'ter in the suburbs of Hereford was built and endowed 
by Walter de Lacy, who, falling from a ladder during its erection, was 
killed on the spot, a.d. 1084. In A.D. 1101, Hugh de Lacy his sou gave 
it, with all its possessions, to the abbey of S. Peter at Gloucester, whereon 
the provost and secular canons were changed into a prior and Benedictine 
monks ; Robert Betun, bishop of Hereford, giving theui ground for their 
monastery, which was dedicated in honour of S. Peter, S. Paul, and S. 
Guthlac, though commonly called by the name of the last saint only." 

"Anno Domini mcj. Hugo de Lacy ecclesiam saircti Petri Herford, 
quam pater suus Walterus a fundamentis construxerat, dedit monachis 
sancti Petri Gloucestrise, cum praebendis et omnibus quae ad eam pertinent." 
Dug. iii, 620-22. 

The church of S. Peter, which still retains the choir stalls of the 
monks, continues in perfect preservation as that of the parish. 

S. Sepulchre's Benedictine Priory Church, Canterrury. — The 
nunnery of S. Sepulchre was founded, circa a.d. 1100, ]))' archbishop 
Anselui. It was contiguous to the parish church of S. Sepulchre, in the 
eastern suburb of Canterbury, with the rectory of which it was endowed, 
and from which it took its name. " It seems," says Somner, " that the 
parish church of S. Sepulchre was torn down in the same fall with 
the nunnery ; for however mention may be found both of the parish 
church and church-yard before, yet, since the suppression, the jjlace of 
the two latter is unknown." Dug. iv, 413-414. 

Stanley S. Leonard Benedictine Priory Church, Gloucester- 
shire. — The church of S. Leonard at this place having, with many others, 
been given to the aljbey of S. Peter at Glo\u;ester, by Roger de Berkley, 
A.D. 1146, a small cell was thereupon established in it by that house. It 
is still ({uite perfect, and in use as that of the parish. The cloister was 
on the south of the nave. A picturesque view, with an account and 
details, may be seen in vol. vi, 44, of this Journal. 

Steyning Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Sussex. — Tanner, 
speaking of tliis place, says, that king Edward the Confessor gave certain 
lands here to the abbey of the Holy Trinity at Fecamp in Normandy, 
which, being taken away by earl Godwin, were restored by William 
the Conqueror; whereujjon some Benedictine monks were thence sent 
forth and established a cell upon the spot. — Dug. vii, 1053. 

The remains of the parish church of S. Andrew, which, together with 
the lands above referred to, was given to the abbey of Fecamp, formed, 
there can be no doubt — from internal evidence alone — part of that of the 


alien ])riory. At ])rc.S(!nt it cdii.sist.s only of four bays of thf nave on either 
side, with part of the liflh built up into a western wall, which, at some 
tiuK! subsequent to the su])pression, has been built across tlie church at 
that point, and so curtailed its length westwards. Deyond this transverse 
wall, a low and poor western tower has also been built — ^.just as at Walt- 
ham. Ori^'inally, tin; churcli was a noble cruciform buildin.i,' with a central 
tower, of which th(^ lofty western arch rising to the full hei;^ht of the nave, 
but now closed, and forming its eastern termination — again as at Walt- 
ham— alone remains. The originality and purity of design, exquisite 
beauty of projiortioUj and refined richness of decoration, render wliat is 
h'lt of this onc<', admirable building almost, if not quite unique ; and — 
although its history seems to be altogether confused or lost — abundantly 
sufficient to declare its monastic, and, as I am inclined to think — archi- 
tecturally — French cliaracter. Details of the capitals and arches may be 
s('(!n in Sharpe's Ornamentation of the Transitional I'cu-iod of Ihitish 
Architecture, Pis. 15-18; and three very finely engraved illustrations, 
shewing external and internal elevations, with ground plan, and details of 
all the parts, in Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, v, 

Stogursby, or Stoke Courcey Benedictine Alien Priory Church, 
Somersetshire. — Tanner says, the church of S. Andrew here, with 
several lands and tithes hereabouts, having been given to the abbey of 
Lonlay, temp. Henry II, a prior and convent were sent from thence to settle 
as a cell to that foreign house. — Dug. vii, 1012. 

" The church belongs to a class different from other monastic and 

parochial churches in having aisles for the choir and none for 

the nave." 'Mr. K A. Freeman. 

There is a farm called " tlie Priory," with a small round tower, adjoining 
the churchyard. — Letter of the Kev. J. L. Meade-King, vicar. 

Stowe, or T^Iakiestow Benedictine Arbey Church, Lincolnshire. — 
This was first a church of secular priests, built Ijy Fadnoth, bishop of 
Dorchester ; Leofric earl of ^Mercia, and his wife the lady Godiva, being 
great benefactors to it. Ktnnigius, who translated the see of Dorchester 
to Lincoln soon after the Conqiiest, changed the seculars for Benedictine 
monks, who continued to occupy the church of S. Mary till A.D. 1109, 
when they were transferred to Eynsham in Oxfordshire. After this, the 
church of Stow became simply parochial, as at present. 

Stratfield Saye Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Hampshire. — 
The church of Stratfield, and a solitary place near it dedicateil to S. Leonard, 
having Tjeen given about a.d. 1170, by Nicholas de Stotevilh; to his newly 
founded abbey of Vallemont, a prior and some Benedictine monks were 
thenceforth settled here to look after their estate. Dug. vii, 1044. 

There seems every reason to think that the churcli of Stratfield Saye, 
like so many others similarly situateil in respect to the cells of foreign 
houses — although no ])ositive pi'oof of the fact may, perhaps, now be 
adducible — was both i)arochial and monastic. The following extracts from 
a letter of the vicar, the Rev. Horace G. Monroe, seem to point directly, 
I think, to such a conclusion, as shewing that the old church and mansion, 
which presumably occupied the site of the priory, stood close together. — 


"I regret I cainiot answer one of youi' questions. I do not cvisu know 
exactly wIkut; any of the old l)uildin,t;s stood. 

"For somewhere about the middle of last century, (mo Lord Kivers, 
thinking that God's house intruded too f/'As/V// on tlur privacy of his own, 
got an act of Parliament passed, and built up a new eburch some three or 
four hundred yards further off, which is a l)ad imitation of an Italian 
village ehurch, and is commonly reputed to be tlie ugliest church in 
Hampshire. The old church was pulled do^\•u, the ehurch yard levelled, 
and the tombstones, as I have been informed by rlif present owner, the 
Duke of "Wellington, turned over to make a paving nnind the house. The 
site is now a carriage road, bordered with turf." 

SwAVESEV Beneuictinb Alien Priorv Church, Camisridgeshihe. — The 
church of S. Andrew here having been given, temp. William the 
Conqueror, by Alan le Zouch, earl of Brittany, to the aljbey of S8. Hergius 
and Bacchus at Angers, it was thereupon constituted a cell to that 
house. There are said to be some slight remains of the ]n'iory buildings 
still visible to the north of it. 

Tewkesburv Benedictine Abbey Cnuucii, (tlouce.stershirr. — Tew- 
kesbury abbey ehurch is traditionally said to have l)een founded by Oddo 
and Doddo, dukes of ]Mercia, a.d. 715. After many vicissitudes it was 
refounded by Robert Fitz-Hamon, early in the reign of Henry I. It 
possessed the rectory of Tewkesbury ; and Rudder, ([U(.)ting an ancient deed 
transcribed into an old council book, says that, before and at the time of 
the Dissolution, the body of the abbey church was used as the parish 
church, and that the parish purchased of the king, the chancel, steeple, 
and bells, with the clock and chimes, for £4-83. It is further worth noting 
that in the certificate of Henry A^lII's commissioners, where the church is 
included in the list of buildings deemed to be " superfluous," the term 
seems to be limited strictly to the eastern, or monastic part of it ; the lead 
only being specified which remained on " the choir, isles, and chapels 
amiext," while no account is taken of that which covered the nave, or 
parish ehurch. 

TuTBURY Benedictine 1'riory Church, Staffordshire. — This priory 
Avas at first a ctll to the abljey of iS. Peter super Divam, Imt afterwards, at 
.some un(;ertain time, made denizen. It was founded temp. William 
Rufu.s, l)y Henry de Ferrars in honour of the Blessed Virgin ISIary, close 
to his castle of Tutbury, with the parish of which castle, intar alia, it 
was endowed. 

" Ego Henricus de Ferrariis fundavi eeelesiaui in hoiK)re sauctie Dei 
genetricis MaricB apud castellum meum Tuttesbury " &c. ... "Ad hue 
autem donavimus parochiam castelli mei kc. ... Hanc autem ecclesiam et 
quicquid huic ecclesiae vel jam prsebui, vel deinceps priXil)ere voluero, per 
concessionem et auctoritatem W. junioris regis Anglorum dono ecclesiie 
mete Tutesltury et moiuiehis meis ibidem Deo servientibus sicut (•ii:.sti- 
tutum est apud Merlebcrgam ante ])riBfatum regem Willielmum," &c. 

At the dissolution, .Sir William Cavendish, the grantee, i)ulled down the 
priory, and tlie monastic ehurch, or choir, together with the cli ii)el of S. 
Stephen, in imlcr to build himself a house with the materials. The nave, 
or })aroclii.d eljurcli, still remains in use — a Norman structure, with a west 
front of great beauty. — Dug. iii, 358-31)2. 


Tiii'T Monk's Ukxediotixe Ai,ii;n Pkiouv (,'iiuiu;n, Noiii'ui.K. — T<il'L 
]\[ouk's was a cell to tlu; abbey of SS. I'c'tcr and Paul at Preaux, in Xor- 
inaiuly, to \v]ii(;li the manor and cliurcli of S. Margaret, were given by 
Kobert, liarl of Mellent and Leicester, temji. Henry I. — iHig. vii, 1027. 

'•Toft ^Monk's cliurch is that of the ancient alii'ii jM'iorv ; only the site 
(if tbc Idler, aliMiU a (inarteruf a mile frmii the ehiu'ch, now remains, and 
the name of the ■ I'riory Farm,' given to a farm, half a mile away." — 
Letter of the Kev. A. Wace, rector of Haddiscoe. 

ToTNEs Ijen'kuictixe Pkiorv Chuhch, Devon'shiue. — Totnes ])ri(iry 
was originally a cell to the abbey of SS. Sergius and l]aeclius at .Vngeis, 
but was afterwards made denizen. It was founded temj). AVilliam the 
Con([ueror by one Judhell or -biel, and was, after his death, nnich enriched 
by his heir, Roger de Xuatt. Among its endowments was the rectory of 
the parish church of S. Mary, near which it was established, and which 
would seem to have served also as the church of the convent. 

"Juhellus filius Aluredi de<lit Deo et Sanctis martyribus Sergio et 
l]acho...ecclesiam sanct;e Marian de Totencio cum omnibus ad eandeni 
ecclesiam pertinentibus," &c. 

"Dedit autem hsec omnia .Juhellus ... Deo et sancto Sergio solida et 
(juieta in manu domini Tetbaldi, ecclesiam ei tradidit per clavem monas- 
terii et cordam signi et cum ipsius cultello donum super altare misit," &c. 
Dug. iv, 628-10. "^ 

The conventual church of Totnes was dedicated Ijy Up. Lronescombe, 
on November 17th, 1260; but Avhether an entirely new structure, se])arate. 
from the ])arish —and theretofore conventual — cliurch of S. Mary is 
to be understood, or only a reconstruction of the eastern part of that church, 
does not clearly appear. Li the Valor Ecclesiasticus, however, it will be 
observed, the tlien head of the convent is still styled " prior domus li 
ecdemu Beatm Marioi de Toff on." 

Tynemouth Bexeuictixe Priory Church, Nortiiu:\iberlaxd. — This 
house, of very ancient foundation — -as early, it is said, as the time of king- 
Edwin — was A.D. 1090, given by Robert de Mowbray, earl of Northum- 
berland, as a cell to the abbey of S. Albans. The nave, with its aisles, 
continued to be used till (j^uite a recent period, as the parish church of 
Tynemouth; and the solid stone screen, pierced with the usual two door- 
ways, which shut it off from, while connecting it with, the monastic choir 
and transept, still remains in very perfect preservation. 

IJpAVOx Bexedictine Aliex Priory Church, Wiltshire. — This ])riory 
ivas a cell to the abbey of S. Vaudrille at Fontanelle, to which the church 
here was given as early as the time of king Henry the First, or Stephen. 
Dug. vii, 105.5. 

" Yes — our church is that of the alien Benedictine priory. It is close 
to a meadow" which has always gone by the name of the * Priory meadow,' 
and there can be no doul)t of its having been that of the pri(jiy. It has 
an early tower, with good western doorway, above which is affixed a 
tolerably complete specimen of a crucifix, discovered some eight or ten 
years since when the church was restored -rebuilt on the old foundations, 
the tower being the only remains of the ancient building." — Letter of the 
Rev. IL E. Windle, vicar. 


U«K Benedictine Priory Church of Xuns, Monmouthshire. — The 
foundation of priory, which ilates prior to a.d. 1235, is attrilnited by 
Tanner to 8ir Richard de Clare, and his son Sir Gilbert. Among divers 
other i)ossessions of the ninis was that of the advowson of tlie parish 
church. It served also as that of the priory which stood a little to the 
south east of it ; and, though much mutilated, is still in use. 

Wallingforu Benedictine Priory Church, Berkshire.— This was a 
cell to the abbey of .S. Albans. The church and priory are entirely des- 
troyed ; the last remains having, according to Hearne, been pulled down 
in 1723. The following account, however, which leaves no doubt of the 
double uses of the church, is given by jNIatthew Paris in his Lives of the 
Abbots : — " Ejusdemque abbatis tempore (scilicet Pauli xiiij) data est huic (sancti Albani) ecclesia sanctse Trinitatis de "Warengeford (et 
dimidia alia, in honorem sanctae Maria?, et dimidia hida extra eandem 
civitatem) ad quam ecclesiam sanctae Trinitatis idem Abbas Paulus 
quosdam monachos hujus ecclesiic direxit, atcjue eoruni aedificia constn;ens, 
ordineni ecclesiae. sancti Albani ibidem constituit, cum subjectione debita, 
de consilio Lanfranci archiepiscopi, inviolabiliter observari." 

Walton S. Felix Benedictine Peiory Church, Suffolk. — Roger 
Bigod is said by Tanner to have given to the monastery of Rochester, 
sometime before the death of king William Rufus, the church of S. Pelix 
at Walton, wherein a cell to that house was quickly established. 

" Willielmus rex Angloruni &c. Sciatis me concessisse et confirmasse 
donum Rogerii P)igot quod dedit ecclesiae sanctae Andrese Rovecestra, 
scilicet, ecclesiam sanctae Pelicis de Waletuna, cum decimis et omnibus 
aliis rebus, (pae ad illani pertinent." Dug. i, 164. 

" Silvester prior (of Rochester circa 1178) fecit refectorium et dormi- 
torium et hostelcriam apud Waletune." Thorpe, Reg. Raff., 121. 

At a later period, owing, as it would seem, to the incursions of the sea, 
the site was removed nearer to the present church of Walton, which is 
under the invocation i)f S. Mary. 

" There are fields at the back of the church, distant al)0ut a furlong, 
called the ' Abbey meadow,' and the ' Abbey field,' and there is the 
' Abbey barn' — but there are no remains of any kind of abbey building." 
Letter of the Rev. C. H. Marriott, vicar. 

Wangford Cluniao Priory Church, Suffolk. — This i)riory was a cell 
to Thetford, consisting of a prior and two or three monks only. Some 
slight remains of the domestic buildings are still visible on the north side 
of the church, a much mutilated, but vcay interesting structure, of which 
the western part — the eastern, or monastic part having been destroyed — is 
still used as that of the parish. — Dug. v, 160-1 ; and letter of the Rct. C. 
H. Lacon, vicar, with descrii)tion by Mr. E. L. Blackburne, architect. 

Ware Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Hertfordshire. — Hugh 
de Grantmesnil. loi'd of this town, gave the church of S. ^Mary here, with 
the tithes ami two carucates of land, before the year 1081, to the monks 
of S, Ebrulf at Utica in Normandy ; it thereupon became a cell to that 
abbey, and so rich thai, when seized by king Edward III, during the wars 
with France, it was fanned at £200 a year. — Dug. vii, 1049. 


The parisli cliiu'ch of AVare, a large and liaiulsome cruciform l)uilding, 
consisting of navo, with north and soutli aisles, western tower and spire, 
transepts, and a largi^ chancel with a northern lady chapel, has every 
appearance of having 1)een fornieily monastic as well as jiaroehia). It 
possesses the very rare and striking feature — the most heautiful exan)i»lu 
of Avhich is found in the cathedi'al of Frei])ourg, in Dreisgau — of two large 
and massive octagonal turrets flanking tlu; eastern gablt^ of the nave, and 
wliich were doul)tless originally connected with the screcni and roodloft 
separating it from the chanced. The priory, now very much nrodernisetl, 
stands at about three hundred yards distance. Letter, and woodcut 
view, forwarded by the Rev. K. E. W. Kirkby, vicar. 

Wareham Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Dorsetshire. — After 
the Conquest, says Tanner, one or more of the churches in this town with 
some lands in the neighbourhood being given by Robert, earl of Leicester, 
temp. Henry I, to the abbot and convent of Lira in Normandy, they sent 
over and settled here a cell of their own Benedictine monks, which was 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary. —Dug. vi, 1047. 

The church of Lady S. Mary, which consists of a nave, with nortli and 
south aisles, chancel, lady chapel, tower, porch, and small chapel at tire 
S.E. of chancel, is that of the ancient priory, from the buildings of which 
it is separated only by a road. Letter (in reply to specific questions) of 
the Rev. the vicar of Lady S. Mary parish. 

Weedon Pinkney Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Northants. — 
"Weedon Pinkney was a cell to the abbey of S. Lucian, near Beauvais, by 
the abbot and monks of which place it was sold, a.d. 1.392, to the abbey 
of Bittlesden in Buckinghamshire. 

" Ego Robertus de Pinconio confirmavi Deo et beatfe Mariae de 

Wedonia et nionachis sancti Luciani Beluacencis in praedicta Wedonise 
ecclesia Domino in perpetuum servituris, &c." 

"Robertus abbas monasterii de sancto Luciano, &c. Noveritis 

noa confirmasse abbati et conventui de Bitlesden 

prioratum nostrum, rectoriara, sive ecclesiani de Wedon Pinkeny, et 
advocationem sive patronatum prsedictre ecclesige de Wedon, quam in 
proprios usus tenebanius, una cum advocatione et patronatu vicarise 
proedictse ecclesiae de Wedon cum pertinentiis," &c. 

The church of Weedon Pinkney, or Weedon Lois, of which the plan 
seems well adapted for the doxrble uses of a parish and small monastery, 
is still entire and in use. Dug. vii, 1018-19 ; and letter, with sketch 
plan of church, of Sir H. Dryden, Bart. 

WiLRERFOss Benedictine Priory Church, Yorks. — " Alanus de 
Catton, tilius Helise fundator ; dedit eis, prseter alia, totam terrain (luae 
pertinet ad feodum unum cum prato super Derwent Catton." Leland's Coll. 
vol. i. 

"Henricus secundus concessit et confirmavit Deo et ecclesise sanctse 
Mariae de Wilburchfossa, et sanctimonialibus Deo ibidem servientibus ... 
Ex dono Jordani fdii Gilberti, ecclesiam de Wilburfossa, cum jiertinentiis 
suis," &c. Dug. iv, 354-5. 

" Md. that the parish churche is adioynynge to the same at the nether 
ende." Survey temp. Hen. VIIL P.R.O. 


The })arisli clumli of "Wilbevfoss, Avhicli was joined on to the west end 
of tlie eouveiitual one, still veiiiaiii>: Piitire. It is under the invocation of 
S. John IJaptist. 

"WixcHC'oMBE Benedictine Abhey Church, GLoucEsTEKsniuE.— "IuK. 
Hen. V. tvme, the paroch chyreh of the towne" (of Winchconibe), says 
Leland, " was kept in the body of the church of the monastery. But in 
K. Hen. VI. tyme, one William Winchecombe, abbot of Winchelescombe, 
began with the consent of the towne a paroch church at the west ende of 
the abbe}', where of ould tyme had beene and then was a litle chappell of 
St. Pencrace. Abbot William made the east ende of the church. The 
parishioners had gathered a .£200, and began the body of the church ; 
but that sunnne being not able to perforrae soe costly a work, Eafe 
Botider Lord Sudeley helped them and finished the worke." Lei. Itin. 
iv., 74, Oxf. 1769. 

Wix, OR Weeks Benedictine Priory Church, Essex. — Walter 
jMascherell, Alexander his brother, and Edith their sister, began a 
Benedictine nunner}'^ here, temp. Henry I., in honour of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, endowing it with the rectory of the parish chnrcli, &c., and which 
was afterwards increased by many benefactions. 

" Henricus rex Angliae, <fec., Sciatis me concessisse Deo et sancti- 

monialibus sanctje Marite de Wikes ecclesiam ipsam de Wikes ad 

tenendum in ea ordinem sanctinionialium," &c. 

" I'tm to the same manor lielongeth th' advowson or ]»'r()nage of the 
churche of Wykes, whereof the colledge lien p'sons in p'sonye and nn 
vicar indued," tV'c — Dug. iv, .515-17. 

The present rlimvli forms jiart only of the original conventual and 
parochial church of S. Mary, wliicli had fallen greatly into decay. 

AVooTToN Wawen Benedictine Alien Priory Church, Warwick- 
shire. — Wootton Wawen priory was a cell to the abbey of Conches in 
Xormandy. The ancient Saxon church of this place having been conferreil 
liv Kobert de Tonei on the abbey of Conches, which had been founded liy 
his father Roger, standard bearer of Xormandy, certain monks from that 
house were forthwith established in it. ft still remains — after, as during 
and previous to, its occupation by the Benedictines — as that of the 
parish. Dug. vi, 994, and letter of the Rev. T. H. Slocock, vicar. 


Norfolk. — The history of this church has been so fully described and 
illustrated by the late Rev. J. L. Petit, in the X"orwich vol. of the 
Archteological Institute, that little need be repeated here. It was 
founded by William de Allnni, chief butler to king lienry 1, early in his 
reign, and on the site of the original ]»aris]i churcli, wliich was rel)uilt 
and enlarged by him for the purpose. 

" Kgo Willielinus de Albeneyo, ])incerna doiiiini i'egi> lieiirici primi, do, 

concedo ijriori et conventui ile A\'ymondeliaiii totaui ei'idesiam 

de WydenKUidehani, cum omnibus pertiiientiis suis," tV;c. 

Till A.I). 1249, the monks ami ]iarishioners used the church in connnon, 
having their several entrances to it. Then, thc^y agreed to divide the fabric 
foi- their separate and particular uses ; the monks taking the chancel, 


tran.sept, and nastevu end of tlio nave — across the tlircc first bays of which 
the "abbey towtn-" was aft(M'wanls inserted — to,u;e,tlier with tlie south navi; 
aisle which abutted on their cloister, and through which tiiey had access 
to their part of the church ; while the nine western bays of the nav(!, with 
the north aisle, were mad(^ over to the parishiouiirs fur their ex(dusive use 
as the parish church ; — an arrangement which continueil till the disso- 
lution. Aftcir this event the parishioners, who liad previously built the 
gi'eat west tower, clerestory, and north aisle, accpiired of king Henry VIII 
th(^ "abbey steeple," and south aisle of the nave, which lattt^r they there- 
upon rebuilt on the vastly enlarged scale in which it appears' at present. 

Yarmouth Hexedictine Puiory Church, Xokfolk.— Herbert de 
Losinga, bishop of Norwich, built the ehurch of S. Xicliolas, (Ireat Yar- 
mouth, before a.d. 1 101 ; placing close to it a priory of three or four monks, 
di'dicat(Ml in honour of iS. Olave, as a cell to that of his cathedral. The 
parish church of S. Xicliolas, which served also as that of thi; priory, was 
served by three parish chaplains and one deacon, for whom the prior was 
bound to provide. — Dug. iv, 465. 

Over the high altar, says Swinden, was formerly a loft or perch, called 
the rood loft, erected by Robert de Haddesco, prior of S. Olave's, in 
in 1370, and ornamented with curious decorations and devices at his own 
cost and charges. It is called ' opus pretiosum circa magnum altare,' and 
by means of illumination with lamps and candles, the whole appeared 
exceeding splendid and solemn. The prior of S. Olave, he continues, 
besides Avhat is before mentioned, built in the east end of this church, a 
neat chapel, and dedicated it to the Lady of Arneburgh, which was 
standing in 1545, and on the north side thereof was erected a tine organ, 
and to the west of it, the choir, furnished with eight jniests, who were 
sent from Xorwich, and resided hereunder the prior, and composed a choir 
till the dissolution. Of the enormous church of S. Nicholas — one of the 
largest parish churches in the world — several very finely executed engrav- 
ings, shewing it in its then unrestored state, may be seen in Xeale and 
Le Keux's Clmrches (1824), vol. i. 

York, Holy Trinity Benedictine Priory Church. — A church of 
the Holy Trinity, served by canons, existed from very early times in the 
city of York. Having gone to wreck, however, it was refoundeilby Ralph 
Paganell, temp. William Rufus as a cell to the abbey of ^larmoutier. 
It was both conventual and parochial, in which latter capacity the nave, 
or at any rate part of it, continues still. A^ery full })articulars respecting 
this priory may be seen in thti York volume of the Institute, together with 
a view of the entrance gateway now destroyed. 

With the above list, I bring my answer to the first of the five proposi- 
tions to a close. It ran, it Avill be remembered, thus : — " That the churches 
of Austin canons were always, or nearly always, parochial, as well as 
monastic, either before they were made collegiate, or from their foundation 
if they were absolutely new." 

Out of the full number of two hundred and hfty-four churches of Austin 
canons, I have shown in — 

List I. and Division II. of List III. — That the numljer of those which 



were purely coaveutual, instead of baiug, as allegeil, nil or nearly nil, was 
two hundred and seventeen : in — 

List 11. — Tliat the number of those which were conventual and 
parochial, instead of embracing the whole, or nearl}' tin; wIidIc number, 
was thirty-seven : in — 

List IIL — That the great bulk of the Austin canons' churches, from 
the time of the suppression, were either viplcntly destroyed, or allowed to 
fall to ruin ; and therefore, on that shewing alone, could nevei: have been 
parochial, and in — 

List IV. — That the churches of the Benedictine, and other orders of 
monks — so far from being more strictly conventual than those of the 
canons, with which they were tacitly and disparagingly contrasted — pre- 
sent, on the contrary, above three times their number of parochial 
examples : the sum total of. parochial Austin canons' churches being only 
thirty-seven ; while that of the churches of monks of the same class was 
no less than one hundred and nineteen. 

(To he continued.) 


Tho following notes principally relate to a particular feature in the 
cliurcli, namely, the wall separating the nave from the chancel, in the 
manner of a chancel screen. This is the feature of the greatest interest 
in the church ; which, however mean as is its external aspect, is not 
devoiil of beauty or other objects of interest within. Some excitement 
has risen of late amongst antiquaries on the rumour of the possible 
destruction of the wall just mentioned, but I venture to hope that no 
such destruction may take place. 

I am indebted to Dr. Griffith, the vicar of Sandridge, for the 
following historical notes : — 

Tlic manor of Sandridge was, in the year 794, given by king 
Egfrid to the monastery of S. Albans, recently founded by his father 

The first record that we ^lave of a consecrated building in Sandridgo is 
that Herbert de Losinga, lirst bishop of Norwich, consecrated the chapel of 
S. Leonard for the abbot and monks of 8. Albans. The said Herbert 
died in 1119. The chapelry was later on turned into a vicarage, and 
served by a vicar appointed by the abbey. 

John de la Moote, elected abbot of S. Albans in 1396, "rebuilt the 
chancel from the foundations." 

The later history of the church and parish does not concern us at 
present, so I will not trouble you with it, but will proceed to give a short 
description of the building, which must be done to enable you to appre- 
ciate the difficulties and the interests of the case. 

The building now consists of a chancel Avithout aisles, a nave of four 
bays with narrow aisles, and small north and south porches placed about 
midway in the length of the aisles. The nave is now without its 
clerestory. It opens into a western tower, a mean and impudent little 
brick edifice, oblong on plan, erected in 1837 in place of an old tower, 
which was described by Salmon in the year 1728 as follows: — "The 
steeple hath been down and lain in rubbish almost forty years, Avithout 
any endeavour to repair it to the great shame of the inhabitants." It 
was a pity they did not let it alone a little longer. 

The Korman or peihaps pre-Norman building was most pmliably an 
aisleless nave Avith a chancel, the chancel arch consisting of a semicircular 
ring of large bricks, such as arc t(j be seen at the neighbonriiig abbey. 
This arch was not very Avide. There is a horizontal line in the loAvcr 


})ait uf the cliaiiccl walls iKirth ami simili which .seems tu suggest that 
some of the early work still remains with later work above. 

Of the early nave there seems to be. nothing at jjrescnt visible, exce])t 
the four responds of the Xorman arcade. 

The arcade, the principal feature of the now existaut nave, is of tine 
transitional work, circa 1160. The octagonal columns are surmounted 
by capitals, with abaci square on plan, each corner of the caj) being 
carved into a species of volute ; the effect is very refined and noble. These 
caps carry an arcade of semicircular arches. The arches were sur- 
mounted by a clerestory, but this is now quite gone, and the roof 
rests above the arches, and is lit by two large high raised dormei 
Avindows presenting a singularly odd effect on the exterior. 

The west end of the nave opens by a tine and well moulded })ointed 
arch, with details just merging into early English, into thi' tower. 

The nave aisles are in effect later, but it is most probable that the 
present windows are inserted in the older wall built when the arcades 
were constructed. 

The chancel, as has been already stated, was rebuilt from the found- 
ation by John de la Moote, elected abbot in 139G. My own belief is that 
the work Avas not of so radical a nature as these words suggest. The side 
windows of the chancel are of two lights, c\isped and under a depressed 
head. I will not commit myself by assigning a date to them, but they do 
not strike one as being of quite so early a date as the pierced wall which 
stands between the nave and chancel, and to the description of which 
we will now address ourselves. 

I will ask you to imagine yourselves us standing in the chancel an<l 
looking Avest. 

The semicircular chancel arch of large bricks already mentioned was 
revealed by the removal of some plaster not long since. The crown of 
this arch lies a little below the tie beam of the chancel roof. At the 
springing level of this arch, a moulded string, Avhich forms the crowning 
feature of the later work, is carried completely across the wall face; beneath 
this string, in the middle of the wall and occupying a width somewhat 
less than the opening of the brick chancel arch, we see a Avell moulded 
pointed doorway, with square flowers in the hollow of the moulding. This 
doorway is flanked on either side by a S([uare headed three-light window 
opening ; the jiointed heads of these lights arc cusped with live foils ; the 
square inclosing moulding being the same as that of the doorway. The 
brick arch above is hlleil in, in part, Ijut a two-light wind(nv, generally 
similar to the three-light windows below, is placed over the doorway, and 
at the corners is cut into the ring of the brick arch, which has thus not 
only been deprived of its supporting jambs (it now springs fiom over the 
opening of the windows) but has its integiity completely destroyed by the 
window opening. It has revenged itself by cracking the wall and window 
openings on which it rests, for in fact it now stands on the to}) of the late 
fourteenth or early tifteenth century structure forming a chancel screen. 
We are, in fact, now standing on the east side of a stone chancel Lcreen, 
which, uidike most screens to Avhich Ave are accustomed, is solid above 
the heads of the openings, Avith the exception of the small wiixlow over 
the door. 

We may obsei'Ve that the moulded side of thi'sc ojiening.- is towards the 
cast ', we Icnow that in screens the richest side is towards the west. 



East Side of Chancel Screen 

S^' Peter's Church Sandridce 


' ^ [___! : I i_ 

Spni}ij;lC Fhzto'htfto Londoi 


Tlie weytern side nf tlic wIikIow upt'iiiiii^s in the i»re.scnt instmice .slicws 
j;vml)s, very much splayed, and surmounted ])y depressed arclies. 

On eitlu'r side of tin; doorway, on its eastern face, is a low stone seat 
end, with figures clumsily carved on them, nuicli worn. I had not the 
opportunity to look very carefully at them, and will not hazard a con- 
jecture as to their nujaning. 

There are not now visible indications shewing the atta(;hment of 
timbers or panelling on the west side of the screen, as I shall now call it, 
hut there are distinct indications of the ends of a beam, placed some three 
or four feet west of the screen, and level with the arches above the 
windows. This beam doubtless carried the floor of a gallery, and may have 
marked the line of its parapet front. The lower jiart of the screen wall, 
now so plain, was doubtless coveied with Avood panelling and tracery, and 
it lays but a small tax on the imagination to .see a screen facing west, 
much like many that still remain. I am not aware that any evidence has 
yet been found of side altars beneath the window openings, but it is not 
unlikely that such may be found. 

Having as I hope shewn that the lower part of the screen may not after 
all have presented, when perfect, so abnormal an appearance as at hrst 
sight we should suppose ; it may, I think, be shewn that the solid parti- 
tion aliove was a very common thing, but it was usually of wood and not 
of rubble. 

The crusade against screens, which lias been going on for centuries 
with more or less vigour ; tlie change in the services, and the eflbrt to 
turn a place primarily intended for worship, into a ])reaching house ; these 
things, combined with modern " restoration," have ch'ared away number- 
less screens with their lofts and decorations, and have left us little evidence. 

On the other hand, it is certain that there were in many cases })artitions 
which, standing above the open screen, severed the nave from the 
chancel. Until recent times many of these remained, bearing the royal 
arms and tables of the law. I remember seeing such a partition at 
Ewerl)y in Lincolnshire. At Ifield church, Sussex, the chancel arch bears 
distinct evidence of having been closed with wood work; the holes to 
receive the uprights are visible, but now the screen and all its adjuncts are 

At S. Nicholas church, Brighton, where there remains a very sump- 
tuous screen with a very wide loft, the arch above the screen was filled 
in and a shallow gallery ran across on the west side, doubtless a successor 
to the old rood gallery, and jjossibly made up of it in part. The screen 
remains. Other examples occur, — at Barton Turf the upper part ; at 
Tivetshall S. Margaret, Norfolk ; atS. Michael's, S. All)ang; at Monkton 
church near Pembroke ; at Capel le Feme near Dover. 

The t|uestion of such divided churches deserves a separate paper. 
Probably many in Pembrokeshire, in Wilts ; one now destroyed at 
Yalesbury near Ealni ; at IStockton near Salisbury. The )uost interesting 
which I have seen is the remarkable little old Norman church at Scawton 
between Kivaulx and Bylands abbeys. 

.Vt ]\Iicheldean, in Gloucestershire, the partition remains complete. 
This was divided into panels with paintings, and is fully desi'ribed by 

' I have .siiR'f noticed similar liule.s in the .sytht uf the chancel arch at Henliehl iu the 
same county, and the like occnr yt Kedleston, Derbyshire. 

25o saNdridge church. 

^Ir. J. H. ]\Iid(lletou in the Transactions of the Bristol and CHoueestcrshire 
ArrhcTeological Society, vol. vi, part 2. At Bettw.s Newid in jMonniunlh- 
shiru the Avhole thing remains complete. Tlie frame work of the upjjcr 
panelling is arranged to form in the centre a large cross ; on each side 
of this and low down there is a little three-light window, which calls to 
our mind the two-light window already described as coming over the 
doorway at Sandridge. 

I must now speak a few words on the proposed restoration at 
Sandridge Church. 

There is no doubt that the very solid })artition Avhicli now divides the 
nave from the chancel presents considerable dithculties in the use of the 
church, and the separation of the tAvo parts of the building will seem 
more marked when a clerestory is built in the nave, and this is intended 
to be done. The brick arch is, as I have already said, crushing the 
window openings below, and something must be done here, or ultimate 
ruin will follow. 

It is Dr. Griffith's desire that nothing Avhatever shall be touched or 
even repaired where there is not absolute necessity. However a man is 
not always able to carry out his views. To relieve the weight of the 
brick arch upon the window openings it is proposed to turn a new 
chancel arch, at a higher level, over the old one, and to leave the old 
arch. The whole wall should also be left as high as the crown of the 
brick arch. I can conceive of nothing that Avill better meet the difficulties 
of the case, as it will make a sufficient space to throw the roof of the 
chancel well open to the nave, and still conserve all the features of the old 
Avail, and nearly all the Avail itself. 


Stone found in St. Paul's Churchyard, London. 

kona:let:l ekia:s t 




Runic Inscription on ih.; edge of the ,-ibove Stone. 


By the REV. G. F. BROWNE, B.D. 

I propose to use the words "Danish" an<l "Scandinavian" ahuost 
indiscriminately in this paper, instead of the more cautious phrase 
" Scandinavian or Danish." While there arc marked differences betw(;en 
the art Avork of Norway and Sweden on the one hand and of Denmark 
on the other, I do not wish to profess to discriminate between the two 
styles so dogmatically as to say of a tentli century or eleventh century 
stone that it is Scandinavian and not Danish, or Danish and not Scandi- 
navian. The word in ordinary use in the connection which now concerns 
us is " Danish " 

In August, 1852, a remarkable stone was dug up in the course of 
excavations for a new warehouse on the south side of St. Paul's Church- 
yard. It was foi;nd about twenty feet below the present surface. Tlie 
architect, Mr. James T. Knowles, junior, addressed a letter describing the 
discovery and the stone to the Socicte Royale des Antiquaires du Nord 
in December, 1852, and this letter Avas embodied in a very interesting 
paper by Charles C. Rafn, " Remarks on a Danish Runic Stone from the 
eleventh centur}'' found in the central part of London." The paper was 
published separately, in a pamphlet form. It is also to be found in the 
" Memoires " of the Society, in the volume for 1845-1819, however con- 
tradictory the date may appear. It is accompanied by three illustrations, 
one giving a very good representation of the stone its(ilf, and the other 
two shewing two sides of the memorial stone of Gorm the Old, the last 
heathen king of Denmark, for the purpose of comparison^. The stone is 
carefully preserved in the Guildhall Library, cased in wood and glass. I 
have pleasure in recording the great readiness with which the Librarian 
sent for a workman and had the case taken off, to enable mo to maki; a 
ru})bing of the stone and its inscription. Though this stone is not the 
spiicial subject of my paper, and has already been fully described, it is 
necessary for my present purpose to call attention to its characteristics 
(see Plate I). 

It will be seen that the stone is the upper part of a standing stone, 
which has been in appearance something like a modern rectangular liead- 
stone in a church yard, but a good deal lower than most of our modern 
stones. It bears in a sunk panel the figure of a non-descript animal, l(;s3 

' Tracings of tliose were shown, and a rubbing of the stone. 


iinliko a horse than anything else, witli fantastic; claws and a head horned 
and tusked looking backwards. A dragon-like creature coils round its 
fore legs and rears itself in front of its chesL, cleverly filling up that end 
of the panel. The hind legs also are hani}Hivd, and in the voitl space 
above the back there is an intricate arrangement of volutes which appear 
to have some connection with harness. The upper corners of the rect- 
angular panel are occupied by an ornament closely resembling a turnip. 
On the edge of the stone is an inscription, reading upwards f ronr the level 
of the bottom of the panel to the top, and then turning downwards and 
reaching nearly to the l)ottom of the pancd again. The runes of which 
the inscription consists are very deeply and regularly cut, very different 
from the mere scratches of some Anglian inscriptions, and their meaning- 
is (|uite clear — Kona let lekia stin tlieusi auk Tuki : Kona and Tuki 
caused lay this stone. A completi; tliscussion of the inscription will be 
found in ]Mr. Rafn's paper. 

In 1881:, Mr. A. W. Franks asked me to look at two large and heavy 
fragments of sculptured stones, which had been in his possession for some 
years. He had recently placed them in the Anglo-Saxon room at the 
British Museum, and he has now presented them to the Museum. Tliey 
are respectively about 15 in. by 20 in. and 20 in. by 21 in. and about 
8 in. thick. I had seen no stones in any way resembling them, nor 
had I, at that time, seen any engravings that bore upon their ornamenta- 
tion. But it happened that I had that morning examined for the first 
time the stone in the Cluildhall Li1)rary, in its case, and I had observed 
on it that when the stt)ne-cutter wished to make a groove, he seemed to 
have begun l)y drilling a hole at the furthest point to which the groove 
was to run. Tliis feature, I saw at once, was a characteristic of the 
British Museum stones also. Proceeding on this hint, I observed furtlicr 
tliat in more than one place the " turnip " ornament of the Guildliall 
stone api)eared on the Ih-itish Museum stones. Further, some of the 
characteristic features in connection with volutes were to be found on the 
Museum stones. I came to the conclusion that, though it Avould be 
difficult to imagine two mommients more unlike at first sight, the (luild- 
hall stone and the Ih'itish Museum stones were of the same nationality 
and character, probably by the same workman, possibly parts of the same 
monument, the former acting as the head-stone of the grave, the latter 
lii'ing fragments of the body-stone laid on the surface of the ground. The 
detailed examination of the three stones which followed some time after, 
Avlien 1 t(^ok rubbings and put in the outlines, convinced me of the close 
relation between the two. In further conhrmation of this I made a most 
unexpected and unlikely discovery, that one of the British Museum 
stones, which we had been handling so long, bore on one edge two very 
bokl runes and a full stop, and that the runes were KI, the concluding runes 
of the Guildhall inscrii)tion, suggesting that Tuki had to do with both 
monunu^nts. i\Ir. Franks then informed me that the men from whom he 
obtained the two stones told him they came from the City, and thus 
the whole series of surmises seemed ti) hang together. The outlined 
rubbings of tlie two stones will be found reproduced on Piatt? II. It may 
be well to ad<l that Rafn identifies the (luildhall Tuki witli 
Tokig, a minister of King Canute, while after the KI of the British 
]\Iuseum stone is an incision which may represent a rime for ij at 
a period when it was almost Ijecoming //. Professor G. Stepliens 

F Browne del 

Sprj^^e i-C I^ctc^-no London 

Two Fragments in the British Museum, 



examined the stone when he came over to receive an honorary degree 
from the University of Canibridgi^, and he told me there was no 
doubt about the runes. I shew a rubbin;^- of this edge of the stone, 
and I woukl call attention to the fact that here as on tlie Ckiildhall stone 
a deep groove runs along the middle of tlic edge, evidently prcjiared for 
the inscription, the Guildhall runes standing on the two sides of tliis 
groove as their base, the liritish MusauMi runes, there being abundance of 
room to spare, being run right across the central groove and forming an 
inscription of one line only. 

Having arrived at these conclusions, which seemed to me of 
some importance beyond the parti<tular case, I naturally looked 
further into the matter, and I fouud two things which interest(jd 
me very much. The first was that T. G. Kepp had argu(;d 
from the phrase, " caused laij this stone," instead of the usual 
" ralscjl this stone," that the Guildhall stone was the head-stone of a 
greater monument of the nature of a l^ody-stone, and that while the head- 
stiine recorded the persons who provided the monument, the body-stone 
would no doubt bear an inscription setting forth the name of the 
deceased. This " horizontal tomb-stone below," he added, " in the course 
of eight centuries most likely has been broken into many pieces and then 
mouldered to atoms." The coincidence of the conclusions from very 
different data, and the confirmation of T. G. Repi)'s surmise, are very 

The other result of my further enc^uiries was that the ornamental work 
on the British Museum stones, of which I had seen no other example 
though it seemed like a reminiscence of some of the patterns on 
Scandinavian fibulaj of the later iron age, was in many of its parts almost 
identical with a large number of the ornamental crosses — scarcely recog- 
nisable as crosses — inscribed on Scandinavian monumental stones as 
figured in Goransson's Bautil (Stockholm, 1750), while the Guildhall 
animal is evidently of tlie same type with animals which appear on the 
Scandinavian stones.^ This at once not only set at rest all doubt as to 
the close connection between the two London monuments, so far as style 
and period are concerned, but further emphasised the prol)ability that 
these two monuments, each up to the present time unique in England so 
far as I know, may be parts of one and the same memorial — it may 
be supposed to some very imjiortant personage who died in London in 
the course of the century preceding the Norman Conquest. 

It will be of some interest to state that I liave had an opportunity of 
shewing my rubbings of the two stones to Professor Westwootl, of 
Oxford. I laid them before him, hiding the rubbings of the Guildhall 
stone, and remarking that the ornamentation was I tliought uni(|ue in 
England. 'Except,' he rejoined, 'on one stone, a stone fouml in St. 
Paul's Churcliyard, which I published in the Proceedings of tlie 
Arch;eological Institute thirty years ago.' It was with great satisfaction 
that I removed the rubbings, and shewed, lying under his liand, my 
rul)bing of the Guildhall stone, his admirable engraving of which will l)e 
found in the Archaeoloijicaf Joanial, Vdl. x, page 83, and is reproduced 
on Plate I. This immediate and independent ideutihcation snenis to me 
to be of great importance in tlie argument which follows 

^ Tracings of these were shewn. 


We are told in various localities that English sculptured stones are 
"Danish." The common people call them so, and it is Avorth enquiring 
Avhether this is an old tradition. The alternative is more likely, that 
visitors with some arclucological knowledge have pronounced them to be 
Danish and the verdict has been locally stereotyped. I have seen 
several ' Danish ' stones this year, notably in Staffordshire. They bear 
no resemblance to anything shewn in Giiransson or Olaus AVormius, and 
thoj'' naturally suggest the question, why should the Danes, or other 
Northmen, erect in England monuments so very unlike the monuments 
they erected in such large numbers at home 1 With some archaeologists, 
the great mass of early sculptured stones in the North of England are 
almost to a stone " Danish " or later copies of " Danish." And yet it 
may be said I think Avith perfect truth that there is not one kno\vn 
stone in the North of England which does not differ in a striking manner 
from every stone figured in the books referred to. That the two classes 
of stone may be descended from some far off common ancestor, that they 
are distant cousins, may be true, but that they are the work — so far as 
their art is concerned — of the same men, the one class designed at- home 
the other designed abroad in England, contradicts experience. The 
difference is not in style of art only, or in shape of stone, though these are 
marked enough ; there is a much more serious difference, namely, that 
while the stones in Denmark and Scandinavia are very loquacious, telling 
us usually in long runic inscriptions the names of the person to whom the 
stone was erected and the person who erected it, there is not, so far as I 
know, a single scrap of an inscription on any one of the English stones 
now called "Danisk" It may be added that while the Danish and 
Scandinavian stones thus carry inscriptions, their number being very 
large — already in Gciransson's time some 1,700 being figured, and these 
runic inscriptions are almost all of tliem cut on tlie body of a serpent or 
a pair of serpents twining about on the face of a rough unhewn and 
unshaped stone, there is not, so far as I know, a single stone in England 
with an inscription in runes or in any other character on the body of a 
serpent; nor is there to my knowledge any unshaped stone bearing the 
interlacing bands and ornamented panels and the other features we find 
on our early sculptured stones. 

It might be argued that the Danes when in England did as the 
English did, that is to say, when they wished to carry out their national 
practice of erecting a stone monument, they erected a monument of 
English fashion. This argument, if it could be substantiated, would leave 
us in doubt as to any stone of pre-Nornian type, and of about the period 
when the Danes were here ; it might be Danish, it might be English, 
so far as the ordering it and paying for it was concerned. I shew a panel, 
which I have named the Volund panel, on the Leeds cross, where a saga 
scene is combined with the evangelists and other characteristics of 
English stones, so that Scandinavian ideas were carried out by Anglian 
artists. But the stones which are now under consideration shew quite 
conclusively that it was ijossibh; for Danes to have a thoroughly Danish 
monument in England if they so desired, and there is no other evidence 
of this. This strikes a serious blow at the " Danish " theory of the origin 
of the large number of stones which are as different as anything can well 
be from Danish stones in Denmark. These stones shew also, I think, two 
things of great importance. Their style, though intensely Scandinavian, 


is, both in ilcsij;n and in workniiviisliip, superior to anything I can lind 
tigui'ed on Danish and Scandinavian stones; from which wc may argue 
tliat the art of scnlptnring designs on stones was at the time of the 
Danisli residence lien- in a more advanced stage tlian in Denmark itself, 
and this makes against the tlieory tliat the Englisli stones arc kite Danish. 
Further, the fact that liere are very interesting and effective sculptured 
stones in tlie heart of London, of a tyjie easily reproduced as compared 
with the difficult intiicacies of interlacements, and yet that these 
stones are, so far as we know, altogether without ]>rogeny, have left no 
known attempt at imitation, is an argnment against tlie tlieory held by 
many persons, that those of our sculptured stones which are not Danish 
are late English copies of Danish stones erected here. "With regard to the 
head-stone of these London stones, there can, I think, be no doul)t that 
the Dane avIio set it up copied an English form. I have heard of no 
head-stone of this character, or of anything like this form, in Scandinavia 
or Denmark. On the other hand we have in England early head-stones, 
some with runes, of which 1 shew one from Thornhill, and one very 
curious stone at AVhitchurch in Hampshire, Avith a semi-circular top on 
the surface of which the inscrii^tion (in Latin) is cut, in front, a female 
bust in a sunk panel, and on tlie back a very pretty symmetrical ornament 
of spiral type, a rubbing of which I shew. Again, there is no evidence of 
the existence of body-stones of this form in Scandinavia or Denmark, 
while, though there is not to my knowledge in these islands any body- 
stone at all reseml)ling this, Ave have plenty of early body-stones. The 
so-called hog-backed stones are, of course, familiar to all Avho are likely to 
hear or read these Avords. But there is a class of body-stones less 
familiarly knoAvn, and at the same time more closely akin to this London 
body-stone. Several Avere found under the Norman Avails of Cambridge 
Castle Avheu they Avere removed early in this century. They are figured 
in'the ^\.rcli?eologia, vol. xvii, and Mr. Cutts has given tAVO in his Manual. 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society, of Avhich I have the honour of being 
President, possesses one, and I shcAV an outlined rubbing of it, a stone 
5i feet long, tapering toAvards the foot from 19 inches to 12 inches, 
with four sunk panels leaving the surface to form a Latin cross, 
the panels filled Avith simple interlacing bands. You have a por- 
tion of a stone much like this in the Guildhall Museum. There is 
one in the south Avail of St. Mary Bishophill the Less in York, 4 feet 
long, of Avhich I sheAv an outlined rubbing. Another has just been found 
under Peterborough Cathedral. I shcAV a fragment of another, 3ft. long, 
from the York Museum, Avith no cross on the surface but divided up the 
length by one line, on each side of Avhich is a dragon Avith interlacing 
bands for limbs. I sheAV for purposes of comparison a pretty little 
standing stone from Thornhill, near DcAvsbury, Avith dragons Avhich are 
closely related to the York dragons, and Avith a runic inscription. There 
is a very interesting fragment of a stone, recently found at York, Avith 
two panels, in each of Avhich is a very good dragon engaged in the usual 
unsatisfactory and unsatisfying occu]iation of eating itsoAvn or some other 
dragon's tail. I believe that this stone is the upper part of a body-stone 
with four panels. There are several early stones in Yorkshire and 
Durham Avhich may have been body-stones. Among them I must 
mention the stone Avhich I feel to be the most beautiful 1 have seen. It 
is built into the external Avall of the west end of the nave of Kirkdale 


Lliurcli, on tlic' nortli side of the tower. It is pciishing miserably, iiiay 
almost lie .said to have pcvislied. The local pliotographer has had an 
order from me for more than two years to pliotograph it in the largest 
jiossible size. Years ago runes could be read on it, To King Oitldhcahl. 
Xdw only one rune can be seen, though others are detected in a careful 
rubbing. I shew a rubbing of Avhat remained three years ago of this 
exquisite piece of sculpture. 

Tlie theory that English and Scottisli and Irish sculptured stones are 
mainly Danish is probably due to the fact tliat some of our earliest 
writers who have touclied upon the question were in communication with 
learned Danes, and heard from them of stones with strange inter- 
lacements and with mnic inscriptions existing in Denmark and in Sweden. 
It was natural to suppose that the origin of the two classes of stones was 
the same, and that the Danes who set them up in Denmark were the race 
who set them up in England and in Ireland, in jiaits of both of which 
countries they were for a time the ruling race. 

Sir Henry Spelman had a correspondence^ with Glaus Wormius on this 
and cognate subjects, in which, by the way, the runes on the missing 
head of the Bewcastle Cross are set forth and discussed. It is difficult 
to see what other view was tenable in the then state of know- 
ledge, above all at a time when the exquisite art of the manuscripts 
produced in early times in these islands was practically a sealed 
book. Professor Westwood's labours in the rejn'oduction of some of 
the marvellous pages of the jNISS., a reproduction as marvellous in its 
way as the }tages themselves, have enabled every one interested in the 
matter to realise the fact that a new and highly important element has 
been introduced into the question since tlie early county historians 
labelled our English stones as Danish. In one case, it is well knoAvn, a 
very ludicrous result was produced by the Danish theory. The runic in- 
scription on the wonderful monument at Ruthwell, in a part of Scotland 
which was for a short time under Anglian ride in the early days of the 
kingdom of Northumbria, was treated as Danish, and the beautiful 
stanzas of the poem in early " Anglo-Saxon " — 

Christ was on the Cross, 
Yet thither hastening 
Came from afar 
The nobles to the sufferer. 
With missiles wounded 
There laid we him limb weary, 

were made to mean that ' a font with ornaments of eleven pounds weight 
was oilered b}^ the authority of the Therfusian fathers for the devastation 
fif the fields and thirteen cows as an expiation for injury.' The evidence 
in this case every one can appreciate. The evidence from the charai'ter 
of the art is not accessible to all, even of those who arc interested in the 
matter, and we cannot expect it to be so ludicrously conclusive as in the 
Kuthwell case. 

I have selected one or iwo examples of "Danish" stones in England, 
as illustrations of the sort of evidence we possess. There is nothing 
unfair in the selection, in this sense — that I know of no stones called 
•'Danish " in England which are any less unlike the Scandinavian stoneis 
than these. 

' Ul. Woriu. Muu. Dud. m. la. 


Tlicre iivi' ill Knghuul a mnii1)ci' of sculptured columns, lunstly cyliii- 
ili'ical l)ut ill .soiiu' cases with sliLihtly oval st;ctiuii, whieli are <;oiiimoiily 
culled Danish. I have cu11(h1 altcution to some of these; in a pajier wliicli 
tlie Derbyshire Archivoldi^ical Society did me the Imnour ol accej)tiiig, (jii 
the Font at AVilne. Tlie whole question of these columns i.smucli too lap>-e 
to he dealt with on tlie present occasion. I shew ruljbin<,^s of one of the 
iiuesl (>f them, the pillar in the cliurch-yard at Leek, in Statfordshire. The 
principle of all is the same. The column tapers slightly upwards, ami 
after a time it is cut as if one were making t)ie first four cuts at a new 
lead pencil. This gives four faces, each with a curvilinear liase and willi 
sides sloping gently inwards. t )ii these four faces the scul|)tures are 
]ilaced. It has been lielieved thai these pillars never termiiiattMl in a 
at the top. Tlie pillar at Leek terminates iu something which the histo- 
rian of the town likens, liorribih- ilicfu, to a piiie-api>le. It i.s, however, 
part of the cross in which the iiillar once terminated. This is set ([uite at 
rest by a pretty little pillar in the church-yard at Ham, where the cross- 
head is sutHcdently ])reserved for all purposes of argument. 

At Leek, as the rubl)ingsshew, ahlletruns round the pillar immediately 
below the curvilinear bases of the sculjitured panels, and this hllet is 
ornamented with a simjile and pretty interlacement of bands. It will be 
noticed that the pattern is not continuous, as it might so easily have been, 
but comes to an end at the ]S\E. corner and begins again. This is 
probably due to the designer having drawn the working design on paper 
or on a l)oard or a Hat stone, as a long narrow panel of interlacing work, 
7 inches broad and 4^ ft. long, in which case he might naturally bring 
each end to the conclusion usual on panels. Below the fillet is a very 
unusual and eft'ective ornament, a heart-shaped pattern on three sides, 
descending in a triangle, and on the fourth side a Maltese cross, carrying 
in its centre a smaller cross, perhaps a Latin cross, probal)ly another 
Maltese. The four faces have (1) the key pattern, (2) a series of ten 
"•Stafford knots" formed by an endless band, (3) a piece of cuxlinary 
interlacing work, with two puzzling departures from the conventional 
"over and under" alternation, (4) a stiff scroll of fruit and leaves. Of 
these, (1), (3), and (4), are almost de rigeur on these columns. Below the 
fillet the surface is unsculptured to the ground, about six feet. The Leek 
sexton told me that their local name for the Stafford knot is "hang three 
rogues at once," an improvement on the simple halter which made me as 
a Yorkshireman almost envious of their local requirements. 

The next "Danish" stone I will take is one which I believe is not 
d(3scribed anywhere. It is at Stapleford, in Nottinghamshire, close on 
the borders of Derbyshire. It is a very remarkable stone, with exquisite 
patterns. I trust that the Institute will be willing to have it photogra2)hed 
on a large scale and in full detail, and to accept a paper on it, illustrated 
by autotype copies of the photographs and by photolithographs of my 
rubbings, without which no one not practised could form a guess at the 
law of the interlacements. 

This beautifully sculptured pillar is about 12 feet high, and it is said 
that a considerable portion of the shaft is sunk in the masonry which 
supports it ; that the sculpture continues below the lowest visible point 
is evident. Every portion of it is covered with sculpture. It is divided 
Ijy bands into two cylindrical portions, each 2 feet 3 inches high ; Ikjw 
much longer the lower is cannot be determined. Above these are the four 


faces similar to those 1 hav(! (losci'il)ed, and the ])illar is on so kirge a 
scale that these faces are tlieniselves divided, and a second pancil of each 
ct)niniences a few inches helow the point where the whole is broken otf, 
shewing the remains of interlacing work. I shew rubliings of all the 
four faces up to the division, and of three fourths of each of the lower 
cylindrical portions. The faces have, (1) a cornucopia scroll, (2) a well 
executed system of tAVofold Stafford knots, (3) a very pretty arrangement 
of 17 rings with endless hands running through them, (4) what is called 
a Danish bird. This last object has both ears and horns ; it has 
extended wings ; on either side are what may be portions of snakes ; 
and I think thei'e are signs of a spear. The legs may be the legs of 
a bird. The arrangement of the head possibly points to St. Luke. 
The upper cylindrical surface is covered with intricate interlacing work the 
details of which are much decayed in places. A portion of the work is 
very unusual ; other portions are as good as the very best nianuscrijit or 
stone work in existence. The lower cylindrical surface has hecn very fine. 
The west side could hardly be surpassed in the beauty of the concentri(; 
circular interlacements. The south side has all but perished. The north 
repeats a portion of the upper panel on a bolder scale, and the east repeats 
and amplifies the system of rings on one of the faces. It is interesting to 
note that, so far as I know, we have not this pattern on English stones, 
beyond a ring or two on a Northumbrian stone. On Scottish stones it is 
equally rare, except in one part — you find it on one stone after another 
in Wigton and (lalloway.^ 

I sliew another of these pillars, on a nuicli smaller scale, the jiiilar in 
the church yard of Ham. Its features are in the main the same. It has, 
curiously enough, just the same departure from due alternation as the 
Leek stone has. It has Avhat the others have not, a scroll of fruit and 
leaves on the fillet below the four faces. I shew also a i)hotograph of the 
well-known pillar of Eliseg at Yalle Crucis, near Llangollen. In its form 
it exactly accords with what we have seen. It is well known that this 
pillar carries a long inscription in barbarous Latin, naming British kings 
of a period anterior to any date at Avhich the 9th century Danes could 
p(jssibly have influenced la]ndary style. There are two examples of these 
[)illars at Bake well and four at Macclesfield. 

It is unnecessary for me to say that what we have so far seen of 
" I)anish " stones is entirel}' unlike the Danish and Scandinavian stones 
they know so Avell in Denmark i^'c. We have not .seen a sign of those 
great snakes Avhich border their ornaments and carry their inscriptions. 
Nor will you find on any stone in those parts anything approaching to any 
of the details I have shewn. What I have now to add, in concluding my 
examples of " " stones in England, is more striking still in itself- 
and only not more unlike Danish stones because it could not be more un- 
like. The specimens I shew of what I may designate as "basket-work 
men," come from tAvo stones at Checkley in Staffordshire. They are 
"battle stones," and "Danish," in ])opular estimation and in the county 
history. I had supi)osed the marv(!llous creatures on them to be quite 
unique till I found a stone I shall describe next. The bodies of the men, 
of whom there are, I think, about two dozen in threes, are formed of an 
endless interlacing l)and, tin,' legs projecting as a sepai'ate design, and the 
two ends of the band pi'ojecting from the shoulders and forming upraised 

' Tracings of the«t' ring juitturu.s weru shevvu. 


arms, in somo cases passing round the head and forming an arcade or a 
nimbus. I shew tracings of a crucifixion from thi' " Irish Psalter " at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, with an approach to this basket-work arrange- 
ment ; also of a basket-work-bodied " elephant " symbol from l>rodie. I 
also shew other details of these most remarkable stones. I trust that the 
local society will enable me to have the stones fully photographed and 
published with my outlined rubbings as interpretations. 

Finally, last Easter, when I was collecting materials for a paper on the 
Derbyshire stones, to be read, if all be well, at tlu; meeting of the 
Institute in Derby next autumn, I went to Ham, at the mouth of 
Dovedale but in Staffordshire. There, too, I found a *' battle stone," 
a very massive rectangular shaft, looking as if very many centuries 
must have gone in its perishing. When the lichen was got rid of, there 
stood revealed the indications of what I think no one not acquainted 
with the race of " basket-work " men at Checkley could have interpreted, 
" basket-work " men in threes, almost exactly like the " Danish " battle 
stones at Checkley, while on the sides were just the same Stafford knots 
and concentric circles which I have shewn among the Checkley details, 
only on a larger scale. I shew rubbings of these. I am glad to say that 
the discovery of these curious things, and the light I was able to throw 
upon two crosses in the churchyard, have moved the vicar to undertake 
the publication of all sides of all of them, both in autotype and with 
photolithographs from my rubbings. 

I have had a two-fold object in venturing to make this communication. 
First, I have desired to call attention to the details of the important 
(juestion of the relation between the art of the stones in these islands and 
of those in Denmark and Scandinavia ; with which question the origin 
and influence of the art of the so-called Irish manuscripts is inseparably 
bound up. And secondly, I have desired to excitt; interest in the whole 
question of our English sculptured stones, stones as interesting in their 
art and their antiquity as the stones of Scotland and of Ireland, and 
greatly more interesting in their inscriptions. I have great hopes that 
the University Press of Cambridge will undertake to commence and 
to carry on a great work on these stones, where each shall be reproduced 
by some autotype process. Both on the account of the expense, and on 
account of the labour, and on account of the knowledge required, such a 
work — which would be a national work — is impossible without the active 
aid both of local and of central Archaeological Associations. -I shall be 
exceedingly thankful if I succeed in moving to sympathy and active co- 
©ijeration so all-important a body as the Archicological Institute. 

Prorrrtiings at JHcetings of tijc IXonal ^rrfjicDlogiral 


February 5, 1885. 

The President in the Cliair. 

Admiral Trejilett communicated a paper " On tlie Pierres a r)assins 
in Brittany," in which he suggested that they had been caused by tlie 
extraction of ([Uern stones. 

]\Ir. SoMERS Clarke read a paper " On Sandridge Churcli, Herts," but 
dealing more particularly with the very remarkable stone screen dividing 
the chancel from the nave. It is singular that the ornamental side of 
this screen, which is practically a solid wall with a central door between 
two windows, with a third window above, faces east, and ]\[r. Clurlo^ 
therefore suggests that the plain western side was hidden from view to 
a great extent by a wooden screen carrying the rood. 

This paper is printed at page 247 of tlie current number of the Journal 

Rev. C. R. Manning exhibited tluee medieval patens from Norfolk. 
The earliest, from Foxley, bears the raanus Dei in the centre, but 
is otherwisf.' plain. It is apparently of fourteenth century date. The 
next, from Gissing, is of ordinary type with the A'ernacle, date circn 
1.51.5, but perhaps a little later, — the hall marks are almost illegible. 
The third, from Felbrigge, is remarkable for an unusual central <levice, 
that of 8t. Margaret and the dragon, nn an enamelled field. Felbrigge 
church is dedicateil to St. "Margaret. The date of the paten is cirm 1520. 

Mr. Manning spoke as to the large nundier of medieval patens existing 
in Norfolk ; for, whilst no instance of a medieval chalice was known, 
over twenty patens had already been noticed. It was suggested that 
patens w(!re spared by the Edwardian commissioners, though tliey 
confiscated the chalices. 

JVuiiLiuitics au^ (IBorks of Jlvt (E.vhibitcl). 

By Admiral Tremlett. — Drawings of Pierres a Bassins. 

By M. Seidler. — Pliotographs of megalithic remains. 

By Mr. Somers Clarke. — Drawing of the stone screen in Sandriilge 
church, Herts. 

By Kev. C. K Mannino. — Medieval patens from Foxley, Gissing and 
Felbrigge, Norfolk. 


March 5, 1885. 

Tlie President in the Chair. 

The Rev. Precentor Vexaules coinnuinicatod tlic following notes on 
the discovery of a beautiful pilaster (^f Roman work at I.iiieoln: — 

" I send a photograph and one-fourth size drawing, l)y ]Mr. Smedley, 
of a sculptiired stone, discovered in the middle of Feljruary last, 
in digging the foundations of tlie new School of Art and Science at 
Lincoln. The locality where the stone was found is at the foot of the 
hill on which the old Roman city stood, behind the old city jail, between 
the New road and Monks road, a short distance to the east of the 
eastern wall of the lower or second Roman area, nearly opposite the site 
of the eastern Roman gateway of that lower town, known in later times 
as Clasket gate. It is rather remarkable that other indications of Roman 
times were so scanty. As far as I can learn there were no Roman 
foundations or traces of Roman building discovered. Two funeral vases 
of the coarsest make, one containing burnt bones, both broken by the pick 
of tlie workman, are all that I can hear of, besides a few coins of common 

"The stone, as will be seen from the photographs, is one of much interest, 
and displays considerable Ijeauty of design. It may be safely said to be 
the finest work of art of Roman date which has yet been discovered in 
Lincoln. It consists of a quadrangular pilaster or " cippus," of a rather 
tapering form, crowned by a projecting cornice carved with a series of 
inverted acanthus leaves of much delicacy of execution.. The two sides 
are profusely carved with foliage of the acanthus type, displaying great 
freedom and less conventionality than is often the case. The way in 
which some of the leaves are made to overlap one another deserves 
observation. But it is the face of the stone which calls for the most 
careful attention. It bears a figure — whether male or female is somewhat 
uncertain — clothed in drapery of much elegance in its folds and general 
arrangement. Its left hand bears a 'cornucopiae.' What the dependent 
right hand carried cannot be determiuetl from the mutilated state of the 
stone. The features have entirely perished. The head has its back part 
covered with a kind of hood, or veil. 

" The points to be determined with regard to this interesting memorial 
of the past are its object and character, and the person represented. 

" I sent the photograph of the stone to Dr. Collingwood Bruce, who 
replied — ' I am much interested in your newly discovered stone. It is 
worthy of Athens in its best days. The first question which I asked 
myself was whether the figure was that of a man or a woman. The 
flatness of the upper portion of the chest induces me to think it is a man. 
I send you a photograph of a stone just discovered in South Shields. So 
far as the chest is concerned and the garment covering it, there seems to 
be a likeness between them. The Shields figure, we have no doubt, is 
a man.' 

" Another person who has inspected the stone believes that the figure 
is female, and is led by the cornucopiie to identify it with Ceres. The 
same party expresses his opinion that the pilaster was one of a pair 
supporting a frieze, perhaps that of a doorway, something after the 
manner of Caryatides. 

VOL, XUI, 2 L 


" Other persons qualified to judge, to wliom it has been shewn, regard 
the memorial as sepulchral. 

" I shall be much obliged if the members of the Institute present will 
favour me with their opinion on the points raised. 

"The monument is executed in the coarse Lincoln oolite, which renders 
the delicacy of the Avorkmanship all the more remarkable. 

" The stone is mutilated at the base. Its present dimensions are 
3 ft. 2 in. high, by 1 ft. 3 in. broad on face, and 1 ft. in flank. The 
lewis hole in the upper surface, for raising the stone after the present 
fashion, deserves notice," 

Mr. F. C. J. Spurrell reported the discovery of a large series of 
deneholes near Grays in Essex, and exhibited a plan of a few of these 
curious excavations. jMr. Spurrell promised to report more fully before 
the end of the session. 

INIr. W. T. Watkin communicated a paper on Roman Inscri[itions 
found in Britain in 1884. This forms Mr. Watkin's ninth annual list, 
and is printed in the current number of the Journal, at page 141. 

Mr. J. L. Stahlschmidt read a paper on Church Bells, in which he 
stated that his oljject Avas to show — from the progress that had been 
made by those specialists who had devoted themselves to the subject — 
the general principles that had been arrived at as underlying campano- 
logical research, or to piit it in the plainest language, how to tell, 
approximately or exactly, the date of a bell. That his remarks would 
apply only to pre-reformation or " ancient " bells (such being almost 
as invariably undated as those of post-reformation times are dated), and 
to beUs of the south and centre of England : too little progress having 
as yet been made in the north for it to be certain whether or not the 
same rules apply. 

After mentioning some abnormally shaped bells, commonly known as 
" long waisted," and clearly of early fourteenth century date, he described 
a bell at Chaldon, Surrey, which he considered might fairly be ascribetl 
to the twelfth century, and was probably the oklest church bell now 
hanging in the soutli of England. There is a similar bell at a church in 

Passing then to bell inscriptions he pointed out that the}' Avere the 
best guide to dating any bell, that Avith regard to the nature of the 
inscriptions, the simpler ones Avere certainly the earlier ; that as regards 
the character of the lettering — inscriptions in " J^ombardics " — sometimes 
called " Uncials," or " Gotliic capitals," obtained doAvn to the commence- 
ment of the fifteenth century ; that inscriptions in black-letter came in 
about the last decade of the fourteenth century, the period 1380 — 1420 
being the transition period betAveen the tAvo styles. 

Dealing first with Lombardic inscriptions he shoAved that they came 
again into use in tlie earlier half of the sixteenth century, but that the 
fourteenth century (and earlier) bells could easily be distinguislied by 
their having a stop betAveen each Avord ; and he pointed out a regular 
series of development of these stops, commencing Avith two or three 
vertical circular dots or rings, then a single diamond shaped stop, then 
a comljination of ring and diamond, then a lleur-de-lis, a crown, or a 
leaf, culminating in a circular elaborate stamp Avitli founder's name iipon 
it, as used by William Founder of London, Avhose date documentary 
evidence showed to be 1380 to 1405 approximately. 


Shortly ixftor the iiiinHluctinn of lilack-lettcv inF;n';[)Lions caiiiti in tlie 
gcnoral use of foundiy stami)s, and the lecturer in this connection 
mentioned the ordinances of the IJrazier's Company of London, datcid 
in (3, which laid down tlie m\c. that each brazier was to have his mark 
^\•llic!l \v;i8 to be jjlaced on his work. Such foundry marks arc largely 
met with (in iifteeiith and sixteenth century bells, and while many of 
them liave l)een identified as to their ownership, many others are still 

The initial crosses on bell inscriptions are also some guide in deter- 
mining the authorship and consequently the date of bells, but as these 
jiassed from hand to liand, sometimes for many generations, much care 
was needed in theorising from their use. 

Dwelling very briefly on bells of the Elizabethan period, the lecturer 
mentioned one or two curious instances of survival of Catholic inscrip- 
tions, and concluded with an appeal for he!]), especially in th(^ matter of 
extracts from i\LS. records, parish accounts and registers, b(;aring upon 
the subject : pointing out tliat not infre([uently an apparently trifling 
entry gave important evidence on doul)tful points. 

The lecture was illustrated with a well selected series of rubbings of 
inscriptions and casts of letters, stops, crosses, and founder's stamps. 

Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, by the kind permission of the Mayor and 
Corporation of ■Maidstone, exhibited and described the civic maces of that 
borough. iNIr. Hope has been obliging enough to send the following 
notes on these maces : — 

The Borough of Maidstone possesses two maces — both of silver gilt. 
The older, and smaller, of these is 22;^' inches long and consists of a 
straight staff, with a flattened button at the foot, and niace-head of 
somewhat unusual shajie. This is relieved by small square panels, and 
supported by four S shajied scrolls. The mace-head is surmounted by a 
bold coronet composed of three fleurs-de-lis and three crosses patees 
placed alternately, ami on the to]) are the royal arms — France modern 
and England (piarterly. The shield was certainly once enamelled, though 
no traces of colour now remain. The staff is relieved by one knop 
placed at about three-hfths of its length, and bears two inscriptions 
recording the re-gilding of the mace in 1825 and again in 1882. These 
successive re-gildings have done much to obscure and obliterate some of 
the details. The button at the foot has four S shaped scrolls above it. 

This mace probably dates from 1548, in which year the town was first 
incorporated by royal charter of Edward YL, dated July 4th. It also 
admirably illustrates the theory put forth by Mr. R. S. Ferguson (see his 
paper " On the Morpeth Mace," at page 90) that the civic mace is the 
war-mace turned upside down. The button and scrolls on the Maidstone 
example being the survival of the flanged head of the war-mace. 

The second of the Maidstone maces is 38 inches long, but being of the 
usual type calls for no special description. The head bears the rose, 
thistle, fleur-de-lis and harp, each crowned and between the letters C R, 
and is surmounted by an arched crown. The staff is divided into two 
parts by a knop and ornamented with a spiral pattern of oak foliage. 
Under the foot are the borough arms — a fess Avavy between tliree 
torteaux, and on a chief a lion of England. The staff l)ears inscriptions 
recording the re-gilding of the mace in 1801 and 1882. 

From the borough records it appears that a great mace was procured 


.sliorlly before lGl-9, tnwards wliich one Ambrose Beale paid ^30: on 
the accession of Charles II. a ni'W crown was added at a cost of £24 4s. 5d. 
Tliis price perhaps inchided the wliole mace-head, which woukl be 
obnoxious to the Koundheads from its royal badges. 

During the mayoralty of Andrew Broughton in 1649, a little mace was 
sold foi' £3 ISs. 4id. and a mace inlthont the K/U(j\- fining bought for 
£48 3s. 5d., of which £10 was a bequest of an ardent Roundhead named 
John Bigg. 

JVntuiuiiic'5 anb aEorkei of <^rt ©xhibitcii. 

By Precentor Venaulks. — I'liotograph and tlrawdng of a fine Koman 
pilaster found in Lincoln. 

By jNIr. F. C. d. Spurhei.l.— Plan of ])('neholes at (irays. 

By Mr. J. J. Carey. — Drawing of a wall painting of " Les tres vifs et 
Ics tres morts " in the cliurcli of Notre Dame du Castel, Guernsey. 
Drawing of a sculptured stone cliest, from Guernsey. 

By Mr. J. L. Staiij^schjuut. — C.ists and rubbings of bell inscriptions. 

By Mr. W. H; 8t. John Hope. — Tlie civic maces of the Borough of 

Iloticce of JlrrhjBoIogical ^Jublicaiions. 

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE LIBRARY : being a Classified Colkctiui, ..f tlu' 
Chief Contents of the Gentleman' i< Mar/cnine from 1731 to 1868. Edited hy 
Gkokgk Lauren'ce, F.S.A. : Popular Su])erstitions. London : Elliot Stock, 
62, Paternoster Row, E.C., 1884. 

Xo betk'V liand coiiLl he fouinl than tliat of tlie Secretary to the 
Folklore Society for clas.sifying the quantity of material ^\•hich falls 
under the general head of Popular Superstitions. This eoll(;etion f(ji'ins, 
to a certain extent, a continuation of tlie volume' on ]\lanners and 
Customs, anil, though the editor has, fortunately for himself, not been 
(juite called ujjou to — 

" distinguish, and divide 
A hair 'twixt South and South West .side : " 
we can easily realize the difficulty that he must have had in determining 
the Lest arrangement of this part of the collection. Speaking in the 
Introduction as to the force of traditional superstitions upon the minds 
of those who live on the otitskirts of our civilization, 'Sir. Gomme says 
that " the full extent and nature of this force is only properly to be 
understood when, in getting together such a collection of instances as the 
(Ti'iitleman^s Moricmne affords, one comes upon the actual living .super- 
stition over and over again The force at the back of this 

superstition in modern times is traditional n-CHrence for what has been 

handed down But when superstition has died out gradually 

from inanition aiid non-irse rather than from a definite uprooting, times 
will come when the mother in her trouble or the cottager in some .sudden 
emergency thinks of certain long-forgotton practices which their fathers 
had told them of, and had used before their eyes, and then we get a 
revival of traditional superstitions." In fact superstitions die hard, and 
many people Avill be surprized to hear that witchcraft, certainly of a 
harmless and childish character, was a living folly in Scotland so late as 
last year (1884). 

Witchcraft is perhaps the most ancient, extraordinary, and ^vicked 
delusion of the human mind, and we have in this volume a very 
interesting collection of evidences of this degrading lunacy — we can call 
it nothing else— headed by a series of interesting articles by "J. P." 
on its rise and progress. This contributor ends his remarks, in 1830, 
with a quotation from No. 117 of Tlw Spedaioi\ adtling that the 
conclusions of " the elegant and sensible Addison " entirely coincides 
with his own humble opinion. Equally humbly, we venture to think 
that if Addison had lived in our day, while he would have written with 
equal elegance, he would, in all probability, have expressed himself with 


more decision. It may, however, be bora in mind that Addison wrote 
at a time wlieii the atrocities of Matthew Hopkins, committed under a 
commission from Parliament, were yet fresh in the memories of the 
people who sufferiMl tlicm to take place. Still it is not easy to under- 
stand why a man like Addison should have suspended his judgment so 
many years after rough justice had overtaken the Witch Finder General, 

" Who after prov'd himself a icitch, 
And made a rod for his own hrcech." 

The great writer was |)erhaps influenced to a certain extent by the fact 
that, the devil and his agents Avere still believed to be restrained by Act 
of Parliament, in accordance Avith the principles of traditional reverencr. 

AVilliam III is said to have wished a foolish man who came to 
be touched for the evil, "better health and more sense." Doubtless the 
better mental health of the present generation, at least as regards 
witchcraft, is the result of more education, and we may happily Avalk 
abroail without the remotest chance of meeting the sights which gi'eeted 
oiu' ancestors — the senseless barbarities which were the daily dread of 
the most harmless and helpless members of the community who 
happened to be poor, solitary, old, and ugly, and to have a cat for a 

We have, on a former occasion, noticed how much material on special 
subjects will be gathered up and placed within easy reach by the 
publication of the Gentlemaii^s Magazine Library, and certainly the 
section dealing with superstitious customs attached to certain days and 
seasons is a good example of what we then had in our mind. But the 
" interpenetration " of church custom and folk-lore is such that, as Mr. 
Gomme says, " it is oftentimes difficult to define Avhere the one begins 
and the other leaves off." This matter, together with the special 
handling of the Folk-lore of the Calendar must before long fall to the 
treatment of specialists, and such workers cannot fail to gladly make use 
of the material Avhich ]Mr. Gomme has here placed ready to their hands 
and elucidated not a little by his "Notes." In the meantime we shall 
be glad to see a certain long-projected volimie on Church Folk-lore l)y two 
able men. 

Superstitious customs and beliefs of otlier kiutls is ))leasant and varied 
reading. We are not disposed to think that any particular county bears 
away the bell for credulity, though Suffolk certainly takes a good place 
and is well Avorthy of its oAvn "Garland." 

Of folk medicine Edward Potter's MS., fifth book, is an agreeable 
study, and Ave must confess to a sort of " traditional reverence " for his 
Avonderful receipts, "taken out of the vicar of Warlingham's booke," 
since; "they Avere taught him by th(! fayries." Of course there is "A 
good drinke for them that are bewitched or forespoken," though Ave may 
congratulate ourselves that Ave do not I'cipiiri' such a dectjction. It is not 
tjuite clear wlicther "the fayries'' luul a hand in all these receipts, but 
if these airy sprites are to be; held responsible for " A good oyntment 
against the vanityes of the lu^adr;." — a bitter cure indeed — and for the 
receipt " To remedye ])aldiu!ss of the heade," aftiM- which (as we can well 
believe) we "shall sec gi'eat exi»erienc('s," — though avc should imagine 
not exactly the desired result — Ave begin to lose faith in tiie gentleness 
of the fairy character. We regain some confidence, however, on reading 


the simple remedy " against all manner of infirmities " for the rest of 
the year if taken on the first Thursday in the fairy month of May. 

We gatlier that the latttu' part of the MS., Gthhook, treating of plaister.s, 
salves, potions, &c., is not quite sucli pn^tty reading as tlie fairy cures, 
au<I it is soothing to look forward in tlie history of medicine, even if we 
get no further tlian tlio incessant tar-wat(!r, blisters, ])le(!dings, and vomits, 
wliich made life miserable a hundred and fifty years later. 

We need only call general attention to tlie nuuiber of unexpected 
subjects which fall under the head of Superstitious Customs and IJeliefs, 
in a long list, ending with the well known and most popular of all 
charms, the horseshoe. But special mention should be made of the 
excellent Index, because it appears that many writers imagine that when 
"The End" is written the ])ook is finished. It is unfortunately too late 
now to enshrine this idea among " Superstitious Customs and Beliefs," 
of which this volume treats ; but, really, the sooner it is properly 
classified among " Vulgar Errors " the better it will be for the rapidly 
increasing numbers of persons who buy books, not to put them on their 
shelves and forget them, but to read them and make use of them by 
means of an index such as Mr. Gomme gives us. 

We notice the handsome way in which the Editor in his introduction 
acknowledges his indebtedness to many correspondents for help during 
the progress of his work. This is a literary custom not infrequently 
somewhat dishonoured in the observance. Special mention is also made 
of an obliging critic, who has taken the pains to send him a list of the 
errata which he has lighted upon in the preceding volumes of tlie series. 
We are glad to hear that this list will be printed, for it will add to the 
permanent value of the series and stand a constant record of the straight- 
forward and generous way in which Mr. Gomme goes to work. We liave 
not attempted to deal critical!}^ with the book — that would be impossible in 
a limited notice— but we have probably said enough to imlicate that this 
volume, like the former ones, is not a mere dead collection of dull 
disjointed extracts, but a series of original records sufiiciently linked 
together in sections and aimotated with experience and ability. 

^Tfbfcolorjiral InttlliQcncr. 

Meeting of the Institute in Derbyshire. — The general arrange- 
ments for the meeting of the Institute at Derby, on July 28th, under 
the presidency of the Earl of Carnarvon, D.C.L., F.S.A., are now 
lompleted. The following are the names of the Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents of Sections : 

Antiquarian. President: Thk Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D. 

{ Rkv. G. F. Browtjk. 

Baron dk Cossox. 
! R. S. Fkrgu.s()n. 
Vice-Presulents -; Llewellynn Jkwitt. 
I Edward Peacock. 
I Rkv. Prebendary Scarth. 
LThe Hon. F. Strutt. 

Jlisfnrina/. Presi.ient : The Very Rev. the Dean of Lichfield. 

f Rev. Sir Talbot Baker, Bart. 
I Thk Hon. W. M. .Jervis. 
I Ma.ior Lawsox Lowe. 
Vice-Pi'esidents -{ The Lord RisHor of Southwell. 
I Rev. F. Spurrell. 
I S. Tucker (Souienset). 
LRev. Precentor Venables. 

Architectural. Presidpiit : The Right Hon. A.. .J. B. Bere.sford Hope, M.P., F.S.A. 

f Rev. J. R. Boyle. 


I Rev. F. Jourdain. 
Vice Presidents^' J' '^'- ^Iicklkthwaite. 

I The Right Hon. the Lord Scarsdale. 
I Sir Sibbald Scott, Bart. 
(.Sir H. Wilmot, Bart., M.P. 

The following places will be visitcnl during the week : Kedleston, 
Norbury, Ashburne, Tutbury Ca.stlc, Mardwick Hall, Winficld Manor 
House, Bakewell, Haddon Hall, Arbor Low, Youlgreavc, Sawley Dale, 
Abbey, Morley, Rejitoii and Ereedon Priories, Melbourne, Peveril Cnstlo, 
Tideswell, Padley Chapel, the Carls Wark and Hatliersage. 

All persons wlio contftiuplat(^ reading pajx-rs during tlie meeting should 
comnumicate with the Secretary without delay. 

Ci)e ^^rdjaeological Journal. 




The river Thames within the limits of my present 
examination was, at a remote period, a stream whose 
waters were not estnarine or saU.. At that time the Land 
throuj^'h which it flowed was so high as to keep the sea 
wholly away. But then came a time when the land had 
subsided so far as to permit the ocean to take possession 
of the freshwater channel. By the continued sinking of 
the land, the sea gradually crept up the valley until, at tlie 
present day, the ordinary tide reaches as far as Eichmond. 

But the old freshwater bed at what is called the mouth 
of the Thames had sunk much further below the sea level 
than that at Eichmond by the time the sea had reached 
the latter spot, and in doing so had afforded room in its 
bed for successive deposits of mud and refuse. When a 
river meets the sea the point at which the currents 
neutralize each other permits the suspended matter to 
settle ; these may be of different natures and constituents. 

In the Thames, as elsewhere, these deposits are arranged 
in certain order, and about the Shorne and Tilbury 
marshes, lor example, the layers of materials take a 
greater regularity in their relative positions than elsewhere. 
Coarse gravel lies lowest, smaller above, and then fine 
sand; this succession denotes the decrease in velocity of 
the current of fresh water. Next we have sand banks in 
which the shells of Scrohicularia and Tellina occur,' these 

^ In this layer a human skeleton occurred at Tilbury. 

VOL. XLII. (No. 167) 2 M , 


are estuarine shells and announce the access of salt water. 
Above these comes a layer of peat formed of stranded trees 
and other vegetable matter, the current at that time having 
been checked sulHciently to let even floating logs lie. 
Above is found a very fine grey mud, then a layer of 
peat formed of land and freshwater plants, above this fine 
grey mud; then peat again of considerable thickness and 
toughness, much more commonly formed of brushwood 
than of water plants, then grey mud again. The alterna- 
tions of these layers denote intermissions in the rate of 
subsidence — mud was deposited when washed by the 
tide continually, peat was in formation when subsidence 
had either stopped or was reduced to a minimum (if, indeed, 
it does not show a reversal of the movement) ; so that the 
level of the soil had sufficient time to rise by its own 
growth above the reach of spring tides, even in storms. 
Lower down the river this division into layers grows less 
distinct, while higher up the different peat beds merge 
into each other with less mud between. In the marshes 
of Long Eeach and nearer London, the upper layer of the 
great mass of peat supported a forest of birch, elm, hazel, 
and yew, with many others. The yew forest is a remark- 
able feature — as the yew is intolerant of water and cannot 
live in salt — jet the yew forest stretched across the whole 
marsh at Dartford, Dagenham, Eainham, Erith, and 
Plumstead (as well as elsewhere). The stubs of the trees 
may be seen about 0- o.d. on both sides of the river bank 
in Longreach standing in situ, as in other places.^ At 
Crossness some large yews were dug up, and one I saw 
fetched up from the excavations was 15 inches, and 
another exceeded 18 inches in diameter, and there were 
others larger still which I did not measure. Oaks of 
medium size are also found on both sides of the river in 
this layer. Long periods of freedom from the tide must 
have elapsed for such forest growths to have become 

The upper surface of these layers of forest and peaty 
soil in the districts I have named generally lies about 
0. of O.D. (from e. to w. and from n. to s.) but it is found 
of course a little higher on the gently sloping banks, 
as at Southwark and Westminster, and elsewhere lower 
down. The successive layers extended further and further 

' For note on the meaning of "O.D.," see page 272. 


westward as the land sank further, the lowest layers in 
the east not being represented in the west. At Southwark 
and Westminster, consequently, the bank of ancient or 
pleistocene gravel through which the river winds had 
only been covered by a layer of peat, which is the equiva- 
lent of the uppermost of those already enumerated, in the 
Eoman period, but not by the succeeding clay, which 
apparently had not then been deposited westward of 
Purfleet, except perhaps in creeks. 

The inability of the tide to deposit above a certain level, 
coupled with the fact that there are many yards in thick- 
ness of deposit, is evidence that room has been made 
below the certain level to receive it. The room has been 
generall}^ credited to slipping and sliding, and to contrac- 
tion of the deposit. I do not forget to give these move- 
ments their value, but there has certainly been another, 
for such movements are not shared by the gravel banks 
of Southwark, of Higham, or even of Littlebrook, and the 
many gently shelving shores along the Thames which are 
either embanked or are regularly receiving that slight 
deposit of mud from the river which is at present 
imperceptibly converting them from earthland into marsh. 

I have said that at the present day the ordinary tides 
reach as far as Eichmond — vulgarly speaking they reach to 
Teddington and even further, but that is not the tide water 
that I am speaking of, viz., the marine. 

This limit of the marine tide is that high water level 
which is the result of the ocean invading the shore, and it 
is measured by a line known as Thames high water mark 
of the Trinity House standard or t.ii.w. In a longitudinal 
section of the Thames from a hydrological point of view, 
the line of t.h.w. coincides with the level of the ordinary 
spring tides at Eichmond bridge ; above that level the rise 
of the water is the irregular result of land floods or 
storms. That it is a true natural division is also apparent 
when it is seen to be in agreement with the limit of tran- 
sport inland of the most delicate marine organisms, the 

There is another practical and very obvious limit. The 
artificial banks which now keep the waters of the Thames 

•' See paper by Dr. Bossey iu " I'roc. Holmesdale Nat. Hist. Soc, 1879." 


within definite bounds are inefficient unless they reacli a 
height exceeding 15 feet above a certain level which is 
called the Ordnance datum line — though there are 
differences in the elevation of banks, which are higher 
where winds, currents, or the proximity of the sea oblige 
the walls to be raised ; at the present, 16 feet is the 
average actual height above o.d.^ 

It is evident that all the shore land of the Thames below 
the level of 15 feet o.d. would be continually subject to the 
wash of the tides of the present day if unembanked. The 
land Ivino^ below the above level would include a consider- 
able quantity near the marshes, now dwelt on by us, 
which has never been washed by the Thames in modern 
times. At a certain distance below this level deposits of 
mud are being always laid by the spring tides. These 
deposits occur in bays and unenclosed spots by 
the river side, and are called Saltings or Salts to dis- 
tinguish them from the fresh marshes. All down the 
river these saltings are within a few inches of the same 


level, and their average height above o.d. of the present 
day is 10 feet or 10 feet 6 inches. 

The level of the saltings is regulated by the height 
reached by the spring tides, which float on to the grassy 
surface muddy water. The water floats off again leaving 
the mud adherent to the grass and dried soil. It is 
oljvious that no salting-s can exist hioiier than the level to 
which the springs lift the mud. This then is a most 
important level. It represents the height at which the 
tops of the marshes would stand now, if there were free 
passage for the tide and no walls. But along the Thames 
the marsh levels within the walls lie below the salting 
tops at varying distances. To a certain extent by this 
means a guess may be made at the ages of the different 
levels ; for, looking on either side of a bank dividing the 
marsli land, it may sometimes be seen that one level is 
many feet higher than that on the other side. That 
which is highest having been last enclosed. A good 
instance of this may be seen near Erith church. 

^ The Thames liigh-water mark is 12 ft. care has been taken to secure accuracy. 

Gin. aVjove the Ordnance haluni lino. In All lociilitie.s mentioned by former authors 

this pai)er tlie 0.0. i.s the level from which wliose measurements have been used by 

I have derived my measurements as given me, have been visited, and as far as prac- 

in the majjs and bench marks. In all ticable verified, or rejected Lf found in- 

the mea.sures I have given the greatest distinct. 


It will be perceived also that these marsh levels were 
once saltings whose upper surface was determined by the 
height the spring tides reached when they washed over 
them. The general appearance of the saltings is that of 
flat meadows covered with grass and weeds and intersected 
by fleets and creeks. Tlie course of some of these is 
determined by streams from the shore, while the majority 
are anastomosing channels formed 1)y tidal wash. The 
number and size of these creeks and fleets as compared 
with the area of the salts is small inland. The channels 
increase in numbers, width, and depth in proportion to 
the salts lower down towards the sea, winding and 
intersecting, until in the Medway and the Swale the pro- 
portion of water wa}" is equal to or greater than the salt- 
ing flats. Lastly the wash of the sea becomes more 
destructive than its depositing power, then there are no 
salts, only mud banks, as at Blythe, Mucking, &c. ; and 
further out still these are represented by sand and shingle. 
The sequence is fairly regular, and as the sea advances on 
the land, especially in the case of subsidence, the different 
varieties of saltings travel inland too. 

It is obvious that in the case of an embanked marsh, 
after a sufficient period has elapsed for the equalization of 
its surface, that its level will be the mean level of the 
creeks and saltings, and that the level of the marshes 
(as at Hoo or Stoke) would be lower than those 
in the west, but higher than those in the east, for the same 
age. If, therefore, there were embanked islands and 
marshes out on the flats eastward of Sheppey in the 
Eoman time ; it will easily be understood that when once 
they were drowned there was little or no chance of their 
recovery. The saltings at the Medway mouth and the 
Swale are going to sea very rapidly, and the area of open 
water at high tide is annually perceived to increase. 

On the marshes of to-day houses stand, and broken 
glass and bones and other rubbish would indicate the 
date they were abandoned to the tide, by the variety of 
relics lying at a given level. In many places on the 
Thames, remains lie scattered beneath the present surface 
of the marsh which indicate a definite period, and Eoman 
pottery is so plainly detected that we know by it what 
was the level of the Koman period. 


In the Eoman time the Thorn-eye on which Westminster 
abbey church stands, consisted of sand surrounded, or 
nearly so, with peat or marshland. The hard part of the 
little island where there was no peat was apparently 
covered with Eoman buildings, removed later perhaps to 
prepare the site of the abbey, and I am informed by Mr. 
Poole, the abbey mason, that the rubble and blocks of 
concrete of these Eoman buildings were largely used in 
the footings of the Gothic work of the abbey church; 
while some may be detected in the older walls. Mr. 
Poole and Mr. Wright tell me that beneath the floor of the 
church concrete with brick flags was found in situ by 

Mr. T. Wright, the clerk of the works to the abbey, 
tells me that in the college garden, when digging the 
foundations to the new canons' houses, the workmen 
passed through made earth to six feet from the surface ; 
then peat two feet, to gravel ; in the upper part of this 
peat slabs of concrete flooring surfaced with tiles or brick, 
roofing tiles and other rubbish with bones and pots, the 
remains of a Eoman dwelling were found. The surface of 
the gravel here was 14 feet below the level of College 
street which at that place is 16 feet o.d. Beneath the site 
of the old organist's house in the dark cloister was gravel ; 
resting on this was 18 inches of peat, in the upper part of 
which were numerous masses of concrete, bricks, tiles, 
bones, pots, and other refuse of Eoman life. The upper 
level of the gravel here is 10 feet 6 inches below the 
surface of the cloister floor, which is 2 feet 6 inches below 
the floor of the nave of the church, which is 17 feet o.d., 
so that the Eoman surface is o.d. 5 feet, while in the garden 
it is about a foot lower, both of which levels are beneath 
the level at which alluvium is now being deposited, but of 
which these spots have been deprived. 

In Southwark the Eoman remains are very abundant. 
The greater part is gravel covered with a light layer of 
peat or peaty soil in which the relics lay. 

The section of the soil in the grounds of Guy's hospital^ 
shewed, made ground 8 feet, yellow clay 2 feet, black 
loam and peat containing pine cones, hazel, and moss 

^ See Dr. Odliug's account in vol. i of Guy's hosijital lleportd. 


2 feet, and below (ancient) gravel. In the peat were 
found Eoman pots and pans and the relics of food, and 
the black loam is the Eoman vegetable mould. So the 
deposit of peat was laid on a soil which had never received 
a covering of tidal mud. A covering of yellow clay and 
made ground rose up to 14 feet 6 inches o.d. 

In tiie Eoman burial ground described by Mr. A. J. 
Kempe^ vases were found about 6 feet below the surface, 
" they had been deposited just below the stratum of 
natural loam which is above the alluvial gravel bed." I 
find the elevation above o.d. to be 8 feet 6 inches, so that 
the Eoman level was 2 feet 6 inches. 

Mr. E. E. Way, who has long been collecting Eoman 
remains in Southwark, tells me that the average depth of 
remains is from 12 to 16 feet below the surface at places 
where these figures coincide with the zero of o.d. or a little 
above it. 

A great many writers have described Eoman floors 
and other remains in Southwark, but without attention 
to the level at which they lay below the surface. Most 
of the buildings stood on peat which was retained in 
its place by short piles for the purpose, chiefly, of keeping 
the tesselated pavements which the Eomans used from 
becoming irregular. The piles were driven into the peat 
and ijravel up to their heads, on which the concrete was 

When the Albert dock, which extends across the 
Plaistowand East Hamlevel was being dugin 1878-9, Eonian 
black pottery (I saw some Samian), and food refuse, with 
tiles, were found between 8 and 9 feet below the surface 
(which was 5 feet 6 inches o.d.), on and in the top of a 
layer of peat ; this was covered by tidal mud. 

When the southern outfall works were being du<z 
twenty years ago at Crossness, a very exposed situation, I 
saw much Eoman pottery, mortar, tiles, rubbish and 
portions of wood, lying about 9 feet below the surface 
(which was there o.d. 5 feet) on the upper part of a layer of 
peat, which showed unmistakeably that hazel and birches 
were growing on it, while moss, &c., covered the surface. 
The bones of the " Eoman " ox and large quantities of 
native oyster and snail shells lay in the peat. I saw a 

^ Archaeologia, xxvi, 467. 


broken cinerary urn from here which when found con- 
tained bones, as the workman told me. 

The Eomans occupied this part of the estuary at a time 
which seems to have been co-incident with a renewed 
depression, when in the western part the yew and oak 
forest had weakened and decUned, though the surface 
was not too swampy to support other trees and bushes 
forming a scrubby undergrowth, with most of the flower- 
ing plants now living and much moss. 

In the excavations for the new Tilbury docks, I saw in 
October, 1883, Eoman tiles and pottery, with bones and 
food refuse, oyster and snail shells, tiles and flint blocks. 
They lay in the fine alluvial grey clay, but on a mossy and 
grass-grown surface which could not have been unlike the 
surface of the marsh there at present. This layer was 
7 feet below the surface. The area covered with remains 
was about 40 yards square, but there were signs of a much 
wider spread. 

The conditions here were different to those at Crossness, 
and the salts may have been embanked, but looking over 
the large excavations I was not a])le to detect any signs of 

Eoman pottery in laj^'ers, and scattered over the fore- 
shore and banks of the Thames, is very common lower 
down. On the east side of Tilbury fort at low water, the 
shore beneath the saltings is covered with Samian, of sorts; 
and many kinds of black, buff, and white pottery, all 
Eoman. This extends for a couple of miles along the 
shore. The frasfments are sometimes worn but are fre- 
quently freshly fractured, and they all appear to have 
been washed out of the same layer in the mud which 
apparently lies one or two feet below o.d. No pottery is 
found in the face of the saltings. On this foreshore and 
opposite the Low street manor way, the raised portion of 
which stops abruptly some distance from the water, Mr. 
P. Benton, of Wakering Hall, Essex, was fortunate in 
obtaining a remarkable find. He tells me, " we probed 
down with a prong and found an urn 8 J inches high filled 
with burnt human l)ones, and round it two cups and two 
saucers of Samian ware, a black vase, another smaller urn 
shaped like a crucible, and another black vessel " of an 
angular pattern. This find lay about one foot around the 


central bone urn, between 3 and 4 feet deep in the mud, 
about 20 yards from the salting place. The foreshore here 
slopes somewhat rapidly, and consequently the burial must 
have been below the o.d. line by about 2 feet. This is in 
accordance with the docks level. Mr. Benton has anotlier 
very large Upchurch jar, 14 inches high, with bones in 
it. from the same layer, and two flagons of light buff 
ware with handles, a white metal cup, an earthen colander, 
&c. Other people have obtained cinerary urns from this 
place also. The river is here cutting away the older 
embanked marsh which has been resigned to it. 

Mr. S. W. Squire of Horndon-on-Hill, to whose assistance 
in the examination of the Tilbury foreshore I am much 
indebted, also procured me the view of certain cinerary 
urns containing bones which lay on a layer of red earth 
beneath 2 feet 6 inches of marsh clay at Mucking, near 
the creek. 

The Eoman potteries at Higham covered the land for 
about three miles along the edge of the marsh. I have 
found a very great variety in the kinds of pottery here, 
mostly black however. I have seen over a hundred un- 
broken pots at one time, and such immense quantities of 
broken fragments, that the new embankment of the rail- 
way there was in places made of them. Mr. Teanby and 
Mr. Grafter before this, secured specimens in abundance 
from the Shorne gravel pit (part of the site) near Beckley.^ 

A remarkable find was obtained here of which Mr. 
Teanby left a sketch which has been reproduced in the 
above paper by Mr. C. E. Smith. It was a kiln or cowl of 
circular form made of coarse clay ; a master ganger, a 
most intelligent man,^ in charge of the navvies working 
on the North Kent railway, told me that he assisted 
while it was beino- duo- out, he said it was a kiln and that 
it was full of small pieces of pottery which were found 
packed inside when opened ; and that there were no bones 
inside. Something similar was found at Slayhill. 

Mr. Burkitt excavated with Mr. Grafter in a field south 
of Higliam church on the ground sloping to the edge of the 
marsh. He says,^ " although the most considerable quan- 
tity of fragments occurred within one foot of the surface, 

^ See Archceologia Cantiana, vol. xi, p. 113. ^ See Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc, iv,p. 393. 
^ Named Artlett, T believe. 



at a depth of three feet there was still a plentiful supply (of 
Pioman pot). At the latter depth our labourers were 
arrested by land springs, urns with burnt bones were 
found, and at 3 feet 6 inches part of a quern." By land- 
springs he means that the present level of the marsh was 
reached, where water stands. 

I have traced the relics of the potters here, lying on 
the gravel, but beneath the alluvial mud to two feet 
vertically beneath the latter, on the west of Beckley hill. 

I have also found a few pieces of pot off the old cause- 
way on the foreshore. On the Blythe sands I have picked 
up pieces of Eoman pot, and particularly near the Brimp, 
where lay a quantity of broken tile. I cannot help think- 
ing that the Blythe sands may have been dwelt on by the 

Off the eastern spit of Canvey island quantities of 
Pioman pot-sherds constitute an item in the different 
materials forming the shell bank there, washed out from 
the Eoman stratum which exists or once existed there.' 
Off the town of Leigh was dug out of the oaze an amphora 
of red earthenware.^ 

Mr. Humphrey Wickham has described some cinerarj^ 
vases,^ now in the British museum, from the marsh near 
St. Werburgh, and he has indicated to me the spot. They 
were buried, he says, in the flat ground adjoining the 
Medway, which the spring tides flow over, about three- 
quarters of a mile s.e. of Hoo church, and were found at 
the depth of 5 feet. A slight layer of peat occurs at 
3^ feet from the present surface, and above that the very 
stiff clay consisted of the deposit left by the tide. He 
draws attention to the fact that since they were placed 
there the land has gone to sea. 

Around the shores of Grain and Sheppey and the 
marshes of the Medway Eoman potsherds can almost 
always be found. They are washed out of the mud which 
constitutes the wide spread marsh-land which lies about 
Sheppey and the mainland to the west and south. 

Mr. George Payne in his " Catalogue " enumerates 
several objects from these marshes, food and cinerary 
urns, and a number of armilla}, signet and other rings 

1 See Benton, " History of, RocLford," " Benton, ih., i, 397. 

i, 80. ^ " Arcbtcologia Cantiaua," x, 75. 


obtained from a Roman villa, whose site shows that it 
was destroyed by fire, in the Slayhill saltings. He has 
also fonnd in these marshes fine vases of Samian. Several 
finely figured vases of this ware have been found in the 
Upchurch marshes, &c. 

Of many varieties made here one sort of pottery was 
the peculiar manufacture, it is believed. I have already 
alluded to a cowl found full of small pots from 
this part, while the walUng and bars belonging to the 
kilns, and refuse indicate their actual sites. 

In the marshes opposite Gillingham and in the Sharfieet, 
Slay or Slade hill, Milford hope and other saltings, 
together with those aljout Lower Ilalstow and Funton 
creek are frequent evidences of potters' settlements, and 
Eoman brickyards ; over the whole marshland of this 
district was scattered houses and potters' yards. Even in 
the older enclosed levels of Sheppey fragments may be 
found, and I have picked up fragments in the Neatscourt 
and Queenboro' marshes. 

The saltings have layers of pottery at various distances 
below the surface, and some of them at first appear to be 
the original levels on which the potters worked, but I 
have seen no satisfactory evidence of a Eoman floor or 
level above 9 or 10 feet. Floors hardened by fire in order 
to consolidate them for cattle, as well as men, are 
frequently found, from the surface downwards, fre- 
quently covered by debris of pots also, but belonging to 
the occupants of the marshes in subsequent ages. 

The true Eoman floors and foundations are found at a 
lower level. In the Sharfleet creek and its branches I 
have seen several places about 11 feet down where 
potteries stood, and in one, a favourite place for hunting 
relics opposite the Medway saltings, the great abundance 
of pottery and refuse points to there having been a larger 
factory than common. Many blocks of Kentish rag and 
flanged brick made of Gault clay obtained from near Maid- 
stone shew the building to have been better than usual. 
Numerous pots, evidently the stock of the potter, are 
obtainable by digging, quite perfect and in good condition, 
while broken refuse lies thick and wide. The lloor is 
hard, and lies at present about 18 inches below the surface 
of the mud, and the evidence is oompletc that there was a 


kiln here. It is about 11 feet below the saltings. There 
are many such places at about the same depth, and 
although it has been said that the pottery found in the 
bottom of the creeks has been washed out of the saltings, 
and such of course is the case, yet the pottery so washed 
is worn and sorted into lighter and heavier fragments, 
while the bricks and bars and tiles are wanting in such 
drifted collections. This lower level seems to be a true 
level of the Eoman time, and its great depth is one reason 
why there is difficulty in finding sites and foundations, 
which are bared only by those creeks which cut deeply 

The pots are said to be found by different persons at 
from 3 to 4 feet, as well as other distances below the 
surface of the salting. There is difficulty in reconciling 
these statements, except we remember that the sea is 
continually rearranging them. The waves wash the pottery 
from the mud and drift it into the sides of the creek and 
on to the ooze and over the surface of the saltings ; 
while layers of debris and drift are covered by fresh laj^ers 
of mud and a new salting surface. 

When the cant is subsequently washed away and a new 
face exposed the different layers are seen ; in the latter 
deposits shells are occasionally found with the pot. In 
some of these layers, the inferior kinds of pot have rotted 
and broken up into a pulp, which is sometimes mistaken 
for charcoal and sometimes for peat, especially when a 
little drift wood lies in it, and thus a fictitious potter's 
level is formed. 

I have examined many miles of the edges of saltings in 
the hope of discovering mounds and embankments or 
signs of them, but without success hitherto. I believe 
that the greater part of the salting visible in the sides of 
creeks is of so late a formation as to be subsequent to the 
Eoman date. 

Nowhere have I heard of or seen Saxon pottery in these 
saltings. I am inclined to believe that the Eoman 
settlement, from whatever cause, was suddenly abandoned, 
and not re-occupied for a lengthened period after, and 
then b}^ another })ec)ple, who, however, found the life there 
much harder than the Eomans did from the physical 
changes it had undergone. 


Notwithstanding that the marshes of the Swale and 
Medway keep their saltings level with the upper limit of 
the spring tides, yet the force of the currents so deeply 
intersects the saltings with creeks, that the nearer the sea 
the smaller are the blocks or masses of salting land, and 
the horizontal waste is very great. Beyond the isle of 
Sheppey eastward there are no longer any saltings in 
existence. But there can be little doubt that there were 
some Once. About Whitstable and the coast of Harty, as 
elsewhere along the Swale, Eoman potsherds are thrown 
up by the waves. These sherds often consist of Samian, 
as well as black and shelly pots.' 

Eastward of Sheppey there are shallows called the Cant, 
and the Cantish or Kentish flats. In part of the former, 
viz., the Cant, is a mass of so-called rock, the Pudding- 
pan rock. On this rock and in its neighbourhood 
numerous specimens of Samian ware were and are 
frequently obtained."- The hillock is now never dry, 
being always covered by at least one fathom. In the 
additions to Camden by Gough,'"^ we find " Mr. Jacob, 
whose residence at Favershani gives him great opportu- 
nities, observes that the rock is half a mile long from 
east to west and 30 perches wide ; it is covered with 
various loose stones which are frequently dredged up." 

Governor T. Pownall in 1777 describes the rock as 
being about the size of the hulk of a moderate sized ship, 
" having upon it about nine feet at low water, and three 
fathom all about it. At the first hale of the net along one 
side of it we brought up a large fragment of brick-work 
cemented toa:ether, which I s^uessed mio-ht weio-h about 
half a hundred-weight. So far goes my brother's account 


^ These pots are made of coarsely leaved pattern ; stamped flowers and 

crushed or pounded shells, cardium, potter's marks are as frequent as not. I 

mytilus, and mya. The bits of shell am mclined to think it was a local manu- 

when burnt become white, and have been facture. The story of a ship having been 

mistaken for the similar bits of quartz, wrecked here rests on no foundatiou, and 

&c., in the so-called Celtic pot. When is improbable. It would have needed the 

the former, however, have lain on the agreement of many shipwrecks at this 

surface long, the shell is dissolved oiit spot to account for the quantity of pottery 

and little pits remain. that h;us been found. I would rather 

" The so-called Samian from here is suppose it the wreck of a town or village 

usually thick and of a somewhat dull of potters, from the abundance of bricks, 

tint, not shewing the brighter colour of mortar, stones and tiles, which accom- 

the best varieties, nor is its glaze so pany the pots, 

brilliant as the best examines. No •* Gough's Camden, i, 256. 

specimens encrusted with figures are "* Archceolof/ia, v, 283. 
found now I believe, except the ivy- 


The poor of the coast, Governor Pownall says, used as 
household utensils much Eoman pot, red and coarse 
black. The rock appeared all of brickwork, which 
agrees with the statement of Gough, that large quantities 
of Eoman brick were thence fished up, and with Mr. 

At that time the " sand " on which the rock stands, he 
thinks, was called " the Speck," which name it once bore 
from that part of it being visible. He points out that 
Toliapis at 54°! 5, and Counos Nesos 54°30 would make 
another island east of Toliapis or Sheppey, and that if 
Ivawnen was the Celtic for " Eeedy island " " ever since 
the English language prevailed a speck of it was to be 

I may mention that the broken masses of salting about 
Sheppey are called Cant, and that " the Cant" in maps of 
different ages is differently placed, as if the name belonged 
somewhere though the exact place was lost — truly a derelict 
appellation. At the present day the Pan rock is but the 
highest spot on the Kentish flats, and pots are dredged 
over a space of several miles in extent. Seldom do the 
men who earn many a shilling by selling the red pots care 
to notice the black ones now. The dredgers are very 
careful to examine the dredges when at work in this 
district, and curious and valuable things are found which 
prompts this studious care, but of which no tangible record 
is preserved. Large masses of brick and stone masonry 
are occasionally " caught," and many roofing tiles : of the 
latter over thirty whole ones of a red colour were obtained 
on one spot not two years ago, their sizes were 
17J inches by 131 inches, with turned up edges. Eidge 
or channel tiles also 17-| inches long were found. 
The average number of red Samian pans dredged from 
the Pan-rock and sand is about two or three dozen in the 
year. All are so preserved by the men as to retain the 
distinctive " ross," or oyster spat and weed, which marks 
their marine sojourn. 

The island of Sheppey is only the largest of a crowd of 
low islands of which the number is now great and was 
greater. Varjdng in size from Sheppey we have Queen- 
boro, Elmley, Harty and others, together with several 
hundred of the tiniest little mounds, some of whose tojjs 


rise but a few feet above the marsh level, while others 
are known to reach hardly so high as the level. They 
are the leavings of the broad mass of London clay which 
once overspread the district, and was carved into these 
forms in a far distant period. 

Apparently many of these islands were scattered further 
eastward than now, for some are being submerged and 
others washed away at the present time. These 
' mounds,' as they are commonly called, although the 
name of 'coterel' is given to them in Murray's guide to 
Kent, stud the marsh in such a manner as to be sugges- 
tive of artificial formations ; and as similarly shaped 
artificial mounds are formed, a little attention is required 
to determine which they are. Most of the natural ones 
are much higher than the artificial refuges for sheep and 
cattle, and the former also frequently run in a line 
fringing a shore ; the average height of the smaller kinds 
is 15 feet. Professor T. M. K. Hughes describes these and 
discusses their formation, treating them wholly as natural 
formations. I think that most, if not all, are natural, but 
it is certain that some of them have been modified by art, 
of which there are examples near Queenboro and Sheppey 
Court. There is certainly some ground for the tradition 
that they have been burial mounds or barrows, for 
at Higham the mound in the marsh is still called the 
" barrow " and the " giant's grave." Very many of these 
mounds lie in the most convenient positions for aiding, or 
being incorporated with, the tidal embankments, yet of the 
liundreds scattered about this is an extremely rare 
occurrence. The "giant's grave" at Higham lies in such a 
position as would make it a valuable assistance in forming 
the (older) causeway. It is, therefore, probable that it 
was either carefully avoided, or that the land stood so 
high at the period of the earliest existence of the road as 
to offer no advantages. The resemblance of these mounds 
to barrows or graves may have procured them reverence 
from a belief in such an origin, or even because advan- 
tage had been taken of them to bury in. The fact 
is apparent that they have been avoided rather than 
welcomed by the makers of walls. The modern cattle 
mounds are generally irregular in shape and flat on the 
surface. Sometimes they are circular walls when larger 


areas are needed, but these are generally used in unenclosed 
marshes. The mounds require to be examined. 

Doubtless the Pan sand was such a place as Harty, and 
covered by the Eomans with buildings ; perhaps a iiharos 
or casteUum covered the highest point. With the post- 
Eoman subsidence the low-land became submerged, and the 
sea obtained greater power, until for a long period nothing 
was to be seen of these lands but the relics of the great 
building shewing above the waves and now lost to sight. 

It appears probable that Slieppey was surrounded by 
low embanked lands all round, and these may have 
remained so embanked until late times, for Minster is said 
to have been in the centre of the island in 1780, and in 
John Speed's map of Kent, dated 1608, it is represented 
in that position, if the low marsh lands stretching south- 
ward as we know them are excluded. But in the latter map 
another indication is met with. The line which describes 
the northern extension of the Lath of Scraye in which 
Sheppey lies, runs out on the seaward side from Shellness 
to Shireness at a considerable distance from the shore. 
This is an exception to the other boundaries, and appears 
to shew that the dry or marsh land extended so far out 
so recently, as to be recorded on the map of 1608, 
as being then capable of reclamation. jSTorthward of 
Sheppey the land appears to have sloped quickly down 
to the sea. The cliffs at Warden are now 140 feet above 
o.D. ; fifty or sixty years ago they seem to have been much 
lower or about 80 feet. This will give a clue to the rapid 
loss of land in late days, for walls can be raised on 
marshes capable of withstanding the sea so long as they 
are kept up, but as soon as the sea gets the mastery and 
attacks the base of the cliff it cannot be restrained, and 
the loss of land continues in a ratio increasing rapidly 
with the height of the cliff. This is apparently what has 
happened to Sheppey, and to this cause other islands have 
wholly succumbed. 

There is in this view of matters a great probability that 
the tradition of lord Shurland's swim out to the king's 
ships when off the coast is a true one. 

The ridge of Warden point is wasting rapidly. Professor 
Hughes mentions that from the account of a man he knew 
personally, about 50 years before the professor's observa- 


tions, the cliff extended one-eiglitli of a mile seaward from 
the church, and that houses stood at that distance. The 
church disappeared in 1881, and land has gone behind it. 
I should say the waste since has been at least equal to 
that before. If we merely take it at 220 yards in a cen- 
tury, and it may well be called double that, the removal of 
so large a projection from the mouth of the river must 
largely influence the upper reaches. 

The same waste has been o'oin"' on in the Thames mouth 
on the Essex coast, and is doing so now at a rapid rate. 
At the Hamlet farm in Prittlewell, which has about 500 
yards on the shore, 2^ yards are annually washed away, 
calculated from the last 60 years. The cliff is 21 feet high, 
and this is but a specimen of what is happening eastward 
in neio'hbourinof lands ;' and in the neio-libourino- Chalk- 
well manor, off which the Crow stone stands, Mr. Benton 
says, " It is probable that where this stone stands was 
formerly the edge of the saltings, as in an old map of 
Chalkwall hall, 100 years old, several more acres of 
saltings are shewn than at present exist." 

The sea-walls or tidal embankments of the Thames have 
not, I believe, ever been treated of before as a whole. I 
have for many years examined and mapped them, and 
made myself personally acquainted with the whole district 
of the Thames estuar}^ mainly for the purpose of learning 
what history they could be made to give of themselves. I 
have found this a rather solitary investigation, but the 
hope that I should find some spot likely to yield a clue to 
the whole matter induced me to continue. Dugdale in his 
history of Embanking, of course speaks of them, but only 
from documentary evidence, and that, as might be expected, 
from a monastic point of view. Evidently he knew little 
or nothing of them personally. Other writers mention 
them incidentall}^ in giving account of lands belonging to 
manors and corporate bodies. Even these writers have 
not cared to worry out of old deeds more than the most 
general statements, and in the matter of precision their 
remarks are worthless for present identification of pieces 
enclosed or their locality. This may be explained, 
perhaps, for the common form of speech by which enclosed 
marshes are named in deeds, is to speak of the newest as 

' P.Benton, Rochford, p. 461. 

VOL, XLII. 2.0 


the " inned " marsh or by some such term (much like that 
of "baby" m a largely increasmg family), but which 
affords no means of deciding which marsh it is among its 
neighbours, or whether it was inned for the first or fiftieth 

The inning or embanking of a marsh, as practised in the 
Thames now, consists of digging soil from within a 
proposed enclosure and heaping it into a wall. What the 
earliest banks were formed of, other than surface clay, I 
have no evidence,^ excepting that occasionally there is a 
record that a certain wood was cut down to use in 
embanking. But I have found no signs of such wood, 
nor have I seen any in dock excavations. In an old bank 
at Erith, which was blown out of the earth in 1864 from 
the layer of peat, at a depth of 10 or 12 feet below the 
surface of the marsh, the severed ends of the banks shewed 
no signs of wood, and consisted wholly of marsh clay. 
There is no need for piles except when the bank crosses a 
flat or creek. This absence of piles is not unsatisfactory 
when considering the rate of wasting in old banks with 
respect to their age ; which wasting may, therefore, be 
treated as uniform. 

In a given district the process of inning is begun from 
the hard land, and banks are carried out a certain dis- 
tance, returning to the dry land at some other place; then 
from some point of that line other essays are made until a 
large area is enclosed. Not unfrequently the older inter- 
vening banks were taken away, and in some old deeds this 
was especially prohibited. 

Many writers are impressed with the " mighty," 
" stupendous," or " vast " embankments which keep out 
the water of the river, while Dugdale and Wren seem to 
have thought that because they were so great, none but 
Piomans could have raised them. There is no need for 
such expressions. If embankments were needed in the 
Eoman and early times, they were of minor importance as 
engineering works in the upper part of the estuar}- and 
near London. The height to which we see them now rise, 
is the gradual increase from slighter banks which costs 
but little exertion, although regular attention. Even were 

1 Where the surface was of peat walls raised on it without piles, 
would uot be wanted, nor could they be 


this not so, there is nothing astonishing in the banks of 
the Thames, however it might apply to those of the 
Netherlands. The most difficult place for embanking in 
the Thames is the Swale marshes, and I am informed that 
there was lately made an enclosure of 200 acres in Slayhill 
marsh which took two years, with an average employment 
of 30 workmen ; an enclosure at Milford hope was 
accomplished at a much less labour from the diminished 
trouble caused by creeks. These banks look formidable, 
and are really so, compared with those higher up. 

Some old banks are clearly seen to be river walls, while 
others, though faint, are identified as such by their con- 
nexion with the former. Care must be taken in separating 
true banks from old ditch or drain emptyings, to which 
length of accumulation has given illusory importance. 

In all marshes there are roads or manor ways' down 
into the marsh; many of these are slightly raised above 
the general surface and have a slightly sinuous direction 
suggestive of old walls ; others are merely flat roads 
running out perpendicularly from the general line of the 
earthland foot to a certain distance : the termination or 
change in direction of a row of these, whether banks or 
roads, forms a line which may indicate the termination of 
the fresh marsh at some period ; and the former existence 
of an enclosing wall there, may easily be inferred, Avhile 
further evidence will frequently reward the search. Some 
of these ways are still called walls. There is evidence of 
these cross walls at varying distances from the land in 
every marsh. They are particularly well shewn at 
Tilbury, Grays and Clifle. 

As it is impossible for me to prepare for publication all 
the large maps I have made of the tidal walls of the 
Thames, comprising nearly fifty miles of its length, I have 
selected for particular attention the banks which thickly 
bestrew the margin of the land and the marshes near 
Higham in Kent, by way of illustrating the whole subject. 

^ This is sometimes pronounced manna- Voc. the word is spelt vuian, facinas, also 
way, and may really 1)6 a manor way, in manna — in"ma?ina pccth." It has been 
the sense of a private road connecting contended for legal purposes that these 
detached property with the manor house; narrow ways are main ways, which is an 
but it must be remembered tliat it is absurdity, as they are always byeways, 
more commonly man-way. Both these and generally blind. Lastly, a very corn- 
words can be reconciled as good Saxon, mon term for them fully explains their 
manna, a labourer, villein ; and man. any use, viz., hindimi/s, or ways to reach cer- 
man, male or female. In abp. .Elfric's tain lands or fields. 


The distance of these from active changes, both by 
levelUng down and natural decay, together with sundry 
evidences approaching certainty in their relative ages, 
made their study promise well, or at least better than any- 
where else on the Thames. I may mention that this place 
is not peculiar in the intricacy of its walls. 

The banks on the accompanying plan were mapped on 
the six inch Ordnance map ; minor irregular mounds and 
banks, of which a great number remain, have been omitted 
for greater clearness, when I could not satisfy myself that 
they had been sea-walls. The banks are marked in broad 
black lines and are but little exac^oerated in width. 


On the south and east sides of the plan, the land whose 
present level is 15 feet above o.d. has been shewn shaded; 
this represents the spurs of upland bordering the marsh. 
The figures placed by the sides of the banks represent the 
different elevations in feet above o.d., and the letters are 
an attempt to give a relative age to the banks against 
which they stand; they merely mean that in construction 
h (for instance) preceded c. I do not mean to imply that 
h was necessarily the older bank in all its parts. 

It will, therefore, be perceived that the plain portion of 
the map shews all below where the tide would wash at 
spring tide were the bank/ absent. 

The bank marked d begins near Higham church and 
runs across the marsh to the Thames. This was not 
originally a tide wall but a causeway, nay, I suppose that 
it was in its earliest stage a simple road, for it does not lie 
on recent alluvium until it reaches at least to some 
distance past Beckley hill, and probably when first used 
did not enter the swamp for some hundreds of yards 
further. It then extends in a straight line pointing to the 
Hoo of East Tilbury. It loses itself abruptly on reach- 
ing the bank/, and lies beneath the salting level about a 
foot deep, but its course can be traced for some distance 
out by the ditches, the gravel washed off it, and the 
peculiarity of the plants growing on its surface, which 
differ from those on either side. It has, of course, received 
many a covering of fresh gravel, chalk and mud, and its 
average height is 10 feet o.d. It is quite evident that the 
enclosed marsh extended much further into the Thames 
once, and the water is still cutting the old marsh away. 



At the spot I have indicated as " blockhouse site," is a 
quantity of stone and rubble in layers, which I suppose to 
have been the material used in the foundations of the 
blockhouse existing there. The; uppermost layer lies 
nearly three feet below the saltings.' Hasted says, "In 
the reign of ([ueen Elizabeth there seems to have been a 
fort or bulwark at Higham for the defence of the river 
Thames, the 3'early expence to the queen in the pay of the 
captain, soldiers, &c., maintained in it was £28 2s. 6d." 
This blockhouse was apparently on the marsh level, 
perhaps a couple of feet below the top of the causeway 
by which it was approached. I do not suppose that it 
was a very important post, but a temporary arrangement 
consequent on the Spanish scare. 

Hasted,'^ quoting Dion Oassius, says, that the place of 
the passage of Plautius, who crossed the Thames near the 
mouth of it from Essex into Kent, was by many sup- 
posed to have been from Tilbury to Higham. It may well 
have been so, but I consider Dion's narrative as too vague 
to admit of any determination of the exact spot. 

There was an abundant Eoman population here, but if 
there are any banks in existence by which the sea was then 
kept out, they must be far out in the marsh, and I fear 
buried beneath its present surface ; for all the present 
banks are mediaeval or modern, here as elsewhere. 

The embankments of the abbey of Stratford existed 
early, for when William de Montfitchet founded the al:)bey 
of Stratford in 1134 he endowed it with marshland amongst 
other property ; and there is this remarkable record of 
the abbey histor}^ that soon after their occupation the 
abbey lands then lay so low, or that the water rose so high, 
as to drown the monks out and drive them away. They 
betook themselves to Burghstead near Billericay, and did 
not return to Stratford until the king had taken the 
drowned property in hand, for it was too great a matter 
for them ; they returned in the time of Eichard II. 

The situation of East Ham church is very remarkable ; 
it stands on a little tongue of gravel, up to which the 

^ I will mention here that the ruins of same level was found the upper course of 

a house which lay on the surface, pro- a well, with bricks carefully made, their 

bably of the Tudor period, were bared in ends fitting in radiations of a circle ; th e 

Slayhill marsh, three feet below the top internal diameter was three feet, 

of the salts, two yeai's ago, and at the - History of Kent, i, 528. 


marsh clay has crept. It is hardly possible to believe that 
the church was built there when the relations between it 
and the tide level were the same as now. Its foundations 
are as low as o.d. 11 feet. Its surroundings point to 
inundations and protective banks. 

The history of the abbey of Barking shews that it 
acquired by degrees, and presumably by its own 
labours, much marsh property along the north side 
of the Thames. After the Conquest, the abbey of 
Lesnes, which was given by William I. to Eichard 
de Lucy, is not recorded to have received marsh- 
land from him on its foundation in 1179, and the 
earliest record of enclosure is in 1279. The vicissitudes 
of the marshland of Plumstead and Eritli are very interest- 
ing, and are given more fully by various writers than any 
similar property.^ All the historical account of marshes 
below this part of the river belongs to similar or later 
dates, except those referred to in the Saxon deeds of 
Eochester, Cliffe, and Canterbury ; the extent of these, 
however, I cannot at present determine, but hope to do so 
on another occasion.'^ 

The ferry on the opposite side of the river left the Hoo 
of solid chalk, which there projects nearly into the tide 
way at East Tilbury just eastward of the church; later it 
was at the spot on which the Coalhouse fort stands, and 
at present is still further west. It has been the opinion of 
Mr. Squier of Horndon, and others, that the Eoman land- 
ino; place, if there wa's one, lay westward of this, on the 
shore in the direct line with the manor way which leaves 
the earthland at Low street station, in consequence of the 
abundance of pottery found thereabout ; but the pottery 
is scattered for miles along the river, and the facilities 
afforded by the chalk hard, directly opposite the end of 
the causeway, leave no doubt in my mind that one was 
arranged to suit the other. If the ferry was kept up in 
Elizabeth's time it must have been greatly reduced in im- 

^ See Dugdak:, Ilidori/ of Enihankitvi, Charters in the B.M., and from MSS. of 

Hasted's Kent under Plumstead and Erith, the Soc. Ant. 

and particularly Lambarde's Perambula- * Dugdale, History of Embanking, gives 

tion (if Kent, wiitten in 1570 ; alao the as the earliest mention of embankments 

deeds printed in the Rev. J. J. Wilkinson's on the Thames, Kent, 8. E II. Surrey, 

History of Erith, from the Campbell 23, E. I. Middlesex, 26, E. I. Essex — 

undated, John. 


portance, for the prioress of Higliam nunnery was found 
liable in 21 Edward 1/ to maintain a bridge and causeway- 
between Higliam and the Thames. The ofTice of prioress 
was no longer filled in 17 Henry VH, and there were but 
two nuns, while the priory was suppressed in 1521, when 
it appears that the ferry was forgotten and worthless. 

When, from various causes and probably before the 
suppression of the nunnery, the old causeway was found 
unserviceable, partly I should think from the absence of a 
convenient creek, the traffic was carried on for a long 
period l)y a road leaving the upland at the east end of 
Higham church across the line marked " public way " 
on the level, and down the causeway to a landing at 
Higham creek ; which creek may have been navigable for 
small boats almost up to the church at one time. 

I have marked one bank h in bij? dots, enclosino- a 
meadow called Slade hope (hoop); this is an old bank, 
at least of those remaining near the earthland foot ; it 
must have joined the then equivalent of the fifteen foot or 
modern level some three or four feet lower, presumably 
marked by the line z. z. Much later, when the land had 
sunk, another bank c. c, passed across it, still some dis- 
tance below the level which would be needed now. The 
sea must have frequently broken over this property, 
causing each time fresh banks to be formed or older ones 
raised further inland^ and there is one running from the 
" shore bank " by the church marked r/, 12 feet high, of a 
late date, as shewn by its present elevation. It is the 
latest as well as the highest inner bank existing in this 
part. The older causeway was used without much keep- 
ing up, when the sea covered the marsh through which it 
passed ; its appearance shews it to have been tide- 

^ Hasted, Kent, i, .528. The causeimy stairs was interchangeable with it. 
was the hard macZe road across the marsh- In Aggas' map of 1,578, we have the 
land. It was sometimes made by placing King's bridge, the Queen's bridge, and 
rushes or brushwood down and boarding Privy bridge shewn ; and in Norden's 
over. Daily in his dictionary calls this a survey of Westminster, King's bridge and 
" bridge of rushes." But the " bridge " of Privy stairs, &c. None of these however 
those days and long before was an inclined appear to have been steps. It is quite 
way, or causeway as it is now called, lead- possible that another " hridge " from Til- 
ing from high to low water mark, and bury, greatly lessened the water passage 
frequently below that jioint in shallows. of the Thames here, which tlicre is good 
It was made of timber which retained reason to supijose was formerly much 
blocks of stone in position. The word shallower than now. 


An ancient hythe was such a place as was con- 
veniently situated for hauling up ships, some of which 
were large, in safety from tides, at periods when they 
were not required for building and repairs, usually 
on a low shore ; some were placed on the hill side 
on the stream way ; others, up a creek near the head of 
it, partly for greater shelter and partly to obtain the 
benefit of the fresh water of the stream running into it. 
Of these the latter have suffered most from silting up of 
their approaches. The village of Chalk between Higham 
and Gravesend is the representative of the Cealchythe of 
the early Saxon councils. Then the hythe was reached by 
a ray or fleet. But now nothing of the sort remains, and 
the perfect level of the marsh testifies to the long period 
when the deposition of marsh clay went on uninter- 
ruptedly. The early hythe must have been early choked 
up, if the dropping of the terminal " hythe " is an evidence 
of it, for the name is given as Cealce in the bridge charter 
of Rochester, and in Domesday as Celca, by which there 
was no embanked marsh recorded, as would have been 
the case had a creek or hythe existed here. 

Cliffe and Higham have also suffered. Purfleet early 
got choked, and the famous Danish resting place at Ebbs- 
fleet near Swanscombe, and others, are no longer inlets of 
the sea. 

Ebbs-fleet is the inlet on which North-fleet stands. The 
valley is a very fertile one and was in the Roman period 
crowded with villas. It is probable that it was named 
after Ebbed, whose name is also found in Vippedes or 
Bedesham {see Hasted) close by. The Saxon chronicle speaks 
of this place under date 465, "This year Hengest and -^sc 
fought against the Valas near Vippedes fleote, and there 
slew twelve ealdormen and one of their own Thegns was 
slain, whose named was Vipped." Of course, Vipped 
was buried near the place where he died, and seeing that 
his name remains, as Henry of Huntingdon says it does, 
attached to the place, it is likely that his family remained 
here also, which has preserved the name. Dr. Guest says 
that the locality of Vippeds fleet was unknown, and Mr. 
J. R. Green does not separate the two places of Eopwine's 
and Wipped's fleets, and he thinks that the spot where 
Hengest and Horsa landed was the same spot as that on 



which Hengest and (Esc fought the Valas. But I submit 
that the names are dilTerent, that the account of the 
EngUsh chronicle requires a spot for the latter event 
nearer London than the former, and that a flight of 70 or 
80 miles to London would not have carried the Britons to 
their nearest stronghold, had they ever got so far as 
Thanet. But that the ford over the Ebbs-fleet at North- 
fleet was the place, and the nearest stronghold might have 
been London, only 17 miles away. 

Li 893 Hasten came up the Thames to Milton, or King's 
Middleton. There he made a stronghold which took some 
time to prepare ; it was to accommodate at least the 80 
ships he brought with him, perhaps many more, and 
ultimately the fleet of 250. Hasten intended to occupy a 
series of ports for some time, and thence to harry the 
country between, and it is recorded that the Milton 
fortress with Apuldre was constantly occupied for a year. 
Now, without computing too exactly how many men were 
at Milton, there must have been over 1000 with the ships. 
The works around Bayford court appear to me to be such 

as Hasten required. Then, again, this fort is in Milton, 
the paramount manor of Ba3'ford court, and Sittingbourne 
town is but a prolongation of Milton town, which is now 
slightly removed Irom the great road. 

The name Sittingbourne I take it was the result of the 
Danish stay on that particular bourne. The Saxon 
chronicle says the band " sat " at Middleton. As to the 
mythic Soedingas said to have given tlieir name, I do not 


•2 p 


know of them. The place called Castle Eough on Kemsley 
Downs is wholly unsuited to be the stronghold of an 
army, it is too small even to have accommodated Hastens 
men, and there was no place for the ships. But this small 
square-shaped enclosure, together with the one on the 
other side of the creek, and many another site of similar 
construction, appear to be, like Howbury, Cooling, &c., 
merely the sites of private fortified manor houses. 

Hasted' stated that Castle Eough on the west was built 
by Hasten, and another Castle Eough on the east of the 
creek was built by Alfred some time afterwards ; for the 
last there is no evidence, for the first the evidence is 

While Hasten was at Middleton he was preparing 
another camp across the Thames at Beamfleet, now 
Benfleet, a most suitable spot for the mustering of his 
forces; there he assembled the "great army " from Apple- 
dore, and also that from Middleton, and we may presume 
the fleet of 250 ships too, or a great part of it. The low 
spit at Benfleet was the site of the camp, and banks may 
be feebly traced about the whole area of the village and 
churchyard. The people of London with the aid of part 
of Alfred's army (who had gone into the west) set off for 
Benfleet. This they stormed. Hasten himself had gone 
out to plunder, but the " great army " was there, and was 
put to flight, and the ships they either " broke to pieces 
or burned, or carried off to London or Eochester." I have 
carefully examined the whole country side ; there is no 
other spot suitable to the need of the Danes or which 
shews even the semblance of earthworks. The valiant 
Londoners destroyed all Hasten's work and so we find no 
remains. Of his fleet, the sunken ships remain in the 
fleet close to the camp to this day, for during the construc- 
tion of the railway bridge there, some thirty odd years 
ago, the navvies came upon the ships, many of which 
were charred, and in and about them lay great quantities 
of human skeletons. 

The whole of Hasten's forces then retired to the south- 
east corner of Essex to the sea, and there constructed the 
fortress of Shoebury. This work is essentially different 
from the others, for it was not properly speaking a hythe 

' Kent, ii, GIG ami i, xxxix. 



for ships, of which they had lost so many. Wliat remains 
of this earthwork is part of a large oval ; the bank was 
7 or 8 feet high, and the ditch very wide, over 40 ft., bnt 
not very deep, about 5 feet 6 inches. The ditch, unlike 
those which in flats and bays could have been constructed 
to receive water at high tide, was a dry one, and its 
bottom was about six feet above high-water mark. It is 
evident that at the time of construction the camp must 
have been wholly on the land, for otherwise it would have 
presented an easy access from the shore to enemies. The 
section of the cliff here shewn by the rapid inroad of the 
sea leaves no doubt as to this point. 

In the parish of Erith, about the site of the abbey of 
Westwood in Lesnes, are some earthworks which do not 
belong to the abbey buildings properly speaking ; although 
there is little doubt that when needed, these banks were 
used and altered in addition to new ones, by those who 
laid out the gardens, &c. of the monastery. Little doubt 



}}WK3 ^TLf:SX.^S; KENT 


can be entertained that the hoo or shelf of land on 
which the abbey stands was an ancient and suitable site 
for a community before being selected by Sir Eichard 
de Lucy. Just above the marsh runs the lower road 
which skirts the Thames swamps. It is now raised to a 
pretty even level, damming in two little valleys which 
opened east and west of the abbey buildings. At the 
time when the earthworks were constructed the tides 
flowed up to these valleys across which the road passes. 
The eastern one has a square-shaped work around the 
bottom of the valley at a distance secure from the reach of 
the tide, and its bank on one side, if not on both, at one 
time continued much further northward (to the river) 
than it does now, in an irregular manner influenced by the 
shape of the ground. The square-shaped hythe wall con- 
tinues westward up the hill, then in a general direction 
southward, skirting the hill side for some distance. The 
ditch all along this bank is landward, for the protection 
of the waterside community. It presents in section several 
peculiarities, and notably the upper angle ; for here the 
hill rises so high and quickly that it required clever 
arrangement for protection at so unfavourable a spot. 
All the rest of these works are lost in the improve- 
ments required by the abbey. The west valley is 
stopped by a dam, making an upper pond, while the 
road-way lower down formed another dam. 

The canons dug below this an hour-glass shaped pond. 
The pond on the eastern side is a double one, and 
required much more excavation to fit it for the purposes 
for which it was dug. These ponds and the slight digging- 
required, with the dams in the road line, are monastic, 
while the hythe and upperworks may have been Saxon or 
Danish, when the Wickings needed protection against the 
natives whom they harassed. 

On the Essex margin of the Thames no works exist 
which present any form which can accurately be described 
either as hythes or camps. It is possible that the outer 
earthworks adjoining West Tilbury Hall may have been of 
a very early date, for a slight ridge borders the steep hill 
top. The square work which was constructed when 
Elizabeth rested at West Tilbury during her progress of 
inspection to Tilbury fort still remains little altered. 


Piirfleet, whose earliest form is " rourtefleet,"' presents 
no evidences of enclosnre now ; although its situation, 
which resembles that at Benfleet, was admirable for^occu- 
pation, but for ages the soil has been quarried from the 
lioo, and government works and powder magazines have 
covered the ground. 

At Barking, on the edge of the Roding, there are 
remains of a large prehistoric camp. This camp is a water- 
side camp, but is wholly above tidal level ; it appears to 
have been of the order of camps of refuge, for women, 
children, and cattle, surrounded by swamps to which 
its protection was mainly left ; at the north-west corner is 
a mound rising to a point whence the few watchmen left 
in charge could keep a look out ; this watch mound rises 
scarcely fifteen feet above the average level of the camp, 
which is on a plain of gravel but slightly raised near the 
middle ; the walls do not at present shew any deviation 
giving a covered access to the Roding, which it skirts on 
the eastern bank for many yards. The camp is traceable 
all round, but the northern walls are easiest seen. Its form 
is roughly a square, but there are no right lines in its 

At Crayford, on the spread of gravel thirty or forty feet 
above the creek on its west side, and a quarter of a 
mile or less due south of Howbury, is the barest outline of 
an oval camp ; its bank may be feebly traced on the north 
side, and the ditch also here and there, by means of the 
chalk pits made along it, the existence of the chalk having 
been revealed by the excavation of the ditch. '"^ 

The works beneath the present tide level at Littlebrook 
farm, in the marshes near Stone, Kent, are those of a 
hythe situated close to the present eartliland foot, and at 
the period of construction were apparently on a stretch of 
gravel not quite above the reach of the highest tides, and 
perhaps requiring slight walls protective against severe 
storms. The works are of a character comparable to those 
of Hasten, and represent the enclosures for the protection 
of ships — a " wick " or " port." The wick at Littlebrook 
was once important and preserved a reputation still dear 
to the English when Ethelred gave to Rochester in a.d. 

^ Temp. Ed. HI. See Morant's Edsex. on the map of the Geological Survey, 
- This outline is involuntarily shewn but is exaggerated in width. 



995, " unam mansam solita anglorum vocitatione et 
Lytlanbroce celebriter appellatam." At the present day 
may be found the graves of those early English of 
Littlebrook, on the top of the hill immediately overlook- 
ing the port.^ 

Here and there on the marshes the sites of salt pans can 
still be seen, where salt was obtained by natural evapora- 
tion, but I have not found any such further westward than 
Higham, unless there be the remains of a boiling place or 
weller's work (ivylleres sceta) in the marsh about half-a- 
mile south-west of East Tilbury church ; where is a small 
irregular mound largely formed of red fragments of burnt 
clay pots, and reminding one of the " red hills " of the 
Essex coast. 

To the north of the roadway leading from Queenboro' 
to the mainland, which is mentioned by Dugdale as a 
bank from " Tremmond-ferye to Gothelles," and the same 
distance (150 yds.) east of Queenboro' castle, is a curious 
work called a " camp-" The central level is 20 inches 
above the general level of the meadows, the bank is about 
10 inches still higher, and the ditch is about 10 inches 
below the meadows. It may have been formed originally 

* In the accompanying plan, the figures 
represent feet above O.D. The dark lines, 
Ijanks or walls. Tlie average level of the 
marsh is 0. D. 4, in and about the enclo- 
sure. Since its ;iband(jnment a cuireut 
or tidal stream has passed through the 

work, wearing the banks away on the east 
and West. The manor-way has been kept 
up much later. This work was connected 
by a line of road through the fields into 
Overy St, Dartford. 


from one of tlie " mounds " already mentioned. A plan 
of it is given by Mr. Flinders Petrie.* Another and larger 
enclosure of a rectangular shape, extending from the 
roadway due south to the last, belongs to a date posterior 
to the permanent inning of the marshland in which they 
lie : I do not think them tidal works. 

There are some descriptions of the Thames and its 
margins, especially near London, which I think require 

Sir C. Wren gives his opinion that the sea once covered 
the land between London and Camberwell, but he does 
not say at what date. 

Mr. G. L. Craik^ in his admirable article in Knight's 
" London " is more precise ; and he thinks that the sea 
approached much nearer London than now, although it 
did not reach it. 

Sir Geo. Airy' exactly describes the state of the Thames 
about London in the time of Claudius, thus : — " Whatever 
be the date of the mighty embankments which have given 
its present form to the river channel (and which not 
without plausibility have been supposed to be as late as 
Henry YI), there can be no doubt that they did not exist 
in the time of Claudius. Those vast tracts, known as the 
isle of Dogs, the Greenwich marshes, the West Ham 
marshes, the Plumstead marshes, &c. (which are now 
about eight feet lower than high water), were then 
extensive slobs covered with water at every tide. The 
water below London was then an enormous estuary ex- 
tending from the hills and hard sloping banks of Middlesex 
and Essex to those of Surrey and Kent. Immediately 
below London the shores of sound ground approach, and 
the estuary would then assume partially the character of a 
river. This estuary was, of course, the ocean, or sea of 
Dion, &c., &c." This view is adopted by Mr. J. C. Elton," 
and most subsequent writers. 

But they improved on it. Dr. Guest, writing in 1866,^ 
says, " The Eomans on arriving in the neighbourhood of 
London saw before them a wide expanse of marsh and 
mudl^ank, which twice every day assumed the cnaracter of 

^ Archseologia Cantiana xiii, 8. "* Origins of English HLstory. 

'^ 1841. '^ Arciueoloylcal Journal xxiii, The 

^ Athentcum, Jan. 28, 1860. campaign of A. Plancus. 


an estuary. No dykes restrained the water of the Thames 
within certain limits. The individual character of the 
river was lost, and the Eomans only saw one sheet of 

water before them When they said they crossed the 

Thames, they merely meant they crossed the northern arm 
of the Great Lake which spread out its waters before 
them on either hand." Mr. Black' defines his lake as 
ceasing at a line drawn between Erith and Purfleet, and 
makes London stand on it. Mr. J. E. Green^ describes 
with many big words the dismal nature of the land round 
London, and the " vast lagoon " on which it stands, and 
completes the account by saying, " Near the point where 
the two rivers (Lea and Thames) meet, a traveller who was 
mounting the Thames from the sea, saw the first dry laud 
to which his bark could steer. The spot was, in fact, the 
extremity of a low line of rising ground thrown out from 
the heights of thrust itself on the east into 
the great morass," by this he means Eatcliff. This is 
absurd, of course, and shews a want of knowledge of the 
locality he described, and removes any difficulty we may 
have as to accepting his account of the ancient Thames. 

Mr. Loftie accepts the lake, and describes the " vast 
shallow lake," with the river flowing up and down it.^ 
But Mr. Loftie says " St. Bride's cannot be attributed to 
the time of Canute, the ground on which it stands was 
then under water." Yet Mr. Loftie describes " the cutting 
of the ditch by the Danes round London bridge and the 
dragging of their ships to the west side ; and he also 
describes the existence of a Eoman building beneath the 
nave of Westminster abbey church. Now both these 
places were more than twenty feet lower than the floor 
of St. Bride's or the ground on whicli it stands, which 
has never been under water since the Eomans came. 

It should not be forgotten that L^^sons says Mortlake 
" was generally supposed to be derived from Mortuus 
lacus, the dead lake," meaning, I suppose, the Thames, on 
which it stood. 

From this supposed lake it would appear that a deriva- 
tion for the name of London has been attempted. 

' Archsoologia, xl, 1863-4. •' Loftie, London, p. 72. 

2 Making of England, p. 100. 


Mr. Loftie, in his History of London says, '• The deriva- 
tion of Londinium from lilyndin, the lake fort, seems to 
agree best with its situation and history ; " and he quotes 
Mr. Godfrey Faussett in support. If Dr. Guest had thouglits 
of a hke nature when he said " the name of London refers 
directly to the marshes," he seemed contented not to prove 
the fact.^ Mr. Loftie, in order to support his derivation, 
looks out for a similar name, and says, " a considerable tidal 
estuary or lagoon existed, stretching far up among the 
woods to the foot of the Laindon hills," and, " it is im- 
possible not to connect the almost certainly Celtic name of 
London with the similar name of a very similarly situated 
hill Laindon." There is, I beg to remark, no similarity in 
the situation of the two places. Besides, Laindon is 
variously given by Morant as Laingdon, Langenduna, 
Lainsjdon, Legniduna, Leienduna, and in Domesdav, Lange- 
duna. All these forms are alike Saxon and not Celtic ; 
Laindon is the long hill still, and still without its lake. 

But this assistance, with which he supports his deriva- 
tion, is a broken reed, for it calls to our remembrance the 
sole important difference in the early spelling of London, 
viz., Longidinio, to be found in Antonine's Itinerary^ and 
which may suit either the form of the ground facing the 
river on which London stands, or the peculiar form of the 
early city enclosure. So far, there is a resemblance 
between Langedana and Longidinio, but adverse to the 
lake theory. 

The lake of these writers then resolves itself into the 
supposition of a few inches of water rising over saltings 
for a few minutes in the day, during a few days in the 
month, and even the last reduced to a still smaller number 
of days in the summer months. But I have given reasons 
to doubt the existence at the time spoken of, of tidal 
marshes or saltings near London or above Erith, and in 
pointing out that no barrier existed at Erith or Purfleet or 
elsewhere to dam up the water of the river, I submit that 
there was no lake near London ; and also that it is probable 

' Archceological Journal, xxiii, p. 180. subsequent pai^er, those pools become '" a 

Dr. Guest found that Durolevo of the lake"! It is quite as great a mistake to 

second Iter was near Feversham, he said say that Feversham Creak was, or is, a 

" The road runs beside the Sheppey lake, as the Thames estuary was or is. 

marshes, which, in the Roman times must See Orijines C'elticce, ii, pp. 55, 117. 
have been a collection of pools," in a 



that the estuary did not reach so far west as at the present 

I am clearly of opinion that since the Koman occupation 
the present channel of the river through its alluvium has 
remained in almost exact relative position with respect to 
the earthland foot or hard banks from Lambeth to East 
Tilbury, and certainly so with respect to the more im- 
portant hards and landing places on the main stream now 

Of banks against the tide in the district below Purfleet 
there are none surviving of the Eoman period, while above 
that place none or but the slightest ones were needed, 
and no signs of any can be found. Some Saxon banks, 
perhaps, exist below Gravesend, but cannot be precisely 
identified at present, while above it, with the exception 
of Littlebrook walls, there are none now known of older 
date than the thirteenth century. 


In the accompanying map of the Phimstead and Erith marshes, I have 
marked strongly what remains of the old river-walls. The oldest and 
strongest wall was that on which Belvedere station stands ; it may 
belong to the XIII. century. The name " Flemingges walle" in 1311 
attests how early foreigners were employed here. The chief purpose of 
the map is to shew a different system of embanking to that shewn on 
the Higham map ; and also to preserve the exact position of all the old 
walls which I have been able to trace, and which are rapidly disappearing 
before the excavator and builder. These excavations, nevertheless, may 
now be watched by its assistance in the future with the hope of tracing 
the foundations of old walls and sites benonth the surface. At the point 
marked x, moor-logs of the old forest may be seen projecting into the 
ditch. Near this spot, low down in the peat, which rises to zero o.d., a 
"dug out" boat was cut through, the ends being left in either bank of 
the ditch which was being made. From out of this boat, a polished Hint 
axe and a very beautiful Hint scraper were obtained. Another polished axe 
of large size was dredged out of the same peat bed in the river oH' Prices' 
works close by. 




■^f.riC fh- 


T^ide Sanks of the I ha/ttes 
dettree/t JVoofmch and £^rith, Kent . 

J.C Yards 



A bushel is defined as " a measure of capacity for tilings 
dry: as grains, pulse, dry fruits, etc., containing four 
pecks, or eight gallons, or one-eighth of a quarter."^ A 
great many places had local bushels of different dimensions 
in different places. 

At Abingdon and Andover a bu.shel contains nine gallons ; at Appleby 
and Penrith a Inishel of pease, rye, and wheat contains 16 gallons; of 
barley, big malt, mixt malt, and oats, 20 gallons. A bushel contains, at 
Carlisle, 24 gallons; at Chester, a bushel of "wheat, rye, etc., contains 32 
gallons, and of oats 40, etc.. etc.^ 

An interesting note on the Carlisle bushel is furnished by 

Mr. Ornsby. He says : — 

The following particulars are perhaps worth noting. They occur in 
a paper (Dom. Charles I., ccccx, 165) which is undated, but whic;h 
appears to have been sent to Sir Jacob Astley, or one of his officers, some 
time in 1639 or 1640, in answer to enquiries about the price of provisions 
for the king's troops. ' A particular note of the prices of corne used in 
Carlisle, and the measure thereof. Imprimis our bushell is 24 gallons, 
which gallon is 4 wine quarts and a pint. Bigg is to be bought from 5s. 
to 7s. a bushell. Pease from 2s. 6d. to 4s. the bushell. Malt 6s. or 
thereabout the bushell. Wheat at 16s. the bushell. Malt 6s. or there- 
abouts the bushell. Wheat at 16s. the bushell. Rye at 10s. the bushell. 
This note I had from ]\Ir. ]\Iaior of Carlisle. Westmerland. Corne is 
much at the same rates of Cumberland, but the measure is not so much 
by 4 gallons in a bushell.'^ 

In 1677, Machel sends to the vicar of Melmerly a series 
of questions, ^ of which No. 3 is " How much do you 
reckon to a peck ? " 

In the terriers^ for Hutton and Greystock, delivered to 
bishop Nicolson at his primary visitation, 1704, we find 
varying measures. Thus at Hutton three people paid 

' Encyclopedia Britannica, 4th edition, ■* Machel, MSS. vol. vi., penes the Deau 

1810, sub voce bushel. and Chapter of Carlisle. 

" Ibid. 5 Miscellany Accounts of the Diocese of 

•'Lord William Howai-(l'.s Household Carlisle. (Thuruam, Carlisle, 1877.) 
Books, S-urtecs Society, vol. ilviii, p. Ixxv. 


peck coru to the parson by the Penrith peck, all the 
others by a peck of their own kept at William Oliphant's. 
At Greystoke, bushel corn was paid 20 gallons to the 
bushel, except Thwait Hall, which only paid 16. 

It would be easy to multiply similar instances of devia- 
tions from the legal standards : and these deviations it has 
been found almost impossible to repress, though between 
Magna Charta and 1809 above twenty acts of Parliament 
were passed to fix and establish the standard and unifor- 
mity of weights and measures.' 

In the time of Edward II., the town leet juries were 
instructed to inquire and declare 

of every breach of the assize of bread, beer, Avine, 'cloth, weights, 
measicres, beams, bushels, gallons, ells, and yards, and of all false scales, 
and of those who have used them." 

This was, there can be no doubt, an ancient practice at 
that time. Each little community had its own standard, 
and as the township merged into the parish, so the 
keeping of the local weights and measures passed from 
the town-reeve or elder to the parish priest.^ These 
again were superseded under various charters and acts 
of Parliament by mayors, bailiffs, stewards, and the 
like officials. Thus the Statutum de Pistoribus, etc. (or 
Statute concerning Bakers), which is variously attributed 
to 51 Henry III. (1267), and to 13 Edward I. (1285), 
enacts that the standai'd of bushels, gallons, and ells 
shall be sealed with the iron seal of the king, and shall 
be kept safe under a penalty of £100, and that no 
measure shall Ije in any town unless it do agree with the 
kins!:'s measure, and be marked with the seal of the com- 
monalty of the town. By the 7 Hen. VII., c. 3, 1491, it was 
enacted that standard measures and weights of brass 
should be delivered by indenture from the lord treasurer 
to the representatives in Parliament, or the chief officers 
of the cities, towns, and boroughs of every shire, to be 
conveyed at the cost and charges of such cities, etc., and 
to Ije delivered to, and remain in, the custody of the 
mayors or other chief officers of the same to the intent 

' Blackstone'.s Commentaries, rol. i, p. Journal of the British Archicological 

275, n. 16. 15tli edition, 1809. Association, vol. viii, p. 314. 

"^ Home's Mirror of Justice, temp. * The Cunqucst of Englaivd, by J. R. 

Edward II., chap, i, sec. 17. Cited Green, p. 15. 


that as well all measures and weights within the said cities, 
etc., may be corrected, reformed, amended, and made, 
according and after the measure of the said standard. 
And that the chief officer for the time being, in every such 
city, etc,, have for that cause a special mark or seal to 
mark every sack iveight and measure, so made, to be re- 
formed and brought unto him without fraud or delay, etc., 

Four years after the date of this statute, viz., in 1495, 11 
Hen. VII, c. 4, another w^as passed, containing similar 
enactments, but with some additional clauses, to the 
following effect, viz. : That every mayor, etc., having the 
standard weights and measures, should have authoritv to 
make a sign and print (that is, a seal or mark) with the 
letter H crowned to si(/n and print like weights and 
measures unto every the king's lieges and subjects duly 
requiring the same. This device, the crowned initial 
of the sovereign, has been used ever since.' The Eliza- 
bethan bye-law of the city of Carlisle, No. 70, runs 
thus : 

Item, that the cnmone scales where'*^*''^ bushells, half bushells, pecks, 
etc., is sealed shall all waies remain or be hereafter iu the kepinge of the 
mayr and in non other officer. 

The 79th bye-law provided as follows — 

Item that the mayi- and balifs shall yerely take veu of all measures 
and metts w*Mn this citie ons in the yere And if they fynd any unlaw- 
fuU measure either bushell half bushell peke half peke galonc yard wands 
or other measures that then the mayr and balifs to brek them and cvere 
of them and cause new to be providt Yf any man kepe in his house any 
double measure that is to say a gret one to by w*'' and a lesse to sell w*''* 
that euere one otfendinge therein shall pay for euere severall offence vi^ 
and viii'^. 

A schedule to the act of 11 Hen. VII. contains the 
names of towns limited for the safe custody of weights 
and measures, according to the king's standard ; amongst 
which are — 

Westmoreland ... ... Town of Appleby, 

Cumberland ... ... City of Carlisle. 

This act was amended in the following year, as the 
standards had turned out defective, and had to he re- 
called and re-issued again. 

' I am indebted to an article by Mr. Arclueological Associatiou, vol. viii, for 
Brewer, in the Journal of the British much of tlie above. 


In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it appears from a 
royal roll, dated 17'^ June, 1588, and addressed to the 
Barons of the Exchequer^ that great complaints had 
arisen that " the wei^'hts used throus^hout this our realm 
were uncertain and varying one from another," and that a 
jury had been appointed in 1574 to make standards of troy 
and avoirdupois weights. This was done, but in a short time 
it was discovered that the new standards were wrong ; 
they were recalled, and in 1588 new ones were again made 
and issued to the cities and towns specified in the act of 
Henry VII, and to some additional places. The stan- 
dards issued in 1588 remained in force until 1824 : they 
are of elegant form, as may be seen from the examples 
from Carlisle now placed upon the table, and from . the 
engravings in the seventh report of the Warden of the 
Standards, which by the kindness of the Controller of 
H.M. Stationery Office are reproduced with this paper. 
It has been conjectured that these standards were made 
from ordnance taken from the Spanish armada.^ 

In 1601 standard measures of capacity were also issued; 
we reproduce an engraving of the standard quart also 

standard Quart. 

from the " seventh report," etc. We have not so much 
information as to the making of these standards of cai)a- 
city, as we have as to the troy and avoirdupois ones. 

' See the seventh report of the Warden " Journal of thc^ British Archmloyical 

of the Standards. Associationy vol. viii, p. 370. 


In the seventh vohime of the " Transactions of the 
Cumberland and "Westmoreland Archa3ological Society," 
p. 56, is printed — 

A note of all sortes of weights as well brasse or lead with a note of the 
jilait and their weight, the hookes and other implements belongin to the 
Cittie bye Matthew Cape Maior, the 14"' November, 1627— 
Averdopoys or bell li li li li li li li 
weights 5G 28 14 7 4 2 1 

Stolen by Keethe 

Averdepois round and li ii li li 


flat ... 8 4 2 18 4 2 1 
Troy Weight : per oz. 

ounces 256 228^ [sic] 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 -^ J 0^ 

Lead weights in the charge of the weighlman. 
» 1 brasse bushell 1 feardlet 

1 brasse gallon 1-2'^ pound 

1 halfe gallon 1 one pound 

1 quart 1 halfe a pound 

1 quartere. 

How many of these weights the old corporation of Carlisle 
still had in their possession, when they were reformed in 
18o5, I cannot say, but the reformed corporation sold 
to the best bidder the standard weights and measures, 
which had been superseded in 1824. Some of these 

Standard troy ■weights for 4 and 8 ounces. 

I have been able to trace and now exhibit, viz. six of the 
standard troy weights, six cups, or rather hollow frustra 
of cones fitting one into another ; they are the weights for 

1 A mistake for 128. then lost ? 

^ Do not the ciphers denote weights 



4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 ozs., and are kindly lent me by Mr. 
Wheatley, whose father purchased them m 1835 from 
the corporation. Mr. Carrick, of Lonsdale Street, has 
two of the avoirdupois bell weights, those for one nound 

standard avoirdupois weight for lib. 

and two pounds respectively ; and the Carlisle museum 
possesses the quart, gallon, and bushel of 1601. 

Thus, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the 
corporation of Carlisle possessed standard measures of 
weight (troy and avoirdupois) and of capacity, satisfying 
the acts of Henry VII, and duly authenticated by the 
crowned initial of the reigning sovereign. 

How comes then the Carlisle bushel of 24 gallons to 
have been in use until lately ? Let us try to investigate 
its history. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century great liti- 
gation' took place at Carlisle, York, and London, about 
the tithes of the tenants of Holm Cultram, and one of the 
points involved was — by whose bushel was the tithe to be 
measured, by the abbot's bushel of 8 gallons, or by the 
bigger bushel of the mayor of Carlisle. The point was 

' The information as to this litigation i« Cultram lent me by Messrs. Lawson of 
from a large manuscript volume of papers Wigtou. Several copies of this book 
relating t > the parish and manor of Holm exist. 


one worth the contesting, for the tithe of meal amounted 
to 938 bushels 1 peck ; of barley to 581 bushels, and of 
oats 63 bushels 2 pecks, besides money in lieu of tithe. 
The tenants contended that they always paid ])y a bushel 
kept by the abbot of the dissolved monastery, and called 
the abbot's bushel, which was in existence at the time 
of the litigation. The farmers of the tithe contended 
that they should be paid by the Carlisle bushel of 20 
gallons (20 gallons not 24.) An affidavit was put in by 
the mayor of Carlisle, Henry Baynes, 

that they found Carlisle measure for corn to contain 20 gallons to the 
bushel ; this was all his remembrance and then out of mind (as he hath 
heard) doth not know of the plaintiffs (the tenants) paying corn or meal 
by a bushel. Since he was mayor he caused the measures for buying and 
selling of corn there to be made, the one of 16 gallons (called a bushel) 
and the other the half bushel of 8 gallons ; the plaintiffs may use wliicli 
they like best and they are at no prejudice by the bushel of 20 gallons, 
intending to leave this bushel of 20 gallons (as he found it), being the 
cities, who desire the continuance of it with the consent of most of the 

From this it would seem that Baynes, who was mayor 
in 1601, found the citie in possession of a bushel measure 
holding 20 gallons, and that he made one to hold 16 
gallons and a half one to hold 8. 

In the course of the suit it was admitted that Mr, Mayor 

during his mayorality caused other measures of 8 gallons, after the 
lesser measure, to be made, and gave them to those that kept the 
measure there, that those that would might buy by them. lUit the 
country, desirous to keep the old measure, never used the new. 

An undated order of the Exchequer finds 

That the Teiiants &c. have Time out of Mind and Memory of Man 
used and were accustomed to pay their tithe corn, &c. to the said late 
Abbot and his predecessor abbots there after the Rate and IMeasure of 
Carlisle Bushel commonly used there. But herein was a great Error 
committed by the Magistrates by Increase of Carlisle Bushel to 10, 12, 
and 14 Gallons contrary to the Statute of 8 Gallons in the Exche(iuer at 
that time and in Queen Elizabeth's time to 16, 18, and 20 (jlallous, and 
in King James' time to 22 and 24 Clallons to a Bushel, whicli procured a 
most Huge suit in law before it was burnt at a head (1) assize in tlie City 
of Carlisle by Judge Denham upon the 19th of August, 1623. 

In another undated paper it is stated that for 60 years 
past the Carlisle bushel had been 16 gallons equal to 
20 Exchequer gallons ; and it further states that in Carlisle 
market they sell by the bushel heaped up. Now, a 



measure holding 16 gallons when striked, or filled just 
level with the top, would, if heaped up, be about 20 
gallons ; this I take to be the explanation of the above, 
and not that the Carlisle and Exchequer gallons were of 
different sizes. 

We have thus got at the fact that the Carlisle gallon 
has varied and that it was on the rise between the 
suppression of the monasteries and the year 1623 ; it had 
then got to 24 gallons, and spite of the vigorous action of 
Mr. Justice Denham, it survived at that size down to to-day. 

Other mention may be found locally of measures 
deviating from the Exchequer standard. There was about 
the same date as, or rather later than, the Holm Cultram 
litigation, a suit between the earl of Cumberland and his 
tenants near Appleby, in which was raised tlie question 
of by what measure the sergeant's oats or bailiff's corn was 
to be paid. By a decree dated in 1634, 

Sir John Lowther was desired to examine and certify concerning the 
measure, who having examined two old pecks, one containing 8 quarts, 
and the other 10 striked quarts, hoth of which had been paid uplieaped 
(which was reckoned one-third more) he, to avoid uncertainty, recom- 
mended, and so it was decreed, that instead of the old peck upheaped, 
they should pay 13 quarts striked.i 

It is not said where these old pecks were kept, but 
most probably at Appleby. The peck containing 8 
quarts (that is, two gallons) would be an Exchequer 
or standard peck ; if heaped up it would hold about 
10 quarts (that is 2J gallons) and the bushel would be 
10 gallons ; the bigger peck, if heaped up, would hold 
13 quarts (3 J gallons) or rather more, and the bushel 
would be 13 gallons or nearly 14 gallons. We thus get 
to the steps by which the Carlisle bushel crept up, from 
the standard of 8 gallons to 10, 14, &c. The suggestion 
occurs that in the heaping up, we may find the origin of 
these local measures. A local custom to heap up the 
8 gallon bushel, instead of striking it, would make a local 
bushel of 10 gallons. The local authority would ulti- 
mately provide a bushel to hold lO gallons striked, 
as at Appleby; this heaped up would give a still 
bigger bushel, one of 14 gallons, and so the bushel grew. 
That a custom of paying by the bushel heaped up 

' Burn and Nicholson, vol. i, p. 292. 


existed at Carlisle is proved by entries in "A survey of 
Church Lands, anno 1649," now in the library at Lambeth, 
which gives a survey of the possessions of the see of 
Carlisle, and of the dean and chapter of Carlisle : among 
the possessions of the latter was the *' Meale Garner's 
Office," which was leased out in various parts, viz. eighth 
parts : the Meale Garner had to receive certain payments 
of haver-meal, of bigg and of oats. Li the leases occur 
tlie following expressions : — 

After tlio proportion of fourteeno giilloiiis to tlvo bush(!l, accordiii^^ to tlie 
brasse measure of Wincliester. 

According to the bnshell where witb farnicri^ and tennants arc bound and 
accustomed to pay the same, viz. 14 gallons of Winchester measure to 
the bushell. 


By the measure of twelve bushells every eskepp and sixteen gallons to 
every bushell of ye sealed brasse gallon. 

It is clear that a local custom existed to pay by the 
bushel heaped up, and, so strong was it, that the dean and 
chapter insisted on having the heaped up bushel measured 
by the number of brass standard gallons they considered 
it would amount to. Li the Liber quotidianus contrarotu- 
latoris Garderohce anno regni Regis EJwardi Primi vicesimo 
octavo^ we find grain bought both by mensura rasa or 
striked measure, and by mensura cumidata or heaped up ; 
and it is stated that 177 quarter aven per mensiiram 
cumidaf faciunt per mensuram rasam 185 quarter 7bz.' 
This was at Berwick-on-Tweed, and as the comptroller 
takes the trouble to reduce the mensura cumidata into 
mensura rasa, he clearly bought by the measure heaped 
up, but kept his accounts by the measure striked or 
standard measure, thus showing that the Berwick people — 
as well as the Carlisle — had a custom to sell by the 
standard measure heaped up. 


By W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A., F.S.A. 

Amongst the records of the parish church of St. 
Margaret Pattens, in the city of London, is a folio volume 
in the original stamped leather covers (very badly mended 
recently), measuring 15 inches by 12 inches. By the 
kindness of the Eev. J. L. Fish, the present rector, I have 
been allowed to examine this volume. It now contains 
thirty folios, but a very large number have been destroyed, 
and of the remainder sixteen folios and three pages are 
blank. From the internal evidence of omissions and 
mis-spellings it is clear that the entries were transcribed 
into the book. 

The following is an abstract of its contents, but the 
inventories I have transcribed in full. 

Folio 1 is lost. 

Folio 2 commences 

In the iicame of the Holie Trinite our blissed lady his moder 
Seint Margarete virgyn and Martir and all Seintis / Sh- 
Water Muschamp pson of the parissh Chirche of Seint 
margaretes Patyns in london John Wilson Barbour and 
John Dounton Peautrere Wardeins of the Chirche in the 
holy feest of Ester The yere of our lord god M' CCCC Ixx 
and the x**^ yere of the reigne of Kyng Edward the fourth with 
thassent of all the parisshens of the same Chirche Aggreed 
and Assented that all the evidences concernyng or touchyng 
the loudes rentes and Tenementis of the said Chirche shall 
be entiteled in this booke ceriately to a ppetuett memory for 
theym and their Successours Wliich folowen hereafter that 
is to sey. 

Then follow transcripts of 

(1) Deed by which Ealph de Coventre rector demises 
to Thomas de Wrasle a tenement with houses 
thereon, for a yearly rent of 15s. (Undated, 

but John le Blund, then mayor, occurs among the 


(2) Will of Isabell Carpenter, formerly the wife of 
Symon de Canterbury, 1342. Her body to be 
buried in the cemetery of St. Margaret Pattens, 
near the sepulchre of the aforesaid Symon. 
Bequests of money to the high altar for the souls 
of John and Matilda her parents, Thomas Eichard 
and Symon her husbands ; for the sustentation of a 
light before the cross in the church, etc., etc. 

(3) Memorandum of proof of will January 2, 1343. 

(4) Fourteen memoranda concerning deeds relating 
to parish property. 

(5) Incomplete copy of a memorial concerning 
certain encroachments of waterfall and lights. 

These occupy most of folios 2 and 3. 

Folios 4, 5, and 6 a contain an inventory of goods, 
jewels, and ornaments, dated 2 August, 1470. 

Folios 6b, 7, 8, 9a, 10a, contain a list of additions made 
to the church goods and ornaments from 1479 to 1486, 
during the tenure of the same two churchwardens. 

Folios 9b, 10b, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 are blank. 

Folios 16, 17 and a loose folio of uncertain number 
contain part of an inventory made in 1511. 

Between folios 17 and 24 five folios are lost. 

Folio 24 contains several memoranda, and lists of goods 
when a period of spoliation prevailed. They are dated 
10 Henry VIII. (1518), 1521, 1536, and 1548. 

Folios 25 to 34, and 36 to 188 inclusive, also 193, 196 
to 201 inclusive, 204 and 205 are missing. 

Folios 35, 189 to 192 inclusive, 194, 195, 202, 203, 
206, 207a, and 208 are blank. 

Folio 207b bears a memorandum of 1557 that if any 
tenant of church property be elected churchwarden, he 
shall not spend more than 10s. on the repairs of his house 
during his term of office without the consent of the vestry. 

[f. 4 a.] 

This is the Inventary of all the goodes Juelx and Ornanietttis belongyng 
unto the Chirche of Seint margarete Patyns. — made tlie secunde 
day of the moneth of August The yere of our lord god MCCCClxx 
And the x*^ yere of the reigue of kyng Edward the fourth . that 
tyme beyng pson Sir Water Muschamji and Wardens John 
Wilson Barbour and John Dounton Peautrere. 


. Juelx . ffirst a Crosse of silv'e weying v ib j unc'. 

Itm a Chalice of silv'e Gilt "w* a patene weying togider xviij 

unc' . j q*rt of an unc'. 
Itm j Chalice of silv'e gilt with the patene weying togider 

xiij unc'.^ 
Itm a Chalice of silv'e . pceU gilt w* a patene . weying xiij 

unc' & di' & half a q'*rt' 
Itm j Chalyce of silv'e w* a patene weying xxv unc* & di' 

and half a q^t'. 
Itm a Cowpe of silv'e . for the sacrament^ pcell gilt weying 

xxviij unc' iij q*i't's & di' 
Itm a Sensour of silv'e pceU gUt weying . xxix unc' 
Itm a Crismatorye of silv'e weying xiij unc' iij q*t's 
Itm a Relyke of silv'e ou'e gilt set w* stonys and a pece of 

the holy Crosse therin 
Itm an ymage of Saunct' Katerne silv' and gilt 
Itm a Mustr'^unte^ of silv' pcell gil thy the gifte of s' John 

douton waying Ivj unc' 
Itm . a Crosse Avith mary & John silv' & gilt of the gyft of 

Richard Bowell & Elizabeth his wyf weying by Troy 

Weight Ixxxvij unces & iij q'hrt'one 

(Added in another hand) 

Itm ij Candlestyckf of sylv' & pcell gylt w* angellf facf in 

y« myddf of y*^ Candlestyckf 
Itm ij sylv' Basyns pcetJ Gylt w* Roses in the myddf of them 
Itm a Shyp of Sylv' w* a sylv' spon pcell Gylt w* a lambe 

y'"on I of the Gyfte of Robt [May] and John "WytJson and 

Johna the wyff of tliem* . the p'c' v marke 

Itm a Senser of Sylv' & pcell Gylt w*' lyberdf hedf 

Itm a Chalyce of sylv' & a patent Clcyn gylt w* a crucyfyx 

mary & John in the fote and in the paten an holy lambe . 

. Bokes . Itm a masse boke for the high auter principal 
Itm a nother masse boke for our lady ChapeJt^ 
Itm an old masse boke unkev'ed. 

Itm j boke called . a pistoler & Gospeler and a principal:!: graylJ 
Itm a new graylt 
Itm an old grayft 
Itm iij new processionaries 

Itm an old processionary with a sawter and an Ymner therein 
Itm an old ordenall with a processionary therein 
Itm a new ymner notyd.*' 

Itm a boke called a lectomall for pryncipatt foestf 
Itm a new antiphoner principal 
Itm a new antiphoner secondary 
Itm an old antiphoner 
Itm a neAv Colectour. 
Itm an old Portoos noted. 
Itm a grete sawter 

1 This item erased. * Query, was .she wife to both men .' 

- The ])yx in which tlio Sacrament was ' TWb line eraeed. 

hung over the high altar. ^ in the margin " in ye handes of bryt- 

3 A monstrance. tayn." 


Itm a new legent tempatt 

Itm a new legent Scor' {Sanctorum) 

Itm ij Sawters chayned in our ludy Chapott. | 

(Added in a later hand). 

Itm a Manuell 

Itm an old gret portoos notyd. 
(In another hand) 

It' a nywe p'ssessener' bowt be John spelet & John miid) 
schryche Warddens 

(In the same hand as the additions to the list of ' Juelx ') 

Itm an New Breviatt antyphoner' 

Itm j boke for Kectors for matens . masse . & evynsong. 

Itm a complete p'cessyonary 

Itm vj queres of y'' new fest of o"^ lady.^ 

Itm j of the masse of Jhiis 

Itm a psalter | w* a Kalendr' 

Itm a lytetl portu® 
[f. 4 b.] 
laton and ) Itm a Crosse of laton gilt 

> .Itm an old Crosse of laton gilt 
Peautre. ) Itm a sensour of laton 

Itm a shipp of laton 

Itm ij grete standards of laton principatl 

Itm ij Candelstikkes of laton for the high auter 

Itm iiij smale Candelstikkes of laton for processions of laton 

Itm ij Candelstikkes of laton for our lady Chapell 

Itm an holy water stopp of laton w* a styk- 

Itm an Offeryng dissh of Coper 

Itm an hangyng of laton for the lampe in the quere 

Itm an hangyng of laton for all sowlen light in the body of 
the Chirche 

Itm iiij Candelstikkes of Peautre ij grete & ij smale 

Itm iiij peir of Crewettf of peautre 

Itm a bason of peautr' w*^ iiij small square boUys for the Pascal! 

Itm XX-'' I tap disshes of peautr''* for the Rodeloft 

Itm a Cowpe of laton to put in the sacrament 

Itm a Canape w* iij Crownys of laton to hang ov'e tlie 

(Added in a later hand.) 

Well canape was deliv'ed to the pson for tlie ch'ge he made 
a new cov'yng ov' the sacrament at his propre cost and 

the Wardyns Thomas alisauncb-' & John not to be 

charged with the said canape w* iij crownys 

.Copes and . Itm a vestment of rede veluet with dekon subdekon and a 
Vestenientf . Cope | the Orfreys enbrowded w*^ gold. 

Itm a vestement of whyt cloth of Bawdekyn witli deken 

subdekon and a Cope of the same sute of the gift of Joliu 

Gest the Orphrays of rede damask. 

^ The feast of the visitation of the - A sprinkle, 

blessed Virgin Mary, ordered to be ob- ^ Erased and altered into xv. 

served by the Council of Basil by decree ^ Erased and ' laton ' superscribed, 

dated July 1, 1441. * Thia entry erased. 


Itm a vestement of rede cloth of Baudekyn with a dekon the 

Orphrayes blak saten with bellys of gold. 
Itm a vestement of horde alisaundre with dekon and subdekon 
Itm ij Copys of cloth of Bawdekyn the grounde rede 
Itm a Cope of cloth of gold the grounde grene 
Itm a Cope of cloth of Bawdekyn the grounde blak w* 

werkys of grene 
Itm a Cope of cloth of gold chekered. 
Itm a Cope of raye silk for a Childe 
Itm ij Copes of rede silk for Children 
Itm iiij awbys with the parelles of rede silk for Children 
Itm ij awbys for Children with the parellys whyt 
Itm a sengle vestement of rede veluet 
Itm a sengle vestiment of cloth of Bawdekyn with the 

armys of the lord ffanope^ 
Itm a sengle vestiment of whyte silk 

Itm a sengle vestement of rede silk with theOrfreysof blew silk 
Itm a sengle vestement of demysay grene with purpilt & 

whyte roses [in] the Orplirey 
Itm a sengle vestiment of horde alisaundre w* the armys of 

Sir John Poph^m 
Itm a sengle vestmeiat of rede worsted the Orphreys of blak 

worstede the yeft of William harman 
Itm a sengetl: vestement of whyte horde alisaundre the 

Orphreys of rede veluet of the yeft of Sir Water Muschamp 

p'son of the said Chirche 
Itm a sengle vestement of blak worsted with a dekon for 

Itm a sengle vestement of silke the grounde rede w* the 

Orphreys of rede silk and whyte roses belongyng to our 

lady Chapetl 
Itm a sengle vestement belongyng to our lady ChapeH: of 

whyte silk w* pe Orphreys blue silk w* Crownys of gold 
Itm a sengle vestment belongyng to our lady Chapelt of 

Cloth of Bawdekyn the grounde of rede the Orphrys 

lyons and Pecokkys of gold 
[f. 5 a.] Itm a sengle vestiment belongyng to our lady Chapelt of 

grene silk with the Orphrayes of rede silk with bees of gold 
Itm a sengle vestiment belongyng to our lady Chapett of blew 

bokeram with whyte roses 
Itm a sengle vestement belongyng to our lady Chapett of 

whyte ffustyan with Orphrayes of gold 

(Added in another hand) 

Itm a cloth of gold that s' wault' muschamp gave to the chirch 

Awter. Itm for the high awter a fFronte and a nether ffront^ for the 
Clothes for high awter of rede silk with Swannys of gold and ij 
the high Curteyns of rede silk 
autci. Itm for the same awter a ffronte and a nether ffronte steyned 
of the yeft of maister Tliomas Wybbery Squyer 

^ Sir John Cornwall, K.G., created " In all these items " front" means the 

Lord Fanhope, 1433, and died 1444. HLs ui)per front, or dor-sal : "nether front" 

arms were, Ermine, a lion rampant Gules. means what we call the front:\l. 
crowned, Or,within a bordure >SaOlc bezanU 


lira, for the same awter a ifronte & a nether ffronte stoyned 

w* V Joyes of our lady^ 
Itm for the same awter a ffronte and a nether ffi-onte steyned 

of the lyf of Seint Margarete. 
Itm for the same high auter steyned . a ffronte and a nether 

ffronte steyned like cloth of gold.^ 
Itm for the same awter a ffronte and a nether ffronte . of 

whyte for lent. 

(Added in another hand) 

Itm an awf cloth of blake saresenett w** a crucifixe and mary 
& John w*' curteyns for y'' same 

Itm a blew say for the nether parte of y*' awf 

Itm a fronte and a nep"" fronte steyned y'' ovyr pte w* the 
resurreccon . the fad*" son & holy gost the asseyncon w* 
saynt Margett & saynt Kat'yn | and y*^ ned"^ pte is the 
nativitie of o^' lord y" Circuficon (sic) and the epiphie 

Itm ij supaltarf on of m'ble^ | an op' of alabastyr'. 

Awter Itm for the awter called our lady awter a flfronte and a nether 
clothes. ffronte steyned w* an ymage of o'^ lady and w* ij Curteyns 
for our lady of rede silke 

awt' Itm for the same awter a ffronte & a nether ffronte steyned 
w*' ij Curteyns of the same sute 
Itm for the same awter a ffronte and a nether ffronte steyned 
and w*' Curteyns of whyte silk new of the yeft of my lady 
Itm for the same awter a ffronte and a nether ffronte whyte 
for lent, w* ij curteyns 

(Added in another hand) 

It' of y^ gyit of rechard bowett a steneyth cloth w* Iiis m"ke^ 
& w* y*^ armys of y'' stapyJJ of Calyc w*' an ymage of hym- 
self & a nod"" of his wyffe w* a nether front & w*- ov' front, 
[f. .5 b.] 

Awter Itm for Seint Johns awter a ffronte [and] a nether ffronte of 
Clothes for Cloth of Bawdekyn with birdj^s of gold and ij Curteyns of 
Seint Johns grene silk. 

awter. Itm for the same awter a ffronte and a nether ffronte (jf the 
lyf of Seint John steyned. w' ij Curteyns. 
Itm a ffronte & a countre fifront of whyte w* rede crosses 
for lent 

Awter Itm for Seint marymawdeleyns awter a ffront and a nether 
Clothes for ffronte steyned w* damask werk and ij Curteyns of the 
Seint Mary same 

Mawdeleyns Itm for the same awter a nother ffronte and a nether ffront(! 
awt' steyned w* damask werk and ij Curteyns of the same 

Itm for the same awter a ffronte. and a nether ffronte 
steyned'* w*^ ij Curteyns for lent of white . w^ rede crosses. 

^ This entry erased. '* His ' mark ' as a merchant 

■i.e., marble. ■• This word erased. 



Corpases w* Itm a Corpax w* a Case of cloth of gold the tone side rede 
Corpax and the other side blew 

Cases. Itm a Corporax w* a Case of blew damask w* a fflowr de luce 

of gold 
Itm j Corporax w* a Case of blak veluet 
Itm a Corporax Avith a Case of blak veluet old 
Itm a Corporax av* a Case that one side thereof silk and that 

other silk with workf of gold 
Itm a Corporax with a Case of grene silk w*^ a fflowr de luce 
Itm a Corporax with a Case of grene silk 
Itm a Case for a Corporax of rede damask fugory^ 
Itm a Case for a Corporax of grene damask 
Itm a Case for a Corporax of silk w* a Crosse of silk 
(Added in another hand) 

A case of blew damaske w* a byrd of gold | the op*" syde of 

nedle warke w* Jhiis & a corpax p'in. 
Itm a Corpax w* p*' case of blew tysswe p'' on syde | the op*" 

syde of rede cloth of tysswe 
Itm a corpax w*- the case p** on syde tawney saten | the op'' 

syde of rede w* a flowr' of damaske 
Itm a corpax w* a case p*^ on syde rede veluett | p*^ op'' syde 

gren sarsenett fiowred w* brodered warke 
Itm a corpax w*' a case of Gren bawdekyn of p'' on syde & 

white on y'^ op^ syde 
Itm an op'^ lyke to y*' same 
Itm a Corpax case of rede veluett on veluett w* gren trulove 

flowres and a cloth of dyap for the pyxte p'in. 

ffrontels Itm a ffronteil: of cloth of gold w*' a Clotli tlierto 
and lynen Itm a nother of rede silk w* sterrys of gold w* a cloth therto 
Auter Itm a nother ffrontell of whyte damask 
Clothes. Itm a nother ti'ronteti of silke Avith werkys 

Itm a nother ffrontell of Tawny veluett Avith Avhyte roses 
Itm a nother ffrontell: of Cadas^ av' birdys 
Itmaflfrontellof blewsilk enbrowdedAV*'fflo\vres without a Cloth 
Itm V auter Clothes of dyaper 
Itm iiij auter clothes yjlayn"* 
Itm ij hoAvselyng towellys of diap 

Itm iiij smale towellys lij Dyap and j playne for preestes to 
AV3'^pe on peir hondes . 

(Added in same hand) 

Itm iiij lynen Clothes for frontels 

(Added in another hand) 

Itm ij awlter' clothes (jf Dyapr S: a toAvell of the gyft of S' 
John Donton 
(Added in a different hand) 

The XXV day of Juyu a" Ixxvj. . .ij aAvter clothes & towell labbid 

(In anotlier hand.) 

It' a awt' cloth of y*' gyft of aveys hall: av* ific in y° medyll. 

^ i.e. , fi'jure. ^ Cadas, or cardmis, an inferior silken stuff. 

^ Frontal means the narrow strip sewn as ■* This Hne erased These are the linen 

an apparel to the linen altar cloth, now altar cloths. 

cdHed juperfrontal. 


Clotlics for Itm j Clotli to hang afore y° rodeloft stcyned of the lyf of 
Ymages Seiut inargarete 

Itiu an other Cloth for the same rode loft of the passion of 

our lord 
Itm j Cloth to hang afore the rode in lent 
Itm j Cloth stcyned to hang afore Seint margarete. 
Itm a nother Cloth to hang afore our lady 
Itm a cloth to hang afore Seint Kuteryn steyned 
Itm a new cloth steyned for the lectorn 
Itm j old Clotli for the lectorn steyned 
Itm j Cloth of whyte & blew called a vaytl for lent 
Itm j cloth of rede worstede to lay afore the awter in liigli ilestf 
Itm V clothes steyned to hang afore the ymages of the 

Churche in lent 
[f. 6 a.] Itm a crosse Gylt w* a staffe of 8ilv' werke 

Itm a miter for Seynt Isicholas off white damaske ombrodred 

with bellis of gold 
Itm a Crete cloth of Tapestri werke for to hang uppon the 

Walle by hynde the Sepulcur 
Itm a steyned Cloth of Sepulcur werke w* the Kossurreccion. 

the Passyon . and w* other werkis 
It' ij crosse staves paynted w' silv' 
Itm a blake cloth for mortuaryes 
Itm a Canpye of grene cloth of Bawdekyn frendged w'' silke. 

Baners. Itm a Banner of red silke beton w* lyons of Silver. 

Itm a baner of silke beten w*- the armes of Maist' Atherley 

It' anoder banner of blewe bokeram beten w* gold. 

Itm a stremer of blewe bokeram betyn with gold 

Itm a nother Stremer of silv' betyn w* Davy TrebleffeldC 

Itm iiij banners on steyned of Seint George Anod'' steyned 

w*^ a vernacle Another steyned w* the holy goste 
Itm a nother Steyned w*' the ymage of our lady 
It' ij white banners steyned w*' the passyon of our lord 
Itm ij crosse banners of grene silke that on of theym beten 

w*^ the resurreccion And the top' of theym beten av'' the 

ymage of Seynt Margarett 
Itm a crosse cloth steyned w* the resurreccion 
Itm iij smale pynons of silke w*' the armes of Maist' Atherley 
(Added in another hand) 

Itm a new Crosse cloth of y'^ assupcon of o*' lady w* saynt mar- 

gett & saynt Kat'yn and w* y' v. woundes of o*" lord the 

ground y'of is gren sarsenett . and ij smale belles on y*-' staflfe. 

Surpleis Itm iij newe Surpleis 

Itm a rotchett for a child 

Itm a Chiste bounden w* Iron In the Yestri 

Itm a nod*' Chiste in the same Vestiary bownden w' Iron 

Itm ij Kuyshons of diapir Averk 

Itm a Canapye cloth steyned for cor])- xpi day 

Itm ij sakeryng belles 


Itm ij Surpleices 

Itm iij smale bellis for the Canape 

Itm a rotchett of the gyft of Tliirlkyhl 

(Added in another hand.) 

Itm iiij. new Surples bowglit be John Jeffray & WiJtn) 
Bothoni Churchewardens in y*' yere of Sov'ayn lord thu 
kyng henry the vij*'' the xxij*' the p'c' xxj' iiijd. 

Itm vij. smale beltes and a lynen w'' a Redde crosse to hynge 
up on tlie dedycacon day 

Kerchefe.s Itm a kerchieff of lawne w* taseLx of white ^ilke And iiij 
knoppes of silv' & silke 
Itm a nod' kerchief of ninple w* iiij knojipis sett w^ peritt^ 
Itm ij otlier kercheffes of hiwne w* iiij taselx either of theym 

(In another hand) 

Itm a valans of Blacke bokeram frynged w^ Cruetl: wryton 
w* greate I'res of Gold j desyr reste | of y'^ gyfte of m 
angett don' [Donne or Dunne) and xxiiij*' smaJt pendeutez 

[f. 6 b.l 

Hero Aftyr ffolowyng . been the Ornamentes . And gyftys . that was 
Gotten And gyvene to the use propyrlye . of Seynt Margarete 
Patten Churche . Standyng In the towre strete end In london . 
The wiche is gotten and . labored to be hadd . for the same 
Chirche use . by maist' Tho'^mas howghton . than beyng parsson 
of the same Chirch And by maist' Robt Baugyl:]: . and by maist' 
John Thrilkyld Grocers of london of the same parysshe . In their 
tyme off their Wardeynshipp . off the saine Chirch That is is [s/c] 
to Witte . from the fyrst day off marche . In the yere of our lord 
god . xiiij'^lxxix" unto the vij day off Marche In the yere of our 
lord god . xiiij^^lxxxYJ . att their gevyng upp off their Accowmpt. 

In p'm*^ we labored to have A vestyment . the hole sute j 

of red tyssewe . that is to witte preest . Decon . and V l'\ marc', 
subdecone . w* a cope . for the wiche we paid fibre Sni'^ j 

Itm A White Cope of Damasske powderd with Arch- ] 
angelles and the Offeraries of the same of nedyll | 
werke . of a parte of the lyffe of Seynt Margarett . to | 
the whiche payment of the same Cope . We had of \ ix'' 

the bequest of Richard Bowell and Elyzabeth his wyfi' | 
by the handz of Sir John Plomer preest and Executo"" | 
to pe Sm*^ — viij ti st and we paid the ov'plus J 

Itm ij White Copes of white Damaske powderd w'' , 
iHowres of silke and gold And the < )fieraries of red- | 
-velowett the which we had geven to the Chirche ffor Mx'' xiij"* iiij'' 
the sowle off' Sir John Thoode preest by the handz of | 
our forsaid parsons price of theym ' 

Itm A Sygyll Vestement had for the soule of sir John 
thoode preest of redboordalisaund'" w' roscz of gold In 
the crosse of the same on the bakke p'of is (red-) 
grenebordealisaund'" p'ce 

' TLuijc arc pyx cloths. - Erased. 


Itni A nother iSyngill . Vestonieiit had for the same 
sowle by the handz of our said parson of red silke w*^ 
white roses and the crosse on the bake perof is white ]• xvj"* 
silv'e And is name written In the middes of the same i 
crosse p'ce ^ 

Itm A vestement of white Bokerani . for to serve for 
lenton had l)y the handes of our said parson w*" red | 
spottes and a redcrosse on the bake and Jtis writt' in • x"* 

tlie myddes of the same crosse price of the 8ame I 
[f. 7 a.] 

Itm a Vestyment w^ greenbordealisawnder w* a redcrosse \ 

and White vSpottes of silv' and roses of "old the ( ........ 

which we had for the Soule of maist^' Drope aldreman i ' 
price ) 

Itm A Vestyment of the bequest of mast' John Darbye \ 

Aldreman of white cheker Coloure red and grene with ( , 

a rede crosse on the bak and his name In the myddes ( 
foi ) 

Itm we have of the bequeste of the forsaid Richard. 
Bowett and Elysabeth his Avyff by the handz of the | 
forsaid Sir John Plomer executour to the same . A V 
Crosse silv' and gylt w'' mari' and Johne weying by | 
troy Weight . Ixxxvij ownces & iij quarterns ' 

Itm of the Gyfte of Annes Wym'ke a paxbred silv' \ 
& gilt weying vj ownces di . w* blewe rosez and w* ' 
the salutacion of our lady . the wich paxbred is geven i 
for the soule of Sir Thomas Avelen preest price ) 

Itm of the gyfte of Annes wymarke ij kuysshons of, 
tawney chekr werke w* tassellz of blew threde price 
vjs viijd It' a Coverlett of the gyft of the same Ajones )> xiij'^ viij"" 
Wym'ke of grene tapest' werke of flowrez . to ley ou' 
the grownd to fore the high awter. vij' 

Itm by the handes of our said mast' parson iij kuysshons ^ 

+ 1 w*' iij pellicanez on theym of tapest' werke p'ce vijs It' 

+ of the same mast' parson j bankur of tapest' werke w* | 

-j- ffloures price iiijs It' by our said parson a White { 

Coverlett of tapest' werke w* yelow fflours and grene 

lyned with canvas p^ce ixs Sm'* tol ^ 

Itm ij newe awter Clothes ffor lenton of our said m ^ 
parson on above the awter w* the cruciffixe of our lord ( 
and a nod'' be neyth the awter w'' the Sepulcur of our L 
lord Sm'' ) 

Itm off maist' Eobt Bangytl; Groc' A masse boke covered 
w* white ledd' price 

Itm a lang Curteyn steyned w*- Seynt Margarett i hang- ) 

ying to fore her by m pson / "^ 

^ Added iu the margin. 


[f. 7 b.] 

Itm A crosse staffe graven and gylt like goUIsmytli Averke \ 

w^ tlie crown of Seint IMargarette by the same Mast' >• xiiij^ iiij'' 
parsson price ) 

Itm the rode aboven the Koodlofte In our Chirch with 1 

mari and John the same Crosse newe made and newe > xxxiij^ iiij 
paynted and gilted by the cost of the said m parson j 

It A Crosse stafFe like white silv' newe paynted of the ( , 

coste of Richard Kyrkby paynto*" / 

Itm iiij Stavys paynted ffor the Canapye wt corp^ x'pi^ 
uppon tlieym And w*' iiij angellz gilt to stand nppon 
theym by our said maist^" parson price xx^ Itm a-' _ _...g ....^ 
crosse and a Crosse stafFe to serve for lentton payntid | ' 
green withoute ymages w*' iij wliite silv' nailis by the 
gyft of our said mast' parson price iij** iiij** Sm^ J 

Itm the ffownte in our Chircli newe Icdid and newe gilt ) ^ ^ 

and w'' all p* langes p'to by m parson j 

Itm a nod'' crosse for the Sepulcur havyng relikes tlierin ) 
l)y our said m parson ) 

Itm an awter cloth on aboven the awter and a nother 
beneyth white steyned w* gold braunches av*^ a | 
rynnyng vyne thorowc w* a Crucifixe above and av** 
8eynt John the Baptist beneith by our said Mast' 
parson price 

Itm a frontel of Avhite damasko doble av* rosis of gold '] 
and ymages of Seint miirgarett made In nedill Averke 
Sm"' xxj'* It' a Ifoote for our best crosse gilt by mast 
parson xx' 

Itm a nother fote for the Silver crosse made by the coste ) 
of Richard Kyrkl)y payntor f 

Itm a boke callid an ymner notid thoroAv. and an olde ) 
mauewell and ij beriall bokes ofi of theyni noted w*^ J 
drige price of theyni had Ijy mast' parsone j 

Itm a braunche the wich standes to fore Seynt ]\Iargarett [ 
of the Gyfte of Elsabeth wym'ke j 

Itm we labored to be had in the same tyme . viij 
Corporaxis casis Avith Corporaxis p'in oil of theym 
bleAV tisscAve Itm a noder of theym Avliite damaske 
Avt ij archangellz It' a nother redveloAvette Avith a 




xxiy^ luj' 

xxij'* viij 


\nf iiij 


fflourdeluysse^ It' the v"' av*- the grounde red and a 
Avhite flour of Silv' bordered rounde aboutc av*^ yelaAv 
and blcAve It' the vj"' w* redsilk and byrdes of white 
silke It the vijt'' av* blake slke and redrosez It' the 
viij Avitli the ground redsilke And a redcrosse of gold 
In the myddes w'' oylett holis of .silv' had by mast' 
pson price of the same xxvj'^ viij''. Sni'' to' of theym 

' The fourth i.s not given- 


Itiu an awter Clotlio of diapir of tlie gyfto of Amies ^ 
Wym'ke the werko tliorof is iflounlehisis and crownez 
w* V rodcrossis tlieron and -Itis in p'' middes It' a 
uoder diapir Cloth off fyne diapir had for the souh; of 
Sir John Dowton w'' ij crossis in the myddes and Jtis 
+ h'' In the myddes of theym wt a crowne of grene sylke + 
(h'fic*^ Itni a nod'" awter cloth crossdiamowndes w* v 
crossis In hitt of the gyft of mast' Thirlkild and . 
his wyff It an nod"^ awter cloth of diaper w' Jtic f 
crowned in the myddes w* a lett' . a . und'"neith of the 
gift of annes half It' an nod"" awter cloth of byrdes 
eyon werke wt a crosse In the myddes and writt' 
und'neith of the gyft of Bowenpersons wyfF baskett- 
maker Itm a grene silk cloth for to serve for the j 
pulpitt and to ley uppon dedcorsis . of the parish w*^ | 
serpentes p'in of mastres bangillz gyft J 

Itm iiij newe paxbredes ij of the Resurreccion of our 
lord and the top' ij of Seynt Margarett. 

Itm ij lectron Clothes steyned of the gyft of mast' ) 
parson price of theym j 

Itm the cloth for the rood In lenton steyned by the said ) 

maist' parson price j 

[i 8 a.] 

Itm xvj boUes of latton langyng ffor the rood lofte small 
and grete p'' which cost 

Itm a Tabernacle w*' the Creuite and wt a hovell aboue ] 
hitt In the quere on the Sowth side at the high awter > 
had by the same Maist' pson p'ce ) 

Itm had off my lady Edward iiij banners ffor the tyme | 
of Est' of silke and betyn w' gold and silver w' mast' ,^ 
Edwardes armes In theym and the armez of london ) 

Itm We had of the bequest of the forsaid Richard Bowell , 
and of Elysabeth his wyff the which she her self by her | 
lyff delyv'd unto our for said mast' pson ffor to pay V 
for sylyng of the yle. and the South side of our Chircli i 
thorow ^ 

And our said Maist' parsson pd more paid more on his 
purs above that 

With many other necessaries done, and Ocupied to the 
behoofe of the forsaid Chircli Seynt Margarett Patten 
the which he will natt have rehersid nor knowen 

Itm a Vestement off greenebordealisawnd'' w' a crosse In \ 
the bakke tlieron off blewe chekyrwerke off the gyfte , 
of Mast' John Thrilkyld and his wyff. price j 

(Added in a different hand) 

Item a Cope of Whyte damaske fflowryd w' fllowre de \ 
lyce brodyrd w* gold off | ve'\yse^ off p"^ gyfte off ( 
mast'- harry Wayte m'c' & merchand off p" stapuU I 
and dekyn & subdekyn longynge to y same. ) 

^ Gold of Venice. 

iij' iiij'' 



Sm" xi' 

vj" \-ii.l 



It' we have all so ij masers on by p* gyfte of my lady | 
adyrley and anop*" By p® gyfte off Wyllyam ])orneton > 
hyr s'vand j 

It' a dyapur clop° ffor p" hye Awter off p^ gyfte off 
modyr staynysmore owre tenant The lengp" p'^off 
iiij yardes 

It' a Covyr ffor pc sakyrment | or ffor pe best Crosse off ) 
changeabult sylke by pe gyfte oft' Kichard pownd j 

It xl^ off money By pe beqwest off Wyllyam Johnson . 
basketmaker Apon Hose sowle Jtic have mercy gyvyn | 
pe xth yere off p*^ regne off Kynge harry The vii*'' V 
That tyme beynge Wardens off p*^ seyd seynt marget | 
paresche John Wryght & John Jeffrey 

It a masse bocke by p° gyfte . off masf adyrley lymyd ) 
w gold J 

[f. 8 b.] 

(In anotlier hand) 

Itm an Autter Cloth at the gyfiit of the wyffe of Ric' "^ 
pound of dyapp to the honor of god & Seynt margitt (^ 
the yer' of o^' Sovereyn lorde Kyng henry the vii'^ I 
xiiij*''^ * 

Itm by the bequeste be of margit wyolett wyddow to the | 
hono'^ of god & Seynt margit a torche on whos Sovle V 
Jehu have m'cy ) 

Itm we have a Canstyk of latten at the gyfte of margit 
harpph'^m the yerre & tyme affo'seid 

Itm a torche at the bequeste of mastres pynde to tlic ) 
honor of god & Seynt margit on whos SowU Jhu > 
have m'cy ) 

Itm we have an avtter Clothe of dyapp to the Avtter '\ 
Affore mastres St.avntton,Uhe wyclie mastres Stavntton ( 
gaf it to the honor of god and seynt niargaret tlie xv"^ f 
yerre of Kyng ti the vij"' ) 

Itm we have iiij torches at the gyft of mastres bretten "i 
tfo'^ the Sovle of mavde her dowghter the whiche f 
mavde decesid the laste day of App'ile A'' ti vij" xv° t 
on whos sowle Jhu have m'cy ) 

Itm we have a Savtter of olde liand written Cy v'id av' . 
Avhit leddyr the Saltter Sy'" Jolm Skeltton gave it to | 
the honor of godd & Seynt margit the yerre and tyme V 
to ftbre seid that tyme beyng Chyrche warddens John i 
Smyth & hy wg madderson of p' same Chyrch '^ 

(In another hand) 

Itm A Sucte of Blake veluett . pt. is to wytt . vestment . 
Decon . and subdeacon . w*- a Cope of the same w*' | 
orfrays of nedle warke wtthe appostolles & pphetes of ^ xxij' 
the Gyfte of Kob* may John Wylson ancl John'' p"" | 
wyffe on whos ssowles J'hu have M'cy . the p'c' ^ 

' There must be some error here. 


Itm j Suet of whyte damaske wt Orfrays of Reddo veluett . wt flowres 
of nedle warke pt ia to wytt , vestment . deacon . & Subdeacon . of 
the Gyfte of mast'' henry wayte 

Itm a Cote for Sent margarc^tt of white damaske . werged wt blake 
veluett «fe lyned with gren bokeram . w'' an owch of Sylv' Gylt & 
ennameled & a ston cowched in sylv' 

Itm a Cote for our lady of white damaske braunched w*' Roses | an op"" 
of cloth of Gold 

Itm a patJ of veluett Rowed white . Redd . and blew 

Itm a cloth of white sylke for p*" Canopye w^ taselles of Rcdde sylke 

Itm ij clothes of Redd sylke for p** pyxte on wt balles of gold 

[f. 9 a.] 

Itm ij Sudarys of Redd sybt^ p^ on ys fryngcd w^ blake 

Itm ij . lytyll hotels of Glasse w*^ Jftc xpc wryton on pem 

Itm iiij taceUes of Sylke sette wt perle & pyseled Gold ^ o 
Itm iiij tacelles of Redde sylke for the Canape f 

Itm a thyng to ber' lioly candle in | on Candlemasse day for pe p'ste 

Itm a prykett Candell stycke 

(In another hand, the same that made the first additions 
to this Hst) 
It' we have a shyppe flfor to put yn ffranke ensens off sylv' psell gylt 
w*^ a spone off sylv' p'yn by po gyfte off John Wyllson & robard 
niaye & jone p'" wyffe p« xx yore off p^ regue off Kynge berry p" 
vijt-ii Chyrche Wardens pt tyme beynge John Jetferey and Wyil'^iii 

It' we have a awt' elope off po gyfte off Jone maye & a towel I off dyap 
[f. 9 b. Blank. J 

(On another page, bnt in the same hand as the inventory) 

[f. 10 a]. 

Itm a myto'" for seynt Nycholas of white sylte w*' sterrys & p'cyouse 

Itm a Crosse staffe Gylte wt a napkyn p'foi\ 
[ff 10 b, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Blank.] 

[f. 16a.] 

This is the Inventory of all the goodes Juelx and Ornamentis 
belongyng unto the Chirche of Seint Margaret Pateyns in London 
made the xxiij*''' [sic] day of the Moneth of January The yore of 
oure Lorde god M'. V'= XI And in the iij^'e yere of the reigne of 
Ivyng Henry the viij'^ that tyme beyng pson ]\Iaister Rowland 
Philipp And wardeyns of the same John Sampson Salter and 
John ^Momforde . otherwise called John Smythe Plaisterer 
Citezenis . of London 

' Sic, for " sylke." - This entry is erased. 



(The following entry and the weights appended to the items 
below, are interpolated in a different hand) 

M"* Here folowitla a new content of weight of all the pcelles underwretyn 
trucly the 6*^ clay of Aprell 1526 . in the p'sens of p son John 
Champneys John Sampson John Smyth John Geffrey Eichard 
brown Jolui Gary Robert Millis Henry Clerk & George Spragyn 

Juelx ffirst a Crosse of silv'e and gilt with a Crucifix and mary and 
John in the same of the gifte of Eichard Bowetf and 
Elizabeth his wiff weying Ixxxvij unces iij qrterons 

Ixxxxix onz q'^r 

Itm a Crosse of sylver w* a Crucifixe in the same pcell gylte 
weying Iv unces di , Iviij onz q^r di 

Itm the best chaleys of Sylver and gylte w*' a crucifixe and 
mary and John enameled in the same Aiid in the fote of 
it iij half mones . otherwise called Knappes. And in the 
pateyn of the same the holy lambe . enameled wt a Chaleys 
graven under the same^ weying xviij unces 

xviij onz & q*r d 

Itm a Chalyce of sylver and gilte and a hande graved in the 
pateyn of the same weying xij unces iij qrterons di 

xij oiiz 

Itm a Chaleys of sylver and pcelt gylt and a Patene wretyn 
in the fote of the gifte of the Brethern of Seynt Margaret 
Patentes weying xxv unces di qMez xxv oiiz di q'^ 

Golde^ Itm a Chaleys of sylver and pceft gilt and a small vernakyft 
gravyn in the Patene of the same weying xiiij unces j q'^rt' 


3 A Chalis M^' this Chalis was solde 4 yers past by the assent of the 
pissh and a nother Chalis broken w* a patent Aveied now . 
& dd to henry Clerk for to amend poiz | xj onz iij q'^r di 

Itm a Monstez Avith a fote of sylver and gylte of the gifte of 
Sir John Dunton preist weying Ivj unces j q"t' 

lb j onz q^r 

Itm a Pixe of sylver pcell gylte and the Trynite gylted in 
the toppe of the same w* saynt Margaret in the fote of the 
same weying xxviij unces iij q"t' di xxix onz q^r 

[f. 1Gb.] 

Item a pairc of Candclstyckes of Sylver and pcell gylte weyinS 
xxxiiij unces xxxij onz iij q'^r 

Itm tAvoo Basons of Sylver and pcett gylte Avith Eooses in 
the myddes of the same Aveying xxiiij unces i q"rteron 

xxiiij onz q*r 
Itm tAvoo Sensours of Sylver pcell gilte Avoying liiij unces 

Ixxxij onz iii q'^r 

^ A very unusual device. weighed. 

- hiterpolated Avhen the plate was re- ^ The whole of this entry is interpolated. 


Itm a Sliippo of sylver pcetl: giltc ^v^ a laml)C yille ami a 
spone coiiccrnyng to the same of the gifte of Rohert Maye 
John Wylsou and Johan their will' weying xv unces j q^rt' 

XV onz q"i' 

Itm a paxe of Sylver and pccll gjdte w* blew Rosez and w*^ 
tlie Salutacion of ourc Lady in it of the gift of Agnes 
Wym'ke for the soule of Sir Thomas Avelen Preist weying 
vj unces di vj onz di 

j\r'i Itm a Crismatory of sylver pcell gilt weyin!{ xiij unces. j 

Itm a pixe of Ivery for the Sacrament of the alt(!r to be putt 
yn and bounden aboute With sylver . weying iiij unces 
iij q'^rt' iiij onz iij q^r 

Itm a Relyke of sylver and ou' gylt sett w' stones [and a pece 
of the Holy Crosse^] in the same weying ij unces 

j onz iij q^r 

Itm a Case of sylver and gylte and saynte Kateryn of sylver 
and gylt closed within the same weying iij q^rterons of j 
unce iij q*r of a onz 

Itm an Oche of Sylver and gylt wt a garter enameled in the 
myddes of the same weying di unce di q''^rt' 

di onz jd q-'^r weight 

Itm twoo Masoures w' bondes of sylver and gylte w* booses 
in the myddes of the same one of theym of the gifte of 
Maistres Thorneton with IKuc in the same Boose and in 
the bonde of the same wretyn Domine salvii me fac 
weying ix unces di q^rf 

And the other Masoure is w*" a Boose gylted in y- wtoute 
ameir and on the bonde on the oute syde of the same 
wretyn Of goddes hande blissed he be . That taketli this 
Cuppe and dryidceth to me. And on the Inne side of tlx; 
same bonde is wretyn . God that suteth in Trynyte . sende 
us peax'e and vny te . Weying xij unc' j q-'^rt' di 

bothe together poiz xxj onz <|*r 

(Added, in the same hand as the inventory.) 
Itm a Rochester of sylver^ . 

^Itm a p of Cruettes of Silver pcell gilt weying xij onz di 
[f. 17 a.] 

Copes. Itm a Cope of Redde Tyssew 

Itm a Cope of white damaske w* arkeangelles the Orferas of 
the same of nedylt Warke with parte of the life of Saynt 
Margaret of the gifte of Richard Bowetl and Elizabeth 
his wiff 

Itm twoo white Copes of white damaske powdered with 
iflowres of sylke and gold and the OrfiTas of the same 
Redde veluett of the gifte of Sir John Tliootle Preist 

^ Added. ■' Was this a book marker .' 

^ These wurds erased. * This line added wheu the plate was rewcij^died. 


Itm a Cope of White Bawdekyn w* Byrdes 

Itm a Cope of grene Bawdekyn with branches and Birdes 

Itm a nother Cope of grene and black Bawdekyn 

Itm a Cope of Ijlack vehiett tlie Orferas of the same of nedyll 
worke With the Apostelles and pphetys of tlie gifts of 
Robert ]\Iaye John Wylson and Johan their Wiff 

Itm a Cope of Kedde vehiett tlie Orferas. 

Itm twoo grene Copes of olde Bawdekyn 

Itm an olde Cope of Cheker Workes 

Itm iij Copes for Childerne 
[f. 17 b.] 

Vestymentes In p'mis a Sute of Redde tyssewe for preist Deacon and 
Subdeacon the Orferas of the same grene tyssew 
Itm a Sute for Preist Deacon and Subdeacon of Wliite 
damaske the Orferas of the same of Redde veluett. w* 
filowres of nedyll warke of the gifte of Maister henry 

^Itm a Suet of Black velvuett for preist Deacon and Sub- 
deacon the Orferas of the same browdered Avith Imagez of 
the gifte of Robert Maye John Wylson and Johaii their 
wiff 2 

Itm a Suet of whyte Bawdekyn for Preist Deacon and Sub- 
deacon the Orferas of the same redde sylke browtlered with 
ffiowres and grene leefes 

Itm a Suett of Redde veluett olde for Preist Deacon an^ 
Subdeacon the Orferas of the same of nedytt worke 

Itm a vestyment of Redde veluett the Orferas of the same 
blewe browdered with sterres 

Itm a vestyment of White sylke the Orferas of the same 
blewe browdered with sterres 

Itm a olde vestyment of White sylke the Orferas blewe 
browdered with Crownes 

The next five folios are lost ; but there is a loose one 
left which 7nay be 23. 

[f. a.] Item a Banner cloth of olde sylk w*^ armes of hertes heddes 
Itm twoo steyned Banners of Clothe of one of the vernacle 

and a nother of oure lady w* sonne beames in the same 
Itm twoo Banner Clothes of the passhion steyned for lent 
Itm a vayle for lent to hange before the high awter 
Itm a Crosse cloth for lent to hange before the Eoode 
Itm a Clothe for lent to hange before the Srevyng pewe'^ 
Itm viij olde clotliez to cov'e sayntes w*all in lent 
Itm iiij small Banners of lenyn clothe paynted s'vyng to hang 
aboute the pascall at Ester 

' IiiKerted in the margiu "Here laks a ^ See note rmfc, as to whether the woman 
deken." had two husbands hving. 

■'' The confessional. 


Strcmcrs In p'mis iiij strem's of sylk of the gifte of ]\I Angctt Dunne 

and wherof one of the stapull arnies of Calice a noder of the 

standerdes Grocers armes the iij''^ of tlie arnies of london and the 

iiijth ^yt g^j^ unycorne nuuh; in sylv'e w*' Crosses of gold in 

the .same 
Itm iiij other strem's of sylk wlicrof one of tlieym is av*' hlaek 

Choughcs a notlier strem' of black sylk w^ hes of g(jlil 

wretyn Knowe thy self a nother of the Grocers arnies antl 

the iiij''' of the armes of hjiidon [Itm ij of tht; strcmcrs 

Be cloth]! 
Itm a strem'e of Ijlewe Bokerham w'' barres of gohl and 

sylver in the same 
Itm a standerd of sylk w'' a Rampion lyon in the same 
Itm a strem' of Canvas w'' blewe trayfulles in it 
Itm a standerd of sylk w* iij splayed Egels of goldc; twoo 

black lyon heddes and iij Crosses of sylver in the same 

[f. b.] Itm a Canapie s'vyng for Corpus xpi day to bare in the 

pcession ou' the Sacrament w* iiij stavys and angelles 
concernyng to the same 

Itm twoo Angelles for the Sepulcre. 

Itm iiij Castelles s'vyng for iiij torche staves on Corpus xpi 

Cotes Itm ij Cotes of damaske for saynt Margaret one of theym of 
s'vyng for white damaske bordered with blew veluett 
Seyntf Itm a noder of black damaske bordered above w'' Clothe of 
golde frenged beneth with sylk and a Shelde of the salters 
armes in it of the gyfte of John Sampson 

Itm a longe Kerchieff of Sypers frenged w* sylk at bothe 
endes for seynt Margaret of the gifte of Johan Sampson 

Itm twoo Cotes for oiire lady one of taAvny clothe of golde 
and a noder of white damaske browdered w*' fflowres 

Peawter Itm a peire of Candelstyckes of peauter 
Itm iij payres of Crewettes of peauter 
[f. 24 a.] 
M** that the xxviij day of Jenefer the x yere of our soverayne lord 
kyng henry the eight restes in sterlyng money in the lytell 
howche Ivjlt where of M*' John Smyth paynter hathe on key & 
M"^ John Jeffrey tyler hath a nother key 

M'^ that maist"^ momors and maist'^' Sampsone hath recevyd for the 
churche parte a Image of silver licke a wooma w* chylde and a 
nother Image licke a getyJt wooma . and a plate of Selver w* the 
pycture of a getytt wooma . and a plate of Selver of the pycture 
of a Jiedde of a wooma . and a harte of Selver gylte . atl the 
same weyth xij unces the whych ys ail dyue to sant margaretes 
churche ltd recevyd of havferey inomors the xij day of decemb 
an" 1521 | for the reste of my parte in fulte payment iiij^ ster' 
Rowland Inkys. 

1 Added. 


M*" that the iiij day of July A" dni . 1536 . A^ . 28 . H . 8 . in the 
p'sence of m'" John Grene parson of seint Margaretes paten M*" 
Will*m Gybson Cherche wardens Kob*^ Mylles Willi=*m Eewe Jeni^ 
Elys [& . I . Jolm Sampson^] E-auf Dyer . & George Spragye 
I Jolm Sampson hatlie takyn to kepe thees pselles ffolowyng 
In prym^ a pyxe gylt of the gyfte of Syr . Joli donton preste] 
Also twoo crewettes parsell gylt] 

Also a boxc of sylver & gylte & semt Kateryn av* in y*^.]^ 
^Thes parsells abovfe wreten the xxvij day of Jully An*^' 1536 | be 
delyv'd to John Hawkyns to kepe beyng church Avarden w* wyllyin 

delyv'ed to M'' Gybson beyng cherchewarden the twoo grete masers 

for to sell 
Also a boxe of sylv' and gylt that pe pese of the holy'crosse was in for 

to sell 
Also a bokyll of sylv' & gylt for to sell 
Also the same day delyv'ed to Thom'^s lagarde Irenmonger . beyng bure 

paryshe clerke the Chalyce & the paxe of sylv' & gylt for to kepe 

[f. 24 b.] On the 7 d of ffebrewr 

an" 1548 and the 2 
yer of Kenge edward the 6 
Itm Recefed on tow the handes of edwar Rowe | and Robart Dossct 
cherche wardens of the pares cherche of sent margett paten the day 
and yer a for sayde 

Itm ij kopes of wyt damasske sold kirth champiie.-s 

Itm j of cafa damasske 

Itm iiij of sellke coler gren suld Robard toket 

Itm j of cheked wellfet 

Itm 3 of sondre coler for boyes 

Itm a weste ment for a eheylde 

Itm a wyt wyt west ment of cafa . 

Itm j of Red wosted 

Itm j of Red damasske wet bels 

Itm j of leyans on gi-en selke [li/ons] 

Itm X of defars and sondre colers [dioers ^ sundry colours] 

Itm V olde awbes 

Itm vj corpos caces 

Itm iiij playn cano be stafes [canopy staves] 

Itm j autar clot of blake selke [altar cloth] 

Itm xvij staynd clotes for sayntes 

Itm iij cross clotes of selke 

Itm X paynted baner clotes 

Itm iiij torche stafes 

Itm ix streniers | and a crosstafe 

(The remaining 12 folios are blank, except an entry on 

The last foUo is 208. 

' All these entries in brackets erased. 

* ThiB entry was inserted when the items above it wcic eiObtd. 


By the Rev. J. F. HODGSON. 

( Continued. J 

I come now to an examination of the second of the five propositions 
before me, viz., this : — "That a church of canons has peculiarities which 
differ altogether from those which we find in the churches of any of the 
monastic orders, one of the commonest of these being that the nave has 
only one aisle. That a church with only one aisle was characteristic of 
the order." What those peculiarities, which cause a church of canons to 
differ so completely from one of monks may be, are — with a single 
exception — unfortunately not stated ; and the omission, I cannot but 
think, is one much to be regretted, because a knowledge of them would 
enable the most superficial observer to tell in every case at a glance, and 
without risk of failure, to which class any given conventual church before 
him belonged — a matter, oftentimes, as things go, of much doubt and 
perplexity. Of how much — even to the ablest and most skilled archceo- 
logist — a further reference to the Carlisle meeting will shew conclusively. 

Taking his stand before the cathedral church there, Mr. Freeman and I 

know no better authority — putting himself in the place of an entire strano-er 
bent on deciphering its history by the light of general knowledge and 
internal evidence only, tells us that : — "he would know at once that he 
was under the shadow of a great church, and it would not take him very 
long to find out the character of that great church. The first question he 
would ask was. This is something more than a parish church ; it has 
buildings about it. What is it 1 Is it a regular, or is it a secular church • 
He would soon see that it was a regular church. He would note the 
surrounding buildings, and above all, this fratry or refectory, parallel 
with the nave, and he would know that this building, parallel with the 
nave of a church, must be a refectory and nothing else. Again, if he had 
been dropped down at Furness and Calder abbeys before he came to 
Carlisle, he would easily see that it was not a Cistercian church, because 
apart from it being in a town, the refectory of Cistercian churches was 
not parallel to the nave. Then he would have to doubt a little. He 
viif/ht think 'it was a clinrch of Benedictines : lie could not tell by the 
liijlit of nature that it ivas a church of Austiji canons." Now here I 
think, we have perhaps, as complete and crucial a test as could be wished 
of the accuracy of the assertion that a church of canons has peculiarities 
which differ altogether from those which we find in the churches of any 
of the monastic orders ; for, on the one hand, Mr. Freeman, as ail will 


allow, is among the keenest of observers ; and on the other, Carlisle 
cathedral church is, in an exceptionally full sense, one of canons ; for not 
only was it built in the first instance for canons secular, but — as regards 
all its more important features — rebuilt afterwards by and for,* canons 
regular. Here then, if anywhere, we should expect to find some at least 
of those peculiarities which mark off so distinctly the churches of canons, 
and draw such sharp lines of separation between them and those of monks. 
But they are not forthcoming. The church, Mr. Freeman tells us 
distinctly, might, for anything he could see to the contrary, be one of 
Benedictines. There was nothing to distinguish it from a Benedictine 
church ; nothing in the building itself to shew to what order it belonged : 
absolutely nothing to so much as suggest tliat it was one of Austin 
canons. I wiU only say — " This witness is true." But Mr. Freeman 
pushed his enquiries beyond these limits. Still "occupying the place of 
the (locally) imlearned," he said : — " A further question he would ask was. 
Is this simply a conventual church, or is it something more — is it the 
church of a bishop ? . . . As to the history of the building, the 
inquirer would see that we had here a Norman minster of moderate size, 
of wliich there are still fragments in the two transepts and what remained 
of the nave. He would also see that the nave must formerly have been 
much longer, but he would need local information as to the circumstances 
in which it came to be shortened. Then he would guess that this nave 
had been the parish church, as was so common a custom with the Austin 
canons, though this feature would at once distinguish tliis church from 
any of the old-standing cathedral churches in England proper, except 
Lincoln." To the enquirer's question whether the church were that of a 
bishop or not, we all, of course — though the building itself be mute — know 
the answer, and it is one which by natural transition brings us to the 
consideration of the most important section of all the churches of 
canons, viz. , those which were cathedral ; Avhether conventual, as in 
this solitary instance of Carlisle, or secular, as in all the rest. But, 
before touching on this branch of the subject, and while the case of 
Carlisle is still before us, it may be well to point out, perhaps, that it 
was by no means so singular among churches of cathedral dignity in 
having a parochial nave, as Mr. Freeman for the moment imagined. 

I say for the moment, because his paper on " The case of the collegiate 
church of Arundel " shews that he is aware of the existence of at least 
one other instance besides that of Lincoln above referred to ; and, as I 
have little or no doubt, of yet anotlier ami incomparably more important 
one still. I refer to the Benedictine cathedral church of Rochester, and 
the metropolitan secular canons' church of old S. Paul's — the grandest, in 
some respects, in all England. At Rochester, the nave, or a considerable 
part of it, was for a very long time indeed, from the building of the 
cathedral, in fact, down to 1423, a parish church, when, by a similar 
process to that adopted at Lincoln, viz., the building of a separate 
church for them outside by the monks, the parishioners were finally got 
rid of. The case of old 8. Paul's (where the parishioners retained 
undisturbed possession to the last) was doubly curious, for not only was 
the crypt of the presbytery parochial, but the parish church of S. Gregory 
was attached to the western part of the nave southwards (much as S. 
Andrew's was to that of the great Benedictine abbey cliurch of S. Alban's 
northwards), a combination which gave rise to the remark of old FuUer, 


" Well might S. Paul's bo called a mother church, for sho, carried one 
child in her arms and another in her womb !" Thus, as regards their 
parochial character, it will l)e seen that it is no more possible to draw a 
line of distinction between the churches of monks and canons which were 
of cathedral, than between those whicih were of abbatial, or lower rank. 
The circumstance, in every case, will l)e found to have been purely 
accidental: as purely accidental indeed, as that of the church affected hy 
it being one of canons or of monks. Let us, for instance, take the case of 
Lincoln. When in 1173, the see was removed thither from Dorchester by 
Remigius, and a new cathedral church had to be built, it was found that part 
of the supremely" eligible building site" — then of very limited area — was 
already occupied by a parish church. Three courses, as usual, wore open 
to the bishop and his chapter — as it hai)pened, one of secular canons. 
First: either the site, which nature and necessity alike dictated must be 
abandoned ; or, secondly : the church, instead of being as they would have 
it, "exceeding magnifical," must be so "cribbed, cabined and conhned," 
as to bo unworthy alike its " sovran hill," and the vast diooese of which 
it was the head ; or, thirdly : the less must give place to the better, and 
the parish church must come down. Common-sense — common, happily, 
to canons and monks alike — prevailed; and the parishioners, dispossessed 
for a season of their church, found shelter within the bosom of the '' Lady 
of Cathedrals." But, can any one doubt that preciscdy the same thing 
would have happened had the chapter — as might so easil}'' have been the 
case — consisted of Benedictines instead of seculars, of a prior and convent 
instead of a dean and canons ; or suppose for a single moment that, in 
such case, their work would have surpassed in richness or dignity, that 
which was actually accomplished 1 If so, I will only say that Remigius, 
as it happened, was a Benedictine. And if from Lincoln we l^etake our- 
selves to Rochester, and S. Paul's, we shall see that there again the 
attendant circumstances were as nearly alike as possible. At Rochester, 
indeed, they would seem to have been practically identical throughout — a 
})arish church occupying part of the required minster site ; the dislodged 
parishioners housed for awhile Avithin the minster nave ; and then — the 
arrangement, as usual, proving mutually unpleasant — finally removed to a 
new and independent structure erected for them elsewhere. At old S. 
Paul's, though no parish church interfered with the erection of any part 
of the Xorman minster, one was nevertheless found to stand very much 
in the way of that eastern development which, in churches of its class, 
became afterwards so common. And so, in 12.5.5, when it was deter- 
mined to build the magnificent presbytery of eight bays in continuation of 
the newly-rebuilt choir of four, it became as necessary for the carrying 
out of that design "to clear away the parish church of S. Faith, as it was 
at Rochester and Lincoln, those of S. Nicholis and S. Mary Magdalene. 
With respect to the parishioners, however, a local feature offered a hint 
which the canons were not slow to profit by. Like that of many other 
Norman minsters, the choir of old S. Paul's possessed a crypt ; and an 
extension of this beneath the whole vast area of the presbytery — no less 
than a hundred feet in breadth, by about a hundred and seventy-live in 
length, and forming incomparably the grandest as well as latest structure 
of its class — provided at once the necessary accommodation, and eifectually 
freed the church from their presence at the same time. Yet here again, 
it is manifest that the presence of the parishioners was as purely 

VOL. sm 2 V 


accidental as in the preceding cases. For, had the parish churcli of S. 
Faitli happened to stand only a few yards north or south of its actual 
site, the new work would have passed it by, and the difficulty been 
avoided. Standing where it did, however, right in the way, either the 
parishioners must be provided for in some such way as that devised, or 
else, the crowning glory of the church, a work, as far excelling all others 
of its kind, as the crypt all other crypts, must have continued unachieved. 
As to S. Gregorys, it would seem to have been simply in contact with, 
not in any way open to, the nave, as was S. Andrew's at S. Alban's ; 
and its parishioners, therefore, would have no footing in the nave at all. 
The churches were next door neighbours ; nothing more. 

Failing then to find any difference, as to parochial character, between 
the cathedral churches of monks and canons, let us now proceed to a 
comparative analysis of them in respect to plan, and see whether it be 
possible to detect any such peculiarities as cause a church of canons to 
difi"er altogetlier from those of monks in tliat direction or not. By 
limiting our enquiries on the subject, in the main, to churches of this 
particular class, we sliall not only bring under review a sufficient nuiiiber 
of examples for the purpose, but secure the following palpable advan- 
tages : — First, that these churches being beyond comparison the most 
fully developed and important of their respective kinds, any peculiarities 
attaching to either will naturally be most pronounced and apparent in 
them ; second, that the whole of them are perfectly preserved ; and third, 
that tliey are all not only generally well known, but may, for purposes of 
comparison, be at once referred to in works so readily accessible as those 
of Ihitton, Storer, Pjillings, or the later and most excellent handbooks of 
jMr. Murray. And it will serve, I think, to make our examination the 
more complete and satisfactory if — with the single exception of Man- 
chester which neither is, nor ever was, anything more than a mere 
glorified parish church, and essentially different in character from the 
rest — we include in it those churches of monks and canons which alike 
and quite fortuitously have been raised from abbatial, or collegiate, to 
cathedral rank, from the time of the general suppression to the present 
day. For these examples, though usually of secondary rank, will be 
found in all respects quite as characteristic and typical as those of larger 
scale and older standing ; and they possess also the advantages of being 
equally well preserved and well known. 

Taken one with another, they number in all twenty-six, and are pretty 
equal!}' divided between the two groups : twelve, viz. : those of 8. 
Alban's, Bath, Canterbury, Chester, Durham, Ely, Gloucester, Norwich, 
Peterborough, Rochester, Winchester, and Worcester, having belonged to 
the Benedictines ; and fourteen, viz. : those of Bristol, Carlisle, Chi- 
chester, Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Oxford, oltl 8. Paul's, 
Ripon, Salisbury, Southwell, Wells and York to the canons ; Bristol, 
Carlisle, and Oxford to the Augustinians or cauous regular, tlui rest to 
the seculars. 

Now, taking a In-oad and general survey of those cliurches (as most of 
my readers can probably do in their mind's eye), it will, 1 think, be 
sufficiently obvious how hopeless and unprofitabh; a task it woidd be for 
anyone to attempt to array the one class against the other, and claim a 
collective supei'iority for cither. Nor, would it l)e much less so, perhaps, 
even in ri'ganl to individual churdie'S of similar rank and dignity, seeing 


that each one possesses its own peculiar cxcellenci(!s, and each one too, 
perliaps, its own j)eculiar and counterbalancinf^ defects. But hap[)ily, our 
enquiry does not enter on the sterih^ held of invidious comparison, or 
require judgment on matters of mere taste. What we are concerned with 
is, to see whether or not we can discover any such distinctive marks 
about these churches as may enable a person of ordinary intelligence to 
know at once to which class any one of them belonged ; or rather, to 
speak more precisely — for there is a difference as well as a distinction — 
Av^hether among tliose of the camms we can find certain, though unspeci- 
lied, pecidiarities, which, as it is alleged, cause them to ditfer altD'jrfher 
from those of the monks. 

Deferring such considerations for a moment, however— and indeed be- 
fore one can bring oneself to take account of them- -the lirst thing tbat 
strikes the mind on a careful revision of these chui'ches is the fact that, 
the three transcendantly grand examples, which in point of scale and 
architectural splendour surpass all the rest, are those of old S. Paul's. 
York and Lincoln — all churches of secular canons. Of these, again, we 
shall see that the great cliurch of S. Paul's was enormously the larg(;st^ 
exceeding even that of York in area by more than twice as much as York 
exceeds Lincoln, and Lincoln that of Ely — by far the largest and noblest 
of all the Benedictine churches. Taking in every case the superficial area 
of the main l)uilding with its aisles proper ; and excluding all such excre- 
scences as the low, slight, and comparatively speaking, trumpery cha})els 
which on plan and in figures give such a misleading and fictitious value 
to buildings like Winchester, for example ; that of old S. Paul's, accor- 
ding to the very careful and elaborate calculations of Mr. Ferrey, will he 
found to amount to no less than 76,000 square feet ; York, to 60,542 
feet ; and Lincoln, exclusive even of the great chapels attached to tlu' 
western screen, to 53,264 ; while Ely, including the destroyed half of its 
western transept, covers only 46,360 feet ; that is to say, some 7,000 feet 
less than the least of these three great canons' churches. As to the 
chiefest remaining Benedictine churches, they fall far behind. Thus 
Durham, which comes next to Ely, has an area of only 43,380 feet ; 
Winchester — reckoning even the western part of the nave with the two 
Norman towers destroyed by bishop Edington on his remodelling of that 
part of the church in the 14th century — 42,500; Canterbury, 39,110; 
and Peterborough, 37,330 ; an area, less by nearly 16,000 feet than that 
of Lincoln, and a good deal less than half that of old S. Paul's. 

But grandeur of scale is far from being the only point that strikes one 
in the three great churches of the seculars. The next, and most remark- 
able, is that they exhibit two wholly opposite types of plan. That of old 
S. Paul's and York is of the utmost simplicity ; that of Lincoln, of the 
most studious and elaborate complexity. In the one case Ave have a per- 
fectly plain cross, the transverse, and two longitudinal limbs of Avliich arc, 
as nearly as may be, equal, and of which the circumscribing lines are un- 
broken by any extraneous additions whatever. In the other, not only is 
the cross double, but it stands, so to say, upon a base or Calvary, formed, 
as at Peterborough and Ely, by the great western screen and chapels to the 
east of it. All the great masses of the building too, are broken Tip and 
contrasted throughout l:)y the juxtaposition of subsidiary jiarts ; an 
arrangement productive of infinite play of line, of ever varying effects of 
light and shade, — of intricacy, wonder, mystery. 


And here, what is specially to be noted and to our purpose is the fact 
that the same two types— seen in their utmost possible development in the 
above three churches of secular canons — will be found in a minor degree, 
and with diverse modifications, to run indifferently and without dis- 
tinction, through the whole series of these cathedral churches, whether of 
canons or of monks. Here — whatever the origin of the church may be, it 
is the one type, there — the other that prevails ; so that in almost every 
case it would be quite impossible to hazard more than a mere guess — and 
that an utterly vacuous one — as to which class any particular church 
belonged. Canterbury indeed — the only Benedictine church which at all 
rivals Lincoln in the multiplicity of its parts, and where the Norman 
system still largely dominates the choir ; Norwich — which alone retains its 
aisled apse, and two out of the three original surrounding Norman 
chapels ; and Gloucester — where, though the main, or central apse has 
been most cleverly got rid of, the circular sweep of the surrounding aisle 
with two of its attached chapels also still remain, are the only three 
which could, I think, with any shew of likelihood be assigned to the 
Benedictine class, and that solely on the ground of their apsidal termina- 
tion and — after a fashion — radiating chapels, — features not generally found 
in the churches of canons as they have come down to us. But then, so far 
at least, as the churches of Audin canons are concerned, it must be 
observed that both Norwich and Gloucester were built at a period long 
anterior to the introduction of that order into England, and when — with 
ample means for indulging in it — a different fashion of church building 
was in vogue ; while Canterbury, till the time of prior Conrad, a.d. 1107— 
was entirely without either apsidal aisles or chapels of any kind, and his 
" glorious choir " was built, as was its humble predecessor, that of Ernulf — 
in its turn, a development of the ancient Saxon one — under the influence, 
and by the aid of a French monk — archbishop Anselm. Not indeed, that 
these features were at all peculiar to the Benedictine, or any other churches 
of monks, either then, or afterwards. Quite the contrary. If we would 
see the apsidal plan in its perfection, or realize the effect of radiating 
chapels when carried to the utmost limits, and on the grandest scale, we 
must look beyond the rudimentary attempts of these English examples to 
the great cathedral churches of France and Spain, or to such German ones 
as those of Fribourg, Tournay, Antwerp, or Cologne — all churches of 
canons secular. 

The truth is, however, that for some reason or other, now difficult, if not 
impossible to specify — considering that there was no such thing as any 
previous national style worth mentioning, and that all the great post-con- 
quest churches were the work of the Norman invaders, or of natives 
working under their direction — the apsidal form, whether simple, or aisled, 
or with the addition of circling chapels, seems never to have taken kindly 
root amongst us, and was soon, and everyAvhere, speedily discarded. Turn 
Avhere we will, and to whatever class of churches, the same result appears, 
whether in cathedral, or simply conventual ones — in those of canons, and 
in those of monks alike. If the two orders had any difference of view as 
to church planning in other respects, it is perfectly clear that they had 
none at least, in this. If, from the third quarter of the 12th century, tin; 
church were a new one, it was ])uilt S(]uare euded ; if old, then as soon as 
opportunity occurred, the apse and its appendages were resolutely swept 
away. At Gloucester and Petcrborougli, iutleed, then two great Bene- 


dictine churches \nuv. and simple, it is true that the ditUculty was got over 
by a sort of half measure, and — curiously enough — in a diametrically 
opposite way. Whatever the cause — whether want of means, as was most, 
likely, or want of inclination to displace altogether the ancient arrangement, 
the effect in either case Avas sufficiently striking. As we have already seen, 
in the former instance, the circular aisle and its chapels were left stau<ling ; 
but the central apse was pulled down from top to bottom, and tiie situ- 
walls carried forward, not in a straight line — though that would have; been 
surprising enough — but, strange to say, somewhat expanded outwardly, 
and in a direction contrary to the original one, so as to allow the uttnost 
possible space for the gigantic cast window. At ]'eterl)orough, some 
hundred years later, the choir was made square on plan by projecting the 
Korman aisles — which till then had stopped square as at the curve — so as 
to overlap the central apse, and then connecting them by means of a 
chapel of five bays called the " new work " — fan vaulted, and carried out 
at the same level. At Winchester and Canterbury too — both Benedictine 
cathedral churches of old standing — though the apses were destroyed, 
their foundations— for economical reasons — were in part made use of to 
the considerable disadvantage of the later choirs ; the pinching in of 
that of Canterbury in especial, producing first in the convergence, and 
then in the prolonged and parallel lines of the walls, a degree of confusion 
and unsightliness utterly destructive of architectural effect, and against 
which mere beauty of detail avails nothing. Elsewhere, however, the 
destruction, whether in churches of monks or canons, was complete and 
radical. At Durham, Chester, Ely, Worcester, Bath and S. Albans, 
among those of the Benedictines, and at Carlisle, York, Lichfield, Lincoln, 
Southwell, Exeter, Chichester, S. Paiil's, Bristol and Hereford, among 
those of the canons, not a trace of the apsidal plan is to be seen above 
ground. All thenceforward were built squarely, and with chapels attached 
to the transepts, or set transeptally to, or in prolongation of, the aisles, or 
choir ; and, as regards the two classes of churches, without any, even the 
least perceptible difference of system whatever. 

But, as might be expected, it is in comparatively few cases that either 
of the two types above mentioned will be found rigidly adhered to and 
carried out in its integrity. The severely simple one — exhibiting through- 
out an unbroken cruciform outline, and in which the central choir and its 
aisles terminate eastwardly in the same straight line — receives, as we 
have already seen, its most vivid illustration in the two great canons' 
churches of old S. Paul's and York. It is found also in those of the 
same class at Carlisle, Ripon, Cartmel, Thornton, Howden, Guisborough, 
and elsewhere ; and among those of the Benedictines, at Bath and Ely. 
But setting aside these two last — and as may possibly be urged, excep- 
tional — examples, how entirely fallacious the inference would be that the 
simple cruciform, square ended plan was at all special or peculiar to 
churches of canons, causing them to differ altogether from those of any of 
the monastic orders, may readily be seen by extending our survey some- 
what outside the cathedral circle. Suppose, for illustration's sake, we 
take the case of York — the best known and most striking, perhaps, of 
all — -and compare it with the very grandest Benedictiiie, and other 
monastic churches, either in its own neighbourhood, or elsewhere. As 
most people are aware, there lie within a stone's throw of it, the remains 
of one of the richest Benedictuie abbeys in England, and with a church 


such as few, if any of them, could rival — I mean S. Mary's. Duilt all at 
once, and at the very culminating period of mediteval art — 1270-90 — 
when purity of form and richness of detail went hand in hand ; on the 
most splendid scale, and with the aid of enormous wealth, we find pre- 
cisely the same plan adopted in it as in the minster — a rigidly severe 
cross, of nearly equal limbs, square ended, and without any parasitical 
attachments whatever. And if, leaving S. Mary's we proceed northwards 
to the earlier Benedictine church of Whitby, or southwards to that (if 
Selby — slightly later as regards its rebuilt choir ; to the great Cistercian 
church of Rievaulx, with its sumptuous choir, also rebuilt, and inter- 
mediate between the two ; or to that of Jervaulx, earliest of all, and one of 
the finest and purest of its class, we .shall find the same grand simplicity 
of plan reigning supreme in all. It is the same too at Whalley, at 
Netley, at Tintern, at Malvern, and Xew Shoreham ; the proportions of 
the, indeed, fluctuating constantly, but its rigid outline never. 
Benedictine, Cistercian, Augnstinian, Secular — whatever the denomina- 
tion — the churches follow just the same plan, and are quite undistinguish- 
able one from another. 

But, the class of square ended, aisled choirs is not confined to such as 
are bounded by a straight eastern line alone. Souietimes the line is 
broken by the projection, more or less pronounced, of the central mass. At 
Oxford — Augustinian ; at Worcester —Benedictine ; at lona — Cluniac ; 
and at Melrose — Cistercian ; the jnain, or central choir stands forward 
beyond the eastern walls of the aisles by a single bay : at Bristol — 
Augustinian; at Southwell and Elgin — secular ; and at Rochester — 
Benedictine ; by two. Again, where the choir is simple, and un- 
broken by the projection of chapels, but where the eastern termination 
is only partly square, we have interesting examples of parallelisni 
in those of Peterl)orough (originally) and Worksop — Benedictine and 
Augustinian, respectively. • Both are, or were — for the choir of Worksop 
is now destroyed — of noble size and Norman date, Peterborough consist- 
ing of four, and Worksop of six bays. In both, the aisles were square 
ended ; but the central choir, instead of projecting squarely as in the 
instances above mentioned, curved forward into an apse. 

And there is yet^another class of simple, square ended aisled choirs, 
wliich must be noticed, and which, at first sight might seem to be peculiar 
to the various orders of monks, viz., that in which the aisles are not 
stopped short at the eastern wall-line of the choir proper, but carried across 
it transeptaUy, so as to form a procession path with a range of chapels to 
the east of it. Peterborough, in its present, or altered state, now offers, 
as we have seen, one of the best known and most remarkable instances, 
perhaps, of this arrangement, and Evesham — also Benedictine — another; 
but there, both choir and eastern chapels are all of one period — the 
thirteenth century — and form parts of a single and uniform design. 
Byland abbey — Cistercian, presents one of the earliest and finest ex- 
amples of the kind to be found anywhere, perhaps ; and Romsey — 
Benedictine, one of, if not the very earliest, being of pure Norman work 
contemporaneous with the rest of the choir. Here, however, the aisle is 
single, and without any structural division between the chapels, or altar 
spaces, and procession path, as in the other and later examples. Abbey 
Dore — Cistercian, like Byland, and also like it of transitional character, 
is a very striking example — one of the most beautiful of its class — and 


li;il)pily, unlike IJylaiul — thanks to the piety of lord Scudainon! in the 
seventeenth centnry — in perfect preservation. Another illustration of 
this peculiar plan is also to be seen in the great abhey church of Glaston- 
bury — Benedictine, and that twice over, for it formed part of the original 
plan when the church was rebuilt in the twelfth century, and was 
repeated when early in the fourteenth, the first choir of four bays was 
increased in length to six. And now, it might be thought, perhaps, that 
here, at any rate, if hitherto we have failed to find any of those pecu- 
liarities which cause a church of canons to differ altogether from those 
of monks, we have at least found one which causes those of monks — or 
some of them — to ditter altogether from those of canons, for there is not, 
so far as I can recollect, a single instance of this arrangement to be found 
in England, either in the churches of canons regular or secular. If so, 
we have only to cross the border, however, to see how soon and com- 
pletely the delusion vanishes. For, at Glasgow cathedral church — one of 
secular canons, we shall find the self-same plan carried out in the most 
perfect and sumptuous manner possible. In this case, moreover, the 
exterior effect — very different from that in the English and other 
examples — Dore, Ebrach, and Riddagshausen for instance, is altogether 
dignified, for, owing to the falling away of the ground level, and the 
presence of the magnificent crypt below the choir, it is built in two 
stories, and thus that mean, lean-to, shed-like appearance, there so pain- 
fully conspicuous, is altogether obviated. Indeed, the view of the east 
front of Glasgow, with this great transeptal, double-storied aisle, 
terminated northwards by the boldly advanced mass of the tower- 
like chapter-house, is one of the stateliest and most imposing of all. And 
there is another Scottish example too, of the same system, more famous 
and better known, a great deal, perhaps, than even that of Glasgow, 
and that is the collegiate church of Rosslyn- — "chapel," as it is 
commonly but most erroneously styled — immortalised by Scott, and of 
never failing interest to the tourist class as containing the mythical 
" prentice pillar." Here again, the plan is carried out in the most 
perfect manner, and with the most prodigal luxuriance of detail. And 
here again too, the same happy accident of site, combined with the monu- 
mental construction — which in roofs and walls alike is of ashlared stone 
— lends much of the same dignity to the design as at Glasgow, the 
ground falling away so rapidly to the east as to leave the aisle precipitous 
upon the very verge. Thus, we see that even this arrangement, though 
apparently so promising of drawing, after all, a boundary line between 
the churches of canons and some, at least, of those of the monks, fails to 
do so as completely as all the rest ; — on the contrary, indeed, contributes 
its witness to the fact that there is really no difference betAvecn thom 

But, if it does no more, it helps, at any rate, to forward our enquiry 
by introducing us naturally to the second of the two types of churches, 
viz., that in which the more elaborate system prevails; and in which tlie 
chapels, no longer confined, as there, to mere aisle compartments, assume 
distinct, external, architectural form, and make up more or less separate 
and independent features of the Iniilding. 

The earliest, and perhaps one of the most interesting examples of this 
departure — a clear development of the system last noticed — is found in the 
choir of the cathedral church of Hereford — one of secular canons, con- 


structed originally, with three distinct eastern apses. These were 
completely cleared away late in the twelfth century, when, in lieu of 
them, a cross aisle was built across the whole of the eastern end from side 
to side — thus connecting the hitherto disconnected side aisles. But this 
eastern aisle, be it observed, was not bounded — as in all the examples of 
that class heretofore noticed — by the outer lines of the choir aisles 
themselves, but projected a bay beyond them on either side, so as to form 
a veritable transept. To the east of this aisle again, were four chapels, 
two on each side ; while in the centre, ranging with the choir, was a 
fifth — the splendid lady-chapel, which, with its ante-chapel, or vestibule — 
continuous with, and connecting the side chapels — very greatly exceeded 
the choir itself, both in length and richness. 

The next arrangement of this sort, in point of date, as weU as the most 
extensive of all, is found in the cathedral church of Winchester — one of 
Benedictines. Here again, the Norman apsidal plan having in due course 
been got rid of, a new Avork, on a somewhat different plan to that at 
Hereford, was set out. It has not the transepfcal form found in that 
instance ; but consists rather of a species of retro-choir of aisles only, 
for the choir proper, or presbytery, with its clerestory — nipped in at the 
last bay as at Canterbury — stops short at the line of the original apse. 
It is of three bays in length, and formed by the prolongation of the aisle 
walls eastwards to that extent. Beyond the third bay, the face of the 
walls on either side is slightly recessed to mark off an eastern chapel of 
a single bay ; while the central aisle, prolonged a bay further still, 
forms the lady-chapel. The latter, which, like the rest, is of Early 
English character, but Perpendicularized, is not, however, a work of much 
importance ; and in comparison of that of Hereford, whether as regards 
size or richness, utterly insignificant. 

We come next to Salisbury— another church of seci;lars, where the 
system of eastern chapels, if later than at Hereford, or less extensive than 
at Wincliester, is certainly more uniform and beautiful than in either of 
those churches ; the whole having been built at one time, and laid down 
from the first as integral parts of the structure. Besides tlie great 
central transept, Salisbury — unlike them — has, it will be remembered, 
a second, midway in the length of the choir, of less })rojection than, but 
of the same height as the first, and with two eastern chapels on either 
side. Beyond these transept chapels, the lateral aisles are continued 
for two bays till they reach the line of the eastern gable of the choir. 
Eastward of that, they continue uninterruptedly, but under distinct 
and separate gables, two bays further ; the first, or westernmost bays 
forming part of the procession path ; the second, or eastern ones, chapels. 
Beyond these, centrally — of the same breadth as the choir proper, and 
l)rojecting 1,wo bays further still — is the lady-chapel, divided into tliree 
aisles, — of the most marvellous and phenomenal liglitness of construction, 
and one of the most scientific, as well as beautiful specimens of 13th 
century architecture extant. In no English church whatever, probably, 
shall we find the group of eastern chapels more charmingly designed or 
more dignified than in this : — a clear proof that however stately or 
attractive the examples of the Benedictine, and other churches of monks 
may be, those of the canons come in no way behind the very chiefcst of 

After Salisbury comes Chichester — also a church of secular canons. 


Like Hereford and Winchester, Chichester cathedral church has had its 
original Norman apsidal termination removed : unlike them, however, its 
choir was lengtlicned by a couple of bays which were projected as far east- 
ward as the limits of the circumscribing Norman aisle — thus, not only 
allowing a passage way for processions, but forming a square ended retro- 
choir proper. Of this, the lateral aisles, wliich are continued beyond it 
eastwards for a single bay under gabled roofs, and flanked — like the main 
gable to the rear of tliem — by octagonal turrets and spires, form north 
and south eastern chapels. The central space, as usual, is reserved for the 
lady-chapel — in this instance, a building of very considerable dimensions, 
being not less than five bays in length ; the first, or westernmost, of 
which — ranging with the chapels and separated from them by solid 
walls — is entered by the great eastern arch of the retro-choir, and forms 
the ante-chapel. As it stands, the lady-chapel is an elongation of that 
erected at the same time as the retro-choir, but Avliich, late in the 13th 
century, was enlarged and recast in a beautiful Geometrical style by 
bishop Gilbert de St. Leofard (1288-1305). In part, however, it occupies 
the place of the original Norman lady-chapel — the central of the three 
radiating ones which opened from the aisle of the apse, as in the 
Benedictine examples of Norwich, Gloucester, and St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury. And thus we see. that, in its primitive, as well as later 
arrangements, the choir of Chichester, Avith its attendant groups of 
chapels differed nothing at all — except, it may be, in the greater dignity 
and importance of the lady-chapel — from the completest and most highly 
developed forms in use by the monks. 

Next comes the case of Exeter — another example of a church of 
seculars. Of the plan of the original Norman cathedral church of 
secular canons, as constructed by William Warlewast (1107-3G) — the 
successor of the Saxon Benedictine abbey church of St. Mary and St. 
Peter, in which the episcopal throne was first set up — there is no remain- 
ing evidence ; the two transeptal towers which still probably occupy the 
same relative position as they did at first, being the only visible portions 
of it. On its rebuilding in the 13th and 14th centuries, however, 
Avhicli, as usual, was commenced towards the east, the system of 
chapels with ambulatory, as then in vogue among English monastic 
churches of the first class, was carried out in its fullest integrity. 
First of all was built — circa 1275 — a lady-chapel of three bays, the 
westernmost of which opened on either hand into a lateral chapel of 
nearly the same width as its own, but of only a single bay in lengtli. 
West of these came the procession path, opening to the choir proper by 
two arches pierced through its eastern wall ; and then the choir itself — a 
magnificent structure of eight bays broken midway in its length by 
another pair of chapels, which form secondary, or aisle-transepts, anil 
wliich, equally with tliose com})osing the eastern group, formed part of 
tlie uniform and original design. Another pair of chapels was at the 
same time also thrown out from the transept-towers eastwards — thus 
completing a group of seven. Nothing indeed — according to the contem- 
porary English ideas — could well be more perfect or complete than the 
plan of this church as rebuilt by the seculars ; nor would it now be 
possible for even the most skilful expert to affirm to wliat order it owed 
its existence — whether monks or canons, regulars or seculars. 

One more instance only of this class of churches of the more complex 



type need here, I think, be mentioned, viz. : that of "Wells — again one of 
canons secular. As in other churches of earlj' — almost transitional — 
date, the choir of Wells, like that of the great neighbouring Benedictine 
abbey of Glastonbury, was on its first erection comparatively short, con- 
sisting of three bays only, with probably — as in that instance, and in the 
very similar one of Lichfield — a procession path and chapels to the east 
of it. Later on — in the 14th century — both at Wells and Glastonbury, 
the canons and monks alike determined to enlarge their choirs by 
extending them greatly eastwards ; and it is not a little curious and 
instructive, in this connection, to note how the two communities pro- 
ceeded. At Glastonbury, the Benedictines contented themselves with 
closely imitating the forms and details of the original late 1 2th century 
work, iidopting single lancet lights for their windows, and in all respects 
assimilating the new work so closely to the old, that only the trained eye 
of an expert can detect where the one leaves off and the other begins. 
The old system, moreover, was reproduced with as close a regard to prece- 
dent as were the general architectural forms and details ; the simple, 
unbroken line of procession path and chapels being repeated Avith ' the 
most literal exactness. At Wells, a diametrically opposite course was 
pursued. There, everything was carried out on the most elaborate 
system ; Avith the utmost sumptuousness ; and in the fullest fashion both 
of plan and detail. In the first place, the original choir of three bays 
was either wholly taken dovni or recast, excepting only the three pier 
arches on either side. To these, other three were added eastwards, which 
thus, at once, doubled its length exactly. But it is beyond this work 
that — from our present point of view — the chief interest of the design is 
seen — the most intricate and elaborate, as well as charming, perhaps, to 
be found in any English church whatever. Somewhat later in date tlian 
the corresponding work at Exeter (at any rate, the earlier part of it), tliis 
at Wells, which, to some extent, is made up of similar parts, nevertheless 
has those parts differently arranged, and brought into closer and more 
artistic combination. At Exeter, the transeptal chapels, or aisle-transepts, 
it will be remembered, were placed midway in the length of the choir, 
and so separated by a considerable space from the group of strictly eastern 
chapels. At Wells, on the contrary, they form part of that group, being 
placed in a line immediately east of the choir, to the eastern gable of 
which they, or rather the procession path connecting them, open by 
three arches, as that of Exeter does by two, and those of Hereford and 
Chichester by one. East of these transeptal chapels are two others, one 
on either side, in line with the aisles of the choir which thej' terminate ; 
and east of these again, centrally, the beautiful octagonal lady-chapel ; the 
richly vaulted roofs of wliich, and of the retro-choir in their midst, form 
certainl}', with the supporting pillars, one of the most intricate and 
pictuiestjue combinations conceivable, and distinguish the eastern end of 
Wells from that of every other English church, whether cathedral or 

We come now to another and somewhat different arrangement of the 
eastern ends of churches of tliis type, and which, like all tliose heretofore 
noticed, will be found common to those of canons and monks alike. Li 
the whole of the examples just passed in review, the central, or ladj'- 
chapfil, though sometimes of greater height, as well as breadth and length, 
than the rest, has ahvays been strictly subordinated to the choir of the 


church — an adjunct in fact ; and, however ricli or dignified, yet only a 
chapel — more or less detached — and nothing else. In the class to which 
I now come, we see another treatment. The central compartment, 
instead of forming an appendage to the choir, of inferior elevation, and 
separated from it by a retro-choir, or procession path, or both, is formed 
by a prolongation of the lines of the choir itself, and corresponds thereto 
in respect alike of height and breadth ; the aisles only being stopped. Of 
this plan, the earliest example, I think, is found in the Benedictine 
church of Rochester, where — though the south transept eventually came 
to be assigned to the lady-chapel — the original intention of placing it at 
the east end — ^just as in all the previous instances — seems perfectly clear 
and indisputable. The whole fabric, it should be observed, inclusive of 
the great transept eastwards, is a piece of thirteenth century rebuilding, 
which, as in other cases, was commenced at the eastern extremity, aljout 
1204. It consists of a choir -plain, heavy, unattractive, and chiefly 
remarkable for having its aisles, like those of St. Alban's — another Bene- 
dictine church — separated from it, not by arcades as usual, but by walls 
of solid stone. Eastwards of it is a second, or choir transept, with two 
chapels on each side ; while beyond them in the centre, and extending 
two bays further eastwards is — what undoubtedly appears to have been 
originally designed for — the lady-chapel ; continuous with the choir and 
inter -transe[)t, and of the same length, breadth, and height exactly as the 
choir itself. 

Next to Rochester, but incomparably superior to it in all respects, 
conies the nearly contemporary example of Beverley minster — a church 
of secular canons. East of the great transept the ground plans of the 
two churches are very similar. Beyond the choir of four bays is found 
— just as at Rochester — an eastern transept of the same height, with two 
chapels on each side, and beyond these again — what I suppose must once 
have been — the lady-chapel ; of exactly the same breadth and height 
as the choir itself, but, with a projection of one bay only instead of two 
as in that instance. The eastern gable— one of the most strikingly 
bcmutiful compositions in the kingdom — is filled with an inserted Perpen- 
dicular window which, so far as the space admits, may fairly be said to 
rival that of York in majesty ; and, like it, probably served not only to 
adorn the choir generally, of which it formed so fitting a termination, but 
primarily and more immediately, the lady-chapel in which it stood. It 
is not a little curious, however, to know that this arrangement, at once so 
noble and appropriate, was not the original one ; for conclusive witness 
exists in the fabric itself (see York vol., p. 7), that at the very first, the 
church was designed to terminate in a line with the western wall of the 
choir transept — in other words, at the end of the choir proper — but that 
almost immediately — perhaps, indeed, before the work was well com- 
pleted — the existing extension took place, when the site of the high 
altar was fixed beneath the eastern arch of the crossing, and in line 
with the arcades which separate it from the eastern aisle or chapels — a 
situation which allowed the free circulation of processions, while leaving 
the lady-chapel itself uninfringed upon. 

Two other illustrations of this plan may suffice — those of Southwell 
and Lichfield, both again, churches of seculars. The whole of the choir 
of Southwell, like that of the Benedictine church of Rochester, was an 
enlarged thirteenth century rebuilding of a previously existing and much 


simpler Norman one, which was joined on to a remaining Norman nave ; 
the transepts, which at Rochester were also rebuilt, being at Southwell 
left as they were. The work is all of one period — advanced, but pure 
and rich Early English throughout, and presents consequently, the com- 
plete and Avell-matured conception of a single mind. On plan {see Lin- 
coln vol., p. 214) it greatly resembles the work at Exeter, partly com- 
bined with that at Wells, but on plan only, for in elevation the character 
of the central compartment differs entirely. The choir, which is of seven 
bays, has the first or westernmost on either side, adjoining the piers of 
the central tower, solid, the six eastern ones being pierced with a very 
rich and fine arcade. Opposite the sixth bay from the west are a pair of 
chapels forming an aisle-transept, immediately east' of which are two 
others, as at Wells, which terminate the choir aisles. Beyond these, in 
uninterrupted continuation of the choir, and of the same height and 
breadth with it is — what again, I suppose was no doubt originally — the 
lady-chapel, two bays in length, and two stories in height ; and lighted 
towards the east by eight lancets- -four in each storey. At what precise 
point the high altar formerly stood, I cannot say, having no memoranda 
on the subject, but analogy would clearly point to one in a line either 
with the eastern pier of the fifth bay, i.e., immediately west of the 
transeptal aisle-chapels, as at Exeter ; or to one a bay further east still, 
leaving a procession path behind it, and west of the lady-chapel, as at 

At Lichfield, with which I will conclude this part of the subject, we 
have the finest and most striking illustration of all. Precisely as at 
Wells, during the early part of the fourteenth century, the whole of the 
early English choir, save only the three western pier arches on each side, 
was taken down and sumptuously rebuilt of twice its original length. East 
of the high altar, Avhich was placed in line with the easternmost pillar of 
the sixth bay, was the retro-choir of two bays with its aisles, the latter 
terminating in chapels ; while east of these lay the beautiful lady- 
chapel of three bays, continuing in unbroken line the rich and splendid 
vaulting of the choir, and terminating gloriously in a three-sided apse — ■ 
the only example of such an arrangement to be found ^in any English 
conventual or collegiate church Avhatever. Filled as its great eastern 
Avindows now are with the magnificent ancient glass from Herckenrode, 
the long vista of the church which they terminate so grandly — espe- 
cially as seen from the north-western angle of the nave — is one of such 
enchanting loveliness that the eye can scarce tear itself away ; and in 
positive beauty is, perhaps, quite unequalled. 

Although among the various fashions which distinguished the choir 
and choir-chapel arrangeuients of these churches of monks and canons, 
then, there is, as we have now seen, no perceptible difference whatever ; 
that is to say, nothing at all so peculiar to those of either class as to draw, 
even to the most observant eye, any sort of demarcation between them ; 
there yet remain for comparison other features in which some characteristic 
points of dillercnce or other may quite possibly be held to exist. And 
lirst of all as to transepts, which in respect of use and position alike, 
claim naturally our first attention after the choirs and their chapels. Tlie 
real use of transepts, it may not, perhaps, be quite unnecessary to state — 
especially in face of the modern professional architect, who, apparently, 
quite unconscious of, or indifferent to the fact, habitually br''lds even 


village churches with such appendages, and then packs them as full of 
])ues as they will hold — was that of chapels, aggregate or sole ; which 
were always, and without exception, furnished with one or more altars 
according to size and circumstance. Of the true transept, that is to say, 
one of c(pial height with the main building, there may be said to be four 
main varieties : — First, that which consists of a simple rectangular pro- 
jection on either side the crossing ; secondly, that which has one or more 
square, or apsidal chapels of inferior height attached to it on either side 
the crossing eastwards ; thirdly, that which, with a frecpiently greater 
degree of projection, has a series of chapels — -two, three, or even four in 
number in similar positions, separated from it by an arcade and assuming 
generally all the appearance of an aisle ; and, fourthly — the most perfect, 
form of all, viz. : — that in which the arcade is found on the western, as 
well as on the eastern sida, and which consequently makes the transept 
as a whole, as complete and symmetrical throughout, as either the nave 
or choir. There are also four positions in which the transept is found : 
First, a central one — to the east of the nave, and between it and the choir, 
and commonly known — where there is a second — on account of its 
superior size, as the great transept ; and above which — where there is one, 
as usually happens in cruciform cliurches — is placed the central tower ; 
secondly, an eastern one — that of the choir transept — usually in a line with 
the east end of the choir, and separating between it and the retro-choir, 
or lady-chapel, as at Salisbury and Worcester ; thirdly, an extreme 
western one, with a west central tower, as at Ely and Bury St. Edmund's ; 
or, Avitli a screen backed by a pair of towers and lateral eastern chapels, 
as at Lincoln ; or, by a screen with towers on a level with it, and set 
beyond the line of the aisles, as at Wells ; or, by towers alone, flanking a 
broad (originally) aisleless nave, as at Ripon ; and fourthly, an extreme 
eastern one, beyond which there is no projection whatever, as at Durham 
and Fountains ; though this last arrangement is altogether exceptional, 
being confined, so far as I know, to those two churches — -Benedictine and 
Cistercian respectively — alone. And there are, further, four ways in 
which these transepts are applied : — First, singly ; in a more or less 
central position— as usual in all cruciform churches — as at old St. Paul's 
and Norwich, for example ; sometimes, however, nearly at the east end — 
a fashion much affected by the Cistercians — as at Buikhvas, Roche, &c. ; 
or, nearly at the west end, as in the remarkable case of Kelso ; secondly, 
coupled ; that is to say, a main central one in combination with an 
eastern, or choir transept, as at York, Beverley, &c. ; thirdly, a central, 
in combination with a western one, as at Ely and Peterborough ; and 
fourthly, a central one in combination with both an eastern and western 
one, as at Lincoln — the only instance, I think, in which all three are 
found united in the same building. 

Let us now, therefore, with these data before us, see — as we have 
already done with respect to the choirs and their chapels — whether, either 
in the character, position, or combination of these several kinds of tran- 
septs, any distinction between the two classes of churches can be detected 
or not. And to this end, it may be well, perhaps, to keep to the order 
above enumerated, and begin with the sinqjlest form of central transept— - 
that which forms a mere rectangular projection on either side the 

Most noteworthy among the examples of this most rudimentary class — 


especially as occurring in so large and dignified a church — is that 
of Worcester — lienedictine, where the projection of the main transept 
is little more than half the square of the nave — indeed, just about 
equal to the breadth of the aisles. It is, probably, the most relatively 
insignificant to be found in a great conventual church anywhere ; cer- 
tainly, at present, in one of such rank and importance. At Kochester 
— also Benedictine, where, however, there was no central tower, the 
original transepts were of an almost equally small and undeveloped 
kind, though in an opposite direction, for while projecting further 
north and south, they were much narrower, east and Avest, being 
only of the same breadth as the aisles. At Bath— also Benedictine, 
we see, and that moreover in the very latest phase of sixteenth century 
Gothic — 1500-34 — a form and proportion of transept which, though inter- 
mediate between those of Worcester and Rochester, being an exact square 
of the aisle — in this instance of somewhat greater proportionate breadth — is 
quite as stunted as in either of those churches. A similar instance of a 
dwarfed transept existed originally too in the case of the abbey, now 
cathedral church of Chester — also Benedictine. The south limb was rebuilt 
during the fifteenth century, on an immense scale — four bays in length, 
and Avith east and Avest aisles — as the parish church of St. Oswald, but the 
north one remains of the original size — very small, as at AVorcester, and of 
little more projection than the breadth, or square of the nave aisles. In 
the priory church of Scarborough — Cistercian, the transept is much better 
proportioned, projecting beyond the line of the aisle walls by the 
square of the nave itself. At Pershore abbey church — Benedictine, the 
same proportion is also observed ; as is the case in the great Bene- 
dictine abbey church of St. Augustine, Canterbury ; but even in these 
three last instances, the dimensions, as compared Avith those of the nave 
and choir, are very trivial and insignificant. And thus in many other 

Let us noAV turn to the churches of canons, Avhere, as might be 
expected, similar examples of disproportionately small and simple tran- 
septs are plentiful enough, though possibly — as regards those of the 
highest class — to a less extent, and in a less degree. At Hereford 
— secidar, for example, there seem good reasons to think that the 
north transept, before its magnificent rebuilding of the 13th century, 
was as aisleless and chapelless as that to the south, Avhich projects by just 
the square of the nave beyond the line of the aisle Avails ; and the same 
may be said of the transept of Bristol — Augustinian, Avhere the 
projection is someAvhat less, and Avhere, before the erection of the lady- 
chapel to the north, there Avould seem to have been no eastern chapels at 
aU. St. John's, Chester — also secidar, had apparently, transepts of much 
the same character as those at Bristol ; Avhile at St. BartholomeAV the 
Great, London — Austin canons, the transept, though perfectly simple, Avas 
much larger, being considerably more than the square of the nave in pro- 
jection, north and south. The extreniest case of all, perhaps, among the 
more important class of canons' churches, is to be found at Worksop, 
where the transept, though of much less projection than the square of the 
nave, is yet much greater than that of the aisle as at Worcester — being 
just about half-Avay betAveeu the two. 

W(^ come noAV — for the furth(!r multiplii'ution of examples Avould be 
useless — to the next class — that in Avhich the transept has one or u;ore 


chapels of inferior elevation attached to its eastern sides. And here again, 
we shall find that the system is equally common to both classes of churches. 
Among those of the Benedictines, the most remarkable, probably, as 
regards its abnormally dwarfed dimensions is that of the great metropolitan 
church of Canterbury, where, notwithstanding enormous development in 
other directions — length, breadth, and height — the transept has only the 
primitive dimensions given to it by Lanfranc, projecting beyond the aisles 
by very little more than the breadth of the aisles themselves. So shallow 
are they indeed, that the two later chapels of our Lady and St. Michael 
which have superseded the original and smaller apsidal ones, are skewed 
outwards to such an extent as to project further north and south than the 
ends of the transept itself ; and thus it happens that here, at Canterbury, 
Avhat is technically the great transept, is very considerably less than even 
the small, or choir-transept. At Gloucester — also Benedictine, the pro- 
portion, though very nearly the same, is somewhat bolder ; but still, the 
single small chapel on either side, occupies the entire space between the 
choir aisle and the transept front. Very similar to it is the transept of 
Tewkesbury abbey church — a building of the same class as Gloucester, 
and bearing a very strong resemblance to it in other respects — where one 
of the two original deep apsidal chapels still remains perfect. At Lindis- 
farne priory church — Benedictine again, there is a similar arrangement, but 
with, if I remember rightly, a still bolder projection of the transept. 
At Norwich — another Benedictine church, where the same plan is 
followed, the development of projection is very marked indeed, being 
equal, not merely to the breadth of the nave and one of its aisles, but of 
the massive dividing wall as M^ell. 

Turning to the canons' churches, similar examples may be found in that 
of Carlisle — Augustinian, where the transept, with originally a single 
chapel on each side, is very similar in proportion to those at Gloucester 
and Tewkesbury : St. David's — secular, where the transept, exactly 
equal in projection to the square of the nave, has the chapels ]iot 
set centrally, but in a line with the outer walls : and Southwell minster — 
also secular, where the projection is somewhat greater, but where the 
two original chapels have long since been destroyed. At Exeter — 
secular, the transepts are formed — uniquely in England — by the two 
towers, which — in their lower part of Norman construction, and of exactly 
the same square as the nave — have each a Decorated chapel of the same 
date as the rest of the church, attached to their eastern sides. At 
Chichester — also secular, and where the work is also Norman, the 
transept — like that of Norwich — is of much greater projection than the 
square of the nave, and had originally, as in that instance, an apsidal 
chapel on each side, though set, nut as these, centrally, but towards the 
extremities, as at St. David's. And so t'io, doubtless, with very many 
other examples of either class. 

Of transepts with double apsidal chapels on either side the crossing, the 
examples are, and always were, I think, very rare. Indeed among existing 
English instances, I can only call to mind two such, viz : — those at 
Canterbury and Lincoln — Benedictine and secular respectively ; and in 
each case it is the eastern, or choir-transept to which the chapels are 
attached. Both are of about the same date — 1178, and 1180 — 
but at Canterbury, both transept and chapels are alterations by William of 
Sens and William the Englishman, of the earlier work of Ernulf ; while 


at Lincoln, both form part of the original construction of St, Hugh. St. 
Alban's abbey church — Benedictine, had originally, however, two such 
chapels on either side the great transept ; and so had St. Martin's priory 
church, Dover, which though converted eventually through the bitter 
hostility of the monks of Cliristchurch, Canterbury, into one of Bene- 
dictines, was built, or in great part built, in the first instance, by arch- 
bishop "Wdliam de Corbeuil, as a church of Austin canons ; but the 
chapels of the one, and the entire church of the other are now destroyed. 
A peculiar, and so far as I can recollect, solitary example exists of a 
curious compound arrangement of chapels — square, however, and not 
apsidal— and that is at Glastonbury — Benedictine, where the transept in 
addition to its eastern aisle has also two distinct and separate chapels to 
east of that again. It seems just possible therefore, that here, after all, we 
have come across a Benedictine plan which differs altogether from any- 
thing to be found in the churches of canons, though, as I have before 
pointed out — that is one thing ; while constantly finding features in 
churches of canons which cause them to difi'er altogether, as alleged, from 
those of monks — is quite another. 

We come now to the class of transepts having their eastern chapels on 
the usual aisle system — two, three, or even four on a side, though the last 
number is, of course, very exceptional indeed. Among the churches whose 
transepts have two such eastern chapels may be reckoned those of Lichfield 
and Ripon — secxilar ; "WTiitby — Benedictine ; Egleston . and Torre — 
Premonstratensian ; Byland, Roche, Rievaulx and Jervaulx — Cistercian ; 
and Brinkbum, Kirkham, Hexliam and Bolton — Augustinian. Among 
those with three are Salisbury and Lincohi — secular ; Peterborough and 
Durham — Benedictine ; and Easbj- — Premonstratensian ; and the same is, 
or rather was, the case, probably, ^vith very many others of both classes. 

Of churches whose transept had four chapels on each side the crossing, 
the only example I know of, and, most likely, the only one in England 
at all, was that of old St. Paul's, to which I shall have occasion to revert 
by-and-bye. In extent and splendour, it was certainly without a rival 
anywhere in other respects ; and, as I am inclined to think, in this also. 

As to the last, and most perfect form of transept — that which possesses 
western, as weU as eastern aisles, the number is naturally limited, for it 
usually occurs only in churches of the highest class, and very rarely even 
in them. And it is observable that, though — like the other kmds — it is 
found both in those of monks and canons, the larger proportion belongs 
to the churches of the latter, whether regulars or seculars. "Winchester 
and Ely are the only two Benedictine churches which possess this feature 
perfectly developed ; and Byland, the only Cistercian one ; for Westmin- 
ster, though planned with a double aisled transept, has the west aisle of 
its southern limb absorbed by the cloister. As to the churches of the 
remaining orders of monks, not a single one, I believe, is so distinguished. 
Against these three monastic examples, however^ we have no fewer than 
five to set from among the churches of canons, viz. : those of old St. 
Paul's, York, Beverley, Oxford, and Wells, of which — bej'ond all com- 
parison — that of old St. Paul's stands out pre-eminent. No Benedictine 
church in the world, I suppose — using the term even in its most com- 
prehensive sense — had anything at all comparable to it. Indeed the 
dimensions of this great transept alone, equaUed, if they did not surpass 
those of an entire monastic church of the first class, being no less than 


thrco Imnilrod foot in length, by a huiulrod fcot in broatlth, unci a 
liuiidrcil and two feet in lieight to tlie point of the vaulting — which, 
unliko that of York, was of stono, not wood. 

It is cloar, therefore, that in every variety of transept, and transept- 
chapel planning — just as in every variety of choir, and choir-chapel 
planning — the same forms were adopted by canons and monks in- 
differently : and, if the Glastonbury plan happen to differ — as perhaps it 
may — from any to be found in a canons' church, it differs just as com- 
pletely from any in the churches of the Benedictines themselves, and of 
other monks, elsewhere ; while as to the great transept of St. Paul's, the 
difteronce is one, not of kind, but of degree. 

Turn we now to a comparative view of the several positions of 

That of the main, or central one, need not, of course, detain us, for 
it is common to all kinds of cruciform churches, ei'ery where. Very few, 
however, possess the distinguishing feature of a choir-transept, i.e , one of 
equal height to the choir itself, and not a mere lateral projection of the 
aisles. But, rare as it is, it is found in botR classes of churches, and 
nearly equally in both : though, as with the douWt^-aisled transept, more 
frequently among those of the canons than of tlie monks. Out of a total 
of seven exanqiles, three occur in Benedictine churches, viz. : those of 
Canterbury, Kochester, and AVorcester ; and four in those of seculai"?, 
viz. : York, Beverley, Lincoln, and Salisbury. 

The extreme western transept — also of rare occurrence — will also be 
found no more a special feature than the choir transept. The earliest 
instance of it probably — though now m\ich altered and enlarged — is 
that of Lincoln — secular ; after which, perhaps, came that of Bury St. 
Edmund's — Benedictine ; then Ely — also Benedictine ; after, or partly, 
perhaps, contemporary with which, is that of AVells — secular ; then 
Kipon — also secular ; and last of all, Peterborough — IJenedictine ; but 
even this is of pure early English work, after which period the fashion 
^\'0uld seem to have dropped. 

The extreme eastern transept is found, as I have said, at Durham — 
Benedictine, and Fountains — Cistercian, only ; both of which are of the 
same period — the 13th century — and both alterations and extensions of 
earlier and quite different plans; that of Durham l)eing originally an 
apse — whether with a s\irrounding aisle or not is uncertain — and that oi 
Fountains, the usual Cistercian one east of the crossing, which was com- 
pletely swept away to make room for the long aisled I'lioir antl eastern 
chapel of the Xine .Vltars which now occupy its place. Like the tran- 
sept at Glastonbury, they may, I think be regarded as altogether excep- 
tional. " Naught but themselves can be their parallel." 

It remains now only to take account of the several combinations of 
these various kinds of transept as they occur in the same building. 

Of the central transept in connection with an eastern, or choir tran- 
sept, there are, as we have already seen, but seven examples ; for in all 
the seven wlu-re the latter occurs, there is a central one as well ; and, as 
we have furtlier seen, they are common to lienedicti nes and seculars alike. 

Of central transei)ts in connection with western ones, we have also 
noted the examples; for wherever the latter occur, it is equally also in 
connection Avith a central transept ; and that ]>lan too, as we have further 
seen, is common to churches both of monks and canons. 

The only example of all three occurring in the same building is, as 1 

VOL. XLIl 2 Y 


have before stated, to be seen at Lincoln — a church of secular canons, 
pre-eminent for size and splendour ; and exceeding in this particular, as 
in most others — not excepting such as are thought to be more specially 
characteristic of those of monks — every Benedictine church throughout 
the kingdom. 

And now, having disposed of the subject of transepts and their chapels, 
there seems only that of towers left open for investigation. 

That the simple central tower alone was usually adopted in all the 
smaller and less important churches of both classes without distinction, 
may be shown conclusively by innumerable examples ; and such was the 
case also, in some of the highest rank and dignity. Thus, among those 
of the seculars, it is found singly at Salisbury, St. Andrew's, St. David's, 
and Kirkwall cathedrals ; among those of the Benedictines, at Norwich, 
Worcester, Sherborne, Rochester, Tewkesbury, Bath, and Gloucester ; 
among those of the Augustinians, at Carlisle, Oxford, Jedburgh, and St. 
Saviour's, Southwark ; and among those of the Cistercians at Byland, at 
Riovaulx, Jervaulx, Tintern, Kirkstall, Furness, and almost all others — 
Scarborough alone of their number, I think, having had two western 
ones in addition, and. Fountains, one — very late — at the extremity of the 
north transept. 

The very peculiar and interesting fashion of two towers, one central, 
the other western, will also be found common to the churches of monks 
and canons, equally. 

Chief est among them is that of Ely, — Benedictine, though its great 
central octagon — only of wood — can, perhaps, strictly speaking, hardly 
be called a tower at all. Hereford — secular, formerly also possessed 
a Avestern tower — a fourteenth century afterthought and addition 
— not square as usual, but, like that of Bath, broader than long ; 
being contrived in a makeshift way across the western l)ay of the Nor- 
man nave — which was never designed to carry such a feature. Shrews- 
bury abbey church — Benedictine, unlike Hereford, has preserved its 
western, or parochial tower, while it has lost its central, or monastic one 
— destroyed, together with all the eastern part of the church at the 
suppression. At Wymondham — Benedictine, and a well-known example, 
both towers, one square, the other octagonal, are still fortunately stand- 
ing. Christchurch-Twineham, and Bolton priory churches — Augus- 
tinian, had also, perhaps, both central and Avestern towers ; though tbe 
central one at Christchurch has disappeared, and the western one at 13olton 
was never completed. A singularly interesting and effective instance of 
this arrangement is that at Wimborne Minster — secular, ■where the two 
towers, one Norman, and the other Perpendicular — admirably propor- 
tioned to each other and to the church — are both perfectly preserved ; 
and another also existed at Lewes — Cluniac. 

But besides the above-mentioned examples, Avhich are all symmetri- 
cally planned, there is, or rather was, a curious instance of the use of a 
central and a western tower at Glasgow — secular ; where the western 
one was not in a line with the nave, but stood almost detached, at the 
west end of the north aisle. The history is not a little curious-— and, in 
a reif fur at tonal way, instructive. The tower referred to was of two dates ; 
the lower part belonging to the thirteenth, the upper to the fifteenth or 
sixteenth centuries. A corresponding tower at the end of the south aisle, 
though commenced Avas, it would seem, left permanently unfinished, and 


in process of time was converted into a dwclling-liouso, Tliis, durin.L;- a 
fit of public " taste " was swept away as an unsightly cxcrescenco ; and 
then, the other tower — which ?ra.s' finished — followe<l suit as being 
unsymmcfvical ! In similarly all but detached positions, liowcver, to 
that of the completed tower at Glasgow, are those of Brechin ami- 
Dunkeld, Avherc corresponding south-western ones certainly never 
existed, even in commencement ; but whether those churches ever had 
central towers or not, I cannot recollect sufficiently well to say, nor have 
I, at present, any plans of them to refer to. But at least two curious 
instances of the same arrangement seem to have obtained in England in 
churches where there were certainly central towers, viz.: — those of 
Leominster and Dunstable ; again — curiously enough — Benedictine and 
Augustinian, respectively. In both cases the western towers are at the; 
north-west extrcmit}' of the north aisle, and, unlike the Scottish examples, 
engaged, having their western faces level with the west fronts. The 
explanation of their existence would seem to be that they formed the 
parish steeples — for both churches were parochial as well as monastic — 
and have thus been preserved ; while the central, or monastic steeples 
])erished, along with those parts of the churches to which they Avere 
attached, at the Dissolution. 

There remains for us now, I think, only the three-towered plan to take 
account of in conclusion — if indeed, in the face of so many well-known 
examples, it be at all necessary to show that it was followed indifferently 
in the chief churches of all orders, those of Cistercians, Carthusians, and 
]\Iendicants only excepted. It may be observed, however — since it is 
hardly possible to leave so important a section of buildings as thos(! 
where it obtains entirely unnoticed — that it is found, among others, in 
those of the Benedictines at Canterbury, Durham, Chesttir, and originally, 
at Winchester and St. Alban's, At Peterborough, too, it would seem to 
have been at least designed, after a fashion, but only the central, and one 
of the western towers — such as they are — were ever completed. In the 
churches of seculars, we see it more abundantly represented at Wells, 
Chichester, Lincoln, Lichfield, York, Eipon, Southwell, Elgin, Aberdeen, 
St. John's, Chester, and originally, perhaps, at old St. Paul's. Among 
those of the Cluniacs, at Castle Acre. Among those of the Gilbertines, 
at Malton. Among those of the Tironensians, at Abberbrothoc ; and 
among those of the Augustinians, at Bristol, originally, Guisborougli, 
Bridlington, Worksop, St. German's, Thurgarton, and the royal al)bey 
church of Holyrood, Edinburgh. In the churches of monks, and in those 
of canons, in short, it was adopted equally and without distinction. 

Thus then, so far as I can tell, we have exhausted every single 
point in which it is possible to institute a comparison betAveen the 
tAvo classes of churches — and, as we have seen, nothing peculiar to either 
has been discoverable anywhere. One point of difference only, it Avill be 
remembered, has actually been specified among the many suggested, and 
that is that the naves of the canons' churches are either aisleless or have 
only a single aisle — peculiarities Avhich, as alleged, cause them to differ 
altogether from those of the monks. — " The church of a house of canons 
has peculiarities Avhich differ aUngetlier from those Avhich av(> find in tlie 
churches of any of the monastic orders. One of the commonest, and at 
first sight most unaccountable, of these is tliat the nave has only one 
aisle." .... " The canons took the cruciform . . . type of 


parish cliurch . . . and "lorified it by making it larger .... 
but still keeping its characteristic Avant of aisles." 

That many of the ch\irches of the Austin canons had aislelcss, or only 
one aisled naves is, no doubt, perfectly true ; and the fact is one Avhich I 
am not in the least concerned to deny. What I am concerned in deny- 
ing, and what, in answer to the second of the five propositions before me 
I have undertaken more particularly to refute is that, this circumstance — 
for " peculiarity," strictly speaking, it certainly is not — causes them to 
differ alfogefher, as alleged, from those of any of the monastic orders. 
And this I now proceed to do by appending an account of no fewer than 
one hundred and thirteen examples of Benedictine, and other churches 
of monks, in which the same " jteculiarities " are found. Xot that 
even this represents the full number, far from it : — that, of course, 
could only be reached by the careful personal examination of an untold 
number of obscure ruins scattered broadcast over the country, and accom- 
panied in many cases bj' digging — but only of such as I have been able to 
collect evidence about, either by means of books or epistolary corres- 
pondence, leaving an immense proportion positively untouched. So far 
as they go, however — and they go quite far enough for my purpose — 
these instances may be seen as follows in : — 


Abergavenny Alien Priory Church, Monmouthshire : Benedic- 
tine. — This priory was a cell to the monastery of St. Vincent at Mans. 
The church consists of a choir with north and south aisles, transept, 
central tow^er, and nave with a north aisle only. 

Aldeby Priory Church, Norfolk : Benedictine. — Aldeby was one of 
the cells of the cathedral priory of Norwich. The church is an irregular 
cruciform building with a central tower. It consists of an aisleless 
chancel, and an attached chapel of the same length, which is prolonged 
as far as the west side of the tower southwards ; an aisleless north 
transept, and a long aisleless nave with a north porch. View, plan, and 
historical account, published, and kindly forwarded by the vicar, the 
Rev. J. Gillett. 

Amesbury Abbey Church, Wiltshire : Benedictine. — A large, and 
originally, entirely aisleless cruciform church with a low central tower, 
the spire of which was destroyed in 1540. It consists of an aisleless 
chancel, transept, and nave with a late south aisle only. Journal of the 
liritish Archaeological Association, xxxvii, 164-5. 

Andwell Alien Priory Church, Hampshire : Tironendan, — Andwell 
was a cell to the abbey of T^roiu;. The church is a simple aisleless 
parallelogram, occupying the north side of the cloister ([uadrangle. 
Ardiaioloriical Journal , ix, 240, note. 

Arthington Piuory Church ok Nuns, Yohks. : Cluuiac—X simple 
aisleless parallelogram, sixty feet long by twenty-four feet wiile. '' Tlie 


cliurclu^, Ix Hook' long ami xxiiij foote wydc, wlienji' the: chauuciiUe 
xxiiij IFoutc ami lyke brodc, w^' the high alter and viij stooly.s to .syt 
upon. Item at the high alter one glassc wyndow conteyning xl ffoote of 
glasse, and ij other wyndows at the southe syde conteyiiing xxx H'oote of 
glasse, and a wyndow at the north syde conteyning yj fToote of glasse. 

" Item the qnere xxxvj ffoote longe and xxiiij Ifoote brode, w'' xviij oldc 
stallesof woode for nonnes, iij wyndowes conteyning xxiiij ffoote of glasse, 
and a roode lofte of tyml^re. 

" Item alle the churche and chauncclle seyled above w' hordes, and the 
walles of iyme and stone xviij foote depe, and a ste])ulle of hordes." 
Survey, temp. Hen. VIII. Public Record Office ; copied, togetlier with 
eleven other similar entries relating to Yorlcshirc^ houses, and kindly com- 
municated by W. Brown, Esq., Arncliffe Hall, Yorks. 

AsTLEY Alien Priory Church, AVorcestershire : Benedictine. — This 
priory was a cell to the abbey of St. T;iurinus at El)roix. Astley church 
consists of an aisleless chancel, and nave with a north aisle only. Letter 
of the Rev. H. W. Crocket, rector. 

AvEBURY Alien Priory Church, Wiltshire: Bei/xdictine. — Avclniry 
was a cell to the abbey of St. George at Bocherville in Normandy. 
Originally, this church would seem to have consisted of an aisleless 
Saxon nave, to which, some little time after the foundation of the 
priory, a Norman aisle was added towards the north. Later still, another 
aisle was added towards the south. The Saxon chancel which, like the 
nave, was aisleless, was renewed early in the sixteenth century. Letter, 
with sketches, of the Rev. Bryan King, vicar. 

Bardsey Abbey Church, Carnarvonshire : Benedictine. — Apparently 
an aisleless parallelogram. Pennant says : — " Not far from the abbot's 
house is a singular chapel or oratory, being a long arched edifice with an 
insulated stone altar at the east end." 

Barrow Gurney Priory Church of Nuns, Somersetshire : Bene- 
dictine. —Thi^ church, of which the chancel is destroyed, consists of a 
nave, with a single aisle to the south, which formed the conventual 
chapel of the adjacent nunnery, and a western tower. Letter, with 
sketch ground plan, of the Rev. A. Wadmore, vicar. 

Baysdale Priory Church op Nuns, Yorkshire : Qistercian. — A simple 
aisleless parallelogram : — " The churche conteynith in length Ixvj ffoote 
and in bredith xx ffoote, w*' a low roofe couereyd w'' leade, and xiiij litlo 
glasse wyndowes conteyning by estymacion — ffoote of glasse, goode stalles, 
the high alter, ij alters in the quire, and one benethe," &c. Survey, 
temp. Hen. VIIL, P.R.O. 

Beauly Priory Church, Rosshire : Cistercian. — An entirely aisleless 
church, of very remarkable character and plan. Though assuming the 
form of a long latin cross on the exterior, it is practically, inside, a simple 
parallelogram, a hundred and fifty feet in length, by twenty four in 
1 ireadth, Avithout airy kind of structural break whatever ; the two transcpt- 
Hke j)rojt'ctions Ijeing cutoff by solid walls, and entered only by doorways. 

354 THE cHuiiCims of austin canons. 

Though simple, the architecture of the eastern part, which has been 
rebuilt, and is by far the finest part of the building, is remarkably bold, 
original, and good. S})rin(j Gardens Slcetch Bool:, iv, Plates 5-3-7. 

St. Bee's Priory Church of Nuns, Cumberland : Be.ncilictinG. — 
Originally, an aislelcss cruciform church, to the nave of ■which north and 
south aisles were added at a later period. Letter of the Rev. E. H. 
Knowles, princii)al of St. Bee's college. 

S. Benet at Holme Abbey Church, Norfolk : Benedictine. — (Jf this 
large and important church — as the mitred abbot of which, the bishop of 
Norwich still sits in the House of Lords — the eastern parts, which were 
extensive and very irregular, are now almost totally destroyed. The north 
transept was aislelcss ; and there was also a long and entirely aisleless 
nave. Journal of the British Archaeological Association, xxxvi, 1 8, and plan. 

Boxgrove Alien Priory Church, Sussex : Benedictine. — This cliurch, 
which was a cell to the abbey of L'Essay, is peculiar in having above half 
of the north side of its nave — not the whole of it — aisleless ; the cloister, 
as usual, occupying the supj^ressed aisle space. Originally, it was in all 
probability, wholly aisleless on that side ; the western part where the 
aisle exists, as also a considerable part of the wall eastwards where it does 
not, being of much later character than the crossing and the parts imme- 
diately adjacent. Chichester vol., where see plan, S^.c. 

Bromholm Priory Church, Norfolk : Claniac. — -According to the 
plan given by Harrod (" Castles and Concents of Norfolk "), Bromholm 
abbey cliurch consisted of a choir of three bays, with broad — an<l 
apparently, either added, or enlarged — aisles, reaching nearly but not 
(luite to the east end, very short transepts, nearly absorbed by the choir 
aisles ; and a broad aisleless nave. 

Buckland Abbey Church, Devonshire : Cistercian. — Remarkable for 
having escaped the usual fate of monastic churches at the dissolution, by 
being converted into a dwelling house — in which state it continues still. 
" It consists of a spacious nave which has no aisles, and has never had any. 
A low central tower, wh